Методические указания: профессиональный английский язык для студентов 5 и 6 курсов заочного факультета специальность 060800: Экономика и управление icon

Методические указания: профессиональный английский язык для студентов 5 и 6 курсов заочного факультета специальность 060800: Экономика и управление



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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ТРАНСПОРТА РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ

ФГОУ ВПО

"НОВОСИБИРСКАЯ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННАЯ АКАДЕМИЯ

ВОДНОГО ТРАНСПОРТА"

42 Д51

Т.А. Далецкая

МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ УКАЗАНИЯ: ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНЫЙ АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК

для студентов 5 и 6 курсов заочного факультета

специальность 060800: "Экономика и управление

на предприятии транспорта"



Новосибирск 2007


УДК 802.0 (07) Д151

СОДЕРЖАНИЕ


Рассмотрено и рекомендовано к изданию на заседании кафедры

иностранных языков. Протокол №

от «19» апреля 2007г.

Рецензент: канд.фил.наук, доцент Е.И. Мартынова

Далецкая Т.А. Методические разработки: профессиональный англий­ский язык- Новосибирск: Новосиб. гос. акад. вод. трансп., 2007. - 131с.

Данные методические указания предназначены для студентов 5 и 6 кур­сов обучающихся по специальности "Экономика и управление на предприя­тии транспорта" заочного факультета. Указания составлены для организа­ции работы студентов-заочников в межсессионный период и в период лабо-раторно-экзаменационной сессии. Данные указания включают: пояснитель­ную записку, контрольные работы № 5 и №6 разговорные темы, предусмот­ренные программой 5-6 курсов, и тексты для внеаудиторного чтения, а так­же для работы на практических занятиях

© Далецкая Т.А.,2007 © Новосибирская государственная академия водного транспорта, 2007

^ ЧАСТЬ 1 ПОЯСНИТЕЛЬНАЯ ЗАПИСКА 4

ЧАСТЬ 2 Контрольное задание №5 8

ВАРИАНТ 1 8

ВАРИАНТ 2 9

ВАРИАНТ 3 11

ВАРИАНТ 4 12

ВАРИАНТ 5 14

ЧАСТЬ 3 Разговорные темы 16

  1. ECONOMICS 16

  2. MACROECONOMICS 18

  3. MICROECONOMICS 20

ЧАСТЬ 4 Контрольное задание №6 22

^ ВАРИАНТ 1 22

ВАРИАНТ 2 23

ВАРИАНТ 3 25

ВАРИАНТ 4 27

ВАРИАНТ 5 28

ЧАСТЬ 5 Разговорные темы 31

I. TRANSPORTATION ECONOMICS 31

II. MACROECONOMICS OF TRANSPORTATION 33

^ III. MICROECONOMICS OF TRANSPORTATION 35

ЧАСТЬ 6 Тексты для чтения и перевода 38

ЧАСТЬ 7 ПРИЛОЖЕНИЯ 66

ОСНОВНЫЕ ЕДИНИЦЫ ИЗМЕРЕНИЯ, ПРИНЯТЫЕ В США 66

ПЛАН АННОТАЦИИ И НЕКОТОРЫЕ ВЫРАЖЕНИЯ

^ ДЛЯ ЕЕ НАПИСАНИЯ 68

ИНФИНИТИВ 70

ПРИЧАСТИЕ 71

АГЛО-РУССКИЙ СЛОВАРЬ 73

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^ ЧАСТЬ 1 ПОЯСНИТЕЛЬНАЯ ЗАПИСКА

  • Данные методические указания составлены для организации рабо­ты студентов-заочников НГАВТ по изучению дисциплины «профессиональ­ный английский язык» в межсессионный период (до начала лабораторно-экзаменационной сессии) и в период лабораторно-экзаменационной сессии. Пособие адресовано студентам 5-6 курсов специальности 060800: "Эконо­мика и управление на предприятии (транспорте)". Курс разработан на ка­федре иностранных языков и входит в учебный план НГАВТ.

  • Курс ориентирован на государственный стандарт.




  • Курс направлен на самостоятельное изучение иностранного языка на базе программы средней школы.

  • Курс имеет практико-ориентированный характер: для студентов проводится одна установочная лекция, на которой обсуждается учебная программа и планируется их будущая самостоятельная деятельность. В дальнейшем проводятся 10 часов занятий в период лабораторно-экзаменационной сессии, предлагаются консультации по программе обучения.

  • Оценка знаний и умений студентов проводится в соответствии с целями в виде зачета на 5 курсе и экзамена на 6 курсе.

  • Структура и содержание 5 курса

Курс рассчитан на 55 часов:

• Установочная лекция - 2 часа;

■ Практические занятия - 10 часов Самостоятельная работа - 45 часа:

  1. Изучение теоретического материала - 6 часов;

  2. Подготовка внеаудиторного чтения -10000 печатных знаков тек­стов по специальности и составление терминологического сло варя - 11 часов;

  3. Изучение разговорных тем: «Экономика» - 5 часов, «Макроэко­номика» - 3 часов, «Микроэкономика» - 3 часов;

  4. Выполнение контрольной работы - 17 часов.




  • Зачет.

  • Структура и содержание 6 курса

Курс рассчитан на 55 часов:

• Установочная лекция - 2 часа;

• Практические занятия - 10 часов Самостоятельная работа - 45
часа:

  1. Изучение теоретического материала - 5 часов;

  2. Подготовка внеаудиторного чтения -10000 печатных знаков тек­стов по специальности и составление терминологического сло­варя - 9 часов;

  3. Изучение разговорных тем: «Экономика транспорта» - 4 часов, «Макроэкономика транспорта» - 5 часов; «Микроэкономика транспорта» - 5 часов;

  4. Выполнение контрольной работы -17 часов.




  • Экзамен.

  • Самостоятельная работа в межсессионный период

1. Студенты должны изучить следующий теоретический (грам­
матический) материал:


  • Глагол. Формы времени и залога. Видо-временные формы глагола действительного залога. Страдательный залог.

  • Неличные формы глагола. Причастия I, II. Инфинитив.

  • Простое распространенное предложение (прямой порядок слов повествовательного и побудительного предложений в утвердительной и отрицательной форме). Порядок слов вопросительного предложения.

Литература:

  • Далецкая Т. А. Экономика транспорта. Новосибирск: Новосиб. гос. акад. вод. трансп., 2006

  • Любой учебник грамматики английского языка

  • Англо-русский и русско-английский словари.

^ 2. Студенты должны выполнить внеаудиторное чтение (тексты
представлены в шестой части данных указаний)


Чтение и перевод текстов по специальности. Всего -10000 печатных знаков. Составление терминологического словаря. Тексты выбираются сту­дентом самостоятельно с учетом его специализации.

^ 3. Студенты должны выполнить контрольную работу:

Необходимо выполнить один из пяти вариантов контрольной работы №5 (для 5 курса) или № 6 (для 6 курса) из данных методических указаний. Контрольную работу необходимо выполнять в соответствии с образцами,


4

5

находящимися в указанном разделе методических указаний, на основе изу­ченного грамматического материала, который приведен в разделе 1. Вари­ант выбирается по последней цифре шифра студента:

1,2 - вариант №1 7,8 - вариант №4

3,4 - вариант №2 9,0 - вариант №5

5,6- вариант №3

Контрольную работу следует выполнять в отдельной тетради. На об­ложке тетради необходимо указать свою фамилию, номер контрольной ра­боты и вариант. Контрольная работа должна выполняться аккуратным, чет­ким почерком. При выполнении контрольной работы оставляйте в тетради широкие поля для замечаний, объяснений и методических указаний рецен­зента. Задания должны быть представлены в той же последовательности, в которой они даны в контрольной работе, в развернутом виде с указанием номера варианта ответа. После проверки контрольной работы её следует защитить устно. При устной защите студент должен ответить на вопросы преподавателя по материалу контрольной работы.

^ 4. Отчетность и сроки отчетности

Результаты выполнения контрольной работы (КР) представляются в виде, указанном в пункте 3 на втором или третьем занятии.

♦ Аудиторные занятия, аттестация. К аудиторным занятиям допуска­ются студенты, выполнившие домашнее задание в межсессионный период. Параллельно с прохождением аудиторных занятий студент корректирует ошибки КР, защищает КР.

На аудиторных занятиях прорабатываются разговорные темы: «Эконо­мика», «Макроэкономика», «Микроэкономика» - на 5 курсе; «Экономика транспорта», «Макроэкономика транспорта», «Микроэкономика транспор­та», которые в дальнейшем выносятся на экзамен - на 6-ом курсе. Студенты должны вести беседу с преподавателем по вышеуказанным темам. С пятою курса на экзамен выносится разговорная тема: «Экономика».

По окончании занятий на 5 курсе - сдача зачёта, на 6 курсе - экзамен.

^ Структура и содержание зачета за 5-ый курс

Допуск к зачету

  • Чтение и перевод подготовленных текстов (10000 печатных знаков), устно - с выписанными словами;

  • Устная защита контрольной работы №5.

Зачет

■ Письменный перевод незнакомого текста со словарем (500 печатных знаков - 30 минут);

• Беседа с преподавателем (ответы на вопросы) по одной из
пройденных тем.

Структура и содержание экзамена за 6-ой курс

Допуск к экзамену

  • Чтение и перевод подготовленных текстов (10000 печатных знаков), устно - с выписанными словами;

  • Устная защита контрольной работы №6.

Экзамен

  • Письменный перевод незнакомого текста со словарем (500 печатных знаков - 30 минут);

  • Аннотирование текста по специальности (с ограниченным применением словаря).

  • Беседа с преподавателем (ответы на вопросы) по одной из пройденных тем.


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^ ЧАСТЬ 2 КОНТРОЛЬНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ №5

ВАРИАНТ 1

1. Перепишите следующие предложения, переведите их на русский язык и определите форму, функцию причастия в предложении:

определение; часть сказуемого; обстоятельство.

  1. The audience was confused.

  2. One aspect of "silent language" frequently mentioned by researchers discussing cross-cultural differences is the varying size of the "conversation bubble" in each culture.

  3. Knowing her pretty well, I realized something was wrong.

  4. The new school is going to open next week.

  5. Rejected by all his friends, he decided to become a monk.

^ 2. Перепишите следующие словосочетания и переведите их, обра­щая внимание на особенности перевода на русский язык причастий

Образец: the above mentioned point - выше упомянутый пункт

A man-eating tiger, all-consuming interest, a flea-bitten dog, a self-made man, a fast-moving train.

^ 3. Образуйте предложения со словосочетаниями из упр.2, исполь­
зуя союз that.


Образец: a much loved story - a story that is loved much.

4. Прочитайте и устно переведите текст.

  1. In microeconomic theory supply and demand attempts to describe, explain, and predict the price and quantity of goods sold in competitive markets. It is one of the most fundamental economic models, used as a basic building block in a wide range of models and theories. The theory of supply and demand is crucial to explaining the market economy. It explains the mechanisms by which prices and levels of production are set.

  2. Demand is the quantity of a product that a consumer or buyer would be willing and able to buy at any given price in a given period of time. Demand is

8

often represented as a table or a graph relating price and quantity demanded. Most economic models assume that consumers make rational choices. These choices are about how much to buy in order to maximize their utility - they spend their income on the products that will give them the most happiness at the least cost. The law of demand states that, price and quantity demanded are inversely related. In other words, the higher the price of a product, the less of it consumers will buy. 3. Supply is the quantity of goods that a producer or a supplier is willing to bring into the market for the purpose of sale at any given price in a given period of time. Supply is often represented as a table or a graph relating price and quantity supplied. Producers are assumed to be utility-maximizing, attempting to produce the amount of goods that will bring them the greatest possible profit. The law of supply states that, price and quantity supplied are directly proportional. In other words, the higher the price of a product, the more of it producers will create.

  1. Перепишите и письменно переведите § 2,3 текста.

  2. Найдите в тексте причастия, определите их форму и функцию.

  3. Письменно составьте аннотацию к тексту.

ВАРИАНТ 2

^ 1. Перепишите следующие предложения, переведите их на русский язык и определите функцию причастия в предложении:

определение; • часть сказуемого; обстоятельство.

  1. The exam results were disappointed.

  2. Certain kinds of "silent language" that convey revealing information to other people give one particular message in one culture but a conflicting message in another culture.

  3. Being unable to help her, I gave her some money.

  4. Who is the man talking to Elizabeth?

  5. Most of the people invited to the party didn't turn up.

^ 2. Перепишите следующие словосочетания и переведите их, об­ращая внимание на особенности перевода на русский язык причастий.

Образец: the above mentioned point - выше упомянутый пункт.

9

A fire-breathing dragon, a show-stopping finale, a shifty -eyed criminal, a sharp-tongued woman, a trend-setting phenomenon.

^ 3. Образуйте предложения со словосочетаниями из упр.2, исполь­
зуя союз that.


Образец: a much loved story - a story that is loved much.

4. Прочитайте и устно переведите текст.

Marginalism

1. In marginalist economic theory, the price level is determined by the marginal cost and marginal utility. The price of all goods will be the cost of making the last one that people will purchase. The price of all the employees in a company will be the cost of hiring the last one the business needs. Marginalism looks at decisions based on "the margins", what the cost to produce the next unit is, versus how much it is expected to return in profit. When the marginal return of an action reaches zero, the action stops. Marginal utility is how much more happiness or use a person receives from a purchase in contrast with buying less. Marginal rewards are often subject to diminishing returns: Less reward is obtained from more production or consumption. For example, the 1Oth bar of chocolate that a person consumes does not taste as good as the first, and so brings less marginal utility.

2. Marginalism became increasingly important in economic theory in the late 19th century, and is a tool which is used to analyze how economic systems will react. Marginal cost of production divides costs into "fixed" costs which must be paid regardless of how many of a commodity are produced, and "variable costs". The marginal cost is the variable cost of the last unit. Marginalism states that when the profit from the next unit will be zero, that unit will not be produced. This is often termed the marginal revolution in economic thought. The marginalist theory of price level runs counter to the classical theory of price being determined by the amount of labor congealed in a commodity.

  1. Перепишите и письменно переведите § 1 текста.

  2. Найдите в тексте причастия, определите их форму и функцию.

  3. Письменно составьте аннотацию к тексту.

ВАРИАНТ 3

^ 1. Перепишите следующие предложения, переведите их на русский язык и определите функцию причастия в предложении:

  • определение; часть сказуемого;

  • обстоятельство.




  1. Most students are interested in Grammar.

  2. "Conversation bubble" is the amount of physical distance maintained between people engaged in different kinds of conversations.

  3. Not wishing to continue my studies, I decided to become a hair dresser.

  4. She was crying when I saw her.

5.I found him sitting at a table covered with papers.

^ 2. Перепишите следующие словосочетания и переведите их, об­ращая внимание на особенности перевода на русский язык причастий.

Образец: the above mentioned point — выше упомянутый пункт.

A death-defying stunt, a mind -boggling fact, a much-visited attraction, a well-known grammar book, a fox-hunting man.

^ 3. Образуйте предложения со словосочетаниями из упр.2, используя
союз that.


Образец: a much loved story - a story that is loved much.

4. Прочитайте и устно переведите текст.

Price

1. In order to measure the ebb and flow of supply and demand, a measurable value is needed. The oldest and most commonly used is price, or the going rate of exchange between buyers and sellers in a market. Price theory charts the movement of measurable quantities over time, and the relationship between price and other measurable variables. In Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations, this was the trade-off between price and convenience. A great deal of economic theory is based around prices and the theory of supply and demand. In economic theory, the most efficient form of communication comes about when changes to an economy occur through price, such as when an increase in supply leads to a lower price, or an increase in demand leads to a higher price.


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  1. Exchange rates are determined by the relative supply and demand of different currencies — an important issue in international trade. In many practical economic models, some form of "price stickiness" is incorporated to model the fact that prices do not move fluidly in many markets. Economic policy often revolves around arguments about the cause of "economic friction", or price stickiness, and which is preventing the supply and demand from reaching equilibrium.

  2. Another area of economic controversy is about whether price measures the value of a good correctly. In mainstream market economics there are significant scarcities not factored into price. There is said to be an externalization, which is a cost or benefit to actors other than the buyer and seller, of which many examples exist, including pollution (a cost to others) and education (a benefit to others). Market economics predicts that scarce goods which are under-priced because of externalities are over-consumed. Scarce goods that are over-priced are under-consumed. This leads into public goods theory. Governments often tax and restrict the sale of goods that have negative externalities and subsidize or promote the purchase of goods that have positive externalities in an effort to correct the distortion in price caused by these externalities.




  1. Перепишите и письменно переведите §1,2 текста.

  2. Найдите в тексте причастия, определите их форму и функцию.

  3. Письменно составьте аннотацию к тексту.

ВАРИАНТ 4

^ 1. Перепишите следующие предложения, переведите их на русский язык и определите функцию причастия в предложении:

определение; часть сказуемого; обстоятельство.

  1. The snack was quite satisfied.

  2. Seriously depressed individuals actually have more easily compromised immune system than people who are not suffering from depression.

  3. Used economically, one tin will last for six weeks.

  4. This time tomorrow I will be lying on the beach.

  5. Rescues are still working in the ruins of the collapsed hotel.

^ 2. Перепишите следующие словосочетания и переведите их, об­ращая внимание на особенности перевода на русский язык причастий.

Образец: the above mentioned point - выше упомянутый пункт.

A weight-reducing machine, face-saving maneuver, a store-bought cake, a handmade sweater, English-speaking Canadians.

^ 3. Образуйте предложения со словосочетаниями из упр.2, исполь­
зуя союз that


Образец: a much loved story - a story that is loved much.

4. Прочитайте и устно переведите текст.

Opportunity cost

  1. Although opportunity cost can be hard to quantify, the effect of opportunity cost is universal and very real on the individual level. In fact, this principle applies to all decisions, not just economic ones. Since the work of the Austrian economist Friedrich von Wieser, opportunity cost has been seen as the foundation of the marginal theory of value.

  2. Opportunity cost is one way to measure the cost of something. Rather than merely identifying and adding the costs of a project, one may also identify the next best alternative way to spend the same amount of money. The forgone profit of this next best alternative is the opportunity cost of the original choice. A common example is a farmer that chooses to farm his land rather than rent it to neighbors, wherein the opportunity cost is the forgone profit from renting. Similarly, the opportunity cost of attending university is the lost wages a student could have earned in the workforce, rather than the cost of tuition, books, and other requisite items (whose sum makes up the total cost of attendance).

  3. Note that opportunity cost is not the sum of the available alternatives, but rather the benefit of the single, best alternative. Possible opportunity costs of the city's decision to build the hospital on its vacant land are the loss of the land for a sporting center, or the inability to use the land for a parking lot, or the money that could have been made from selling the land, or the loss of any of the various other possible uses—but not all of these in aggregate. One question that arises here is how to assess the benefit of dissimilar alternatives. We must determine a dollar value associated with each alternative to facilitate comparison and assess opportunity cost, which may be more or less difficult depending on the things we are trying to compare. For example, many decisions involve environmental impacts whose dollar value is difficult to assess because of scientific uncertainty. Valuing


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a human life or the economic impact of an Arctic oil spill involves making subjective choices with ethical implications.

  1. Перепишите и письменно переведите §1,2 текста.

  2. Найдите в тексте причастия, определите их форму и функцию.

  3. Письменно составьте аннотацию к тексту.

ВАРИАНТ 5

^ 1. Перепишите следующие предложения, переведите их на русский язык и определите функцию причастия в предложении:

  • определение; часть сказуемого;

  • обстоятельство.




  1. People were depressed by the news.

  2. Having failed my medical exams, I took up teaching.

  3. The window was broken in the storm.

  4. He came the first runner, closely followed by the second.

  5. The man speaking to John (not the man dancing in the corner or the man standing by the punch) told him some shocking information.

^ 2. Перепишите следующие словосочетания и переведите их, об­ращая внимание на особенности перевода на русский язык причастий.

Образец: the above mentioned point - выше упомянутый пункт.

A belt-tightening economic policy, a fast-disappearing custom, a well-trained employee, a male-dominated society, quick-growing trees.

^ 3. Образуйте предложения со словосочетаниями из упр.2, используя союз that.

Образец: a much loved story - a story that is loved much

4. Прочитайте и устно переведите текст.

1. The theory of supply and demand usually assumes that markets are perfectly competitive. There are many buyers and sellers in the market and none of them have the capacity to significantly influence prices of goods and services. In many

real-life transactions, the assumption fails because some individual buyers or sellers or groups of buyers or sellers do have the ability to influence prices. Quite often a sophisticated analysis is required to understand the demand-supply equation of a good. However, the theory works well in simple situations.

2. Mainstream economics does not assume a priori that markets are preferable to other forms of social organization. In fact, much analysis is devoted to cases where so-called market failures lead to resource allocation that is suboptimal by some standard (highways are the classic example, profitable to all for use but not directly profitable for anyone to finance). In such cases, economists may attempt to find policies that will avoid waste directly by government control, indirectly by regulation that induces market participants to act in a manner consistent with optimal welfare, or by creating "missing markets" to enable efficient trading where none had previously existed. This is studied in the field of collective action. It also must be noted that "optimal welfare" usually takes on a Paretian norm. This norm in its mathematical application of Kaldor-Hicks method, does not stay consistent with the Utilitarian norm within the normative side of economics (which studies collective action, namely public choice). Market failure in positive economics (microeconomics) is limited in implications without mixing the belief of the economist and his or her theory.

3. The demand for various commodities by individuals is generally thought of as the outcome of a utility-maximizing process. The interpretation of this relationship between price and quantity demanded of a given good is that, given all the other goods and constraints, this set of choices is that one which makes the consumer happiest.

  1. Перепишите и письменно переведите § 2 текста.

  2. Найдите в тексте причастия, определите их форму и функцию.

  3. Письменно составьте аннотацию к тексту.


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^ ЧАСТЬ 3 РАЗГОВОРНЫЕ ТЕМЫ

- fields and broader categories within economics.

The core concepts of economics are value, supply, demand, price, scarcity,

marginalism.


3.1 ECONOMICS

^ 1. Translate the following expressions into Russian:

Goods, services, to produce, limited, quantity, resources, labor, land, scarce, raw materials, de-sires, to satisfy, production, distribution, consumption, microeconomics, macroeconomics, positive economics, normative economics, economic, choice, decisions, to invest, to manufacture, to hire, to charge, to spend, to raise, tax, to borrow, value, supply, demand, price, scarcity, marginalism.

^ 2. Read the text and translate paragraph 2,3.

1. Every society must solve three basic problems every day:

What goods and services should be produced and in what amounts? How should those goods and services be produced? • For whom should the goods and services be produced? What, how, and for whom to produce are universal problems. Human wants are practically unlimited, but all societies have only limited quantities of resources that can be used to produce goods or services. (Productive resources include labor, land, buildings, machinery, and raw materials.) If resources were not scarce, we could all have everything we ever wanted: continuous vacations, fine paintings, fast sports cars, elegant fur coats, or whatever else our dreams are made of.

2. The central economic problem is the conflict between people's essentially
unlimited de-sires for goods and services and the limited resources that can be
used to satisfy those desires.

^ Economics is the study of how societies with limited, scarce resources decide what gets produced, how, and for whom.

3. Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution,
and consumption of goods and services. The term economics is dated from the
publication of Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations in 1776. Smith referred to the
subject as 'political economy', but that term was replaced by 'economics' after
1870.

Areas of economics may be divided or classified in various ways, including:

  • microeconomics and macroeconomics

  • positive economics ("what is") and normative economics ("what ought to be")



Q1 Q2 Quantity

The supply and demand model describes how prices vary as a result of a balance between product availability and demand. The graph depicts a right-shift in demand from D, to D2 along with the consequent increase in price and quantity required to reach a new equilibrium point on the supply curve (S),

^ 3. Answer the questions:

  1. What are three basic problems of the society?

  2. Why are they universal?

  3. What would happen if resources were not scarce?

  4. What is the central economic problem?

  5. What is economics?

  6. When is the term economics dated?

  7. How did Smith refer to the subject?

  8. What are the areas of economics?

  9. What are the core concepts of economics?

^ 4. Read the text and A) think of the suitable heading, B) make up an annotation.


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The great nineteenth-century English economist Alfred Marshall (1842-1924) described economics as "the study of mankind in the ordinary business of life." This description reflects the fact that economic choices are so common that often we do not notice that we are making them virtually every minute. You decide how best to use your scarce time. Economic choices are decisions about how to use scarce resources to satisfy people's wants and desires. For instance, you choose between work, play, and sleep. If you choose to work, you still have to decide whether to go to class, read a textbook, or do a problem. If you choose to go shopping, you may have to decide between an expensive pair of shoes on the one hand and an inexpensive pair but a larger bank account on the other.

Businesses and governments also make economic choices every day. A farmer must decide when and what to plant and how much to invest in new machinery. General Motors must decide which cars to manufacture, how many of each to produce, whether to invest in robots or hire more workers, whether to produce here or abroad, and how much to charge for the cars. The government must choose how much to spend on education, defense, research, and many other programs; how much to raise in taxes of various kinds; and how much to borrow. These choices all arise because resources are scarce.

3.2 MACROECONOMICS

1. Translate the following expressions into Russian:

Development, evaluation, economic policy, business strategy, national income, unemployment, inflation, investment, international trade, fluctuations, determinants, economic growth, forecasts, long-run, causes, consequences, aggregate, trends, short-run, adjustments, policy, fiscal policy, monetary policy, to succeed in, emblematic.

^ 2. Read the text and translate paragraph 1,3.

  1. Macroeconomics is a major branch of economics that deals with the performance, structure, and behavior of the economy as a whole. Macroeconomists study and seek to understand the determinants of aggregate trends in the economy with particular focus on national income, unemployment, inflation, investment, and international trade.

  2. While macroeconomics is a broad field of study, there are two areas of research that are emblematic of the discipline: the attempt to understand the causes and consequences of short-run fluctuations in national income (the business cycle), and the attempt to understand the determinants of long-run economic growth

18

(increases in national income). Macroeconomic models and their forecasts are used by governments and large corporations to assist in the development and evaluation of economic policy and business strategy.

3. To avoid major economic shocks, such as great depression, governments make adjustments through policy changes. They hope that these changes will succeed in stabilizing the economy. Governments believe that the success of these adjustments is necessary to maintain stability and continue growth. This economic management is achieved through two types of strategies: Fiscal Policy and Monetary Policy.

^ 3. Answer the questions:

  1. What is macroeconomics?

  2. What does macroeconomics study?

  3. What are the areas of research?

  4. Why are macroeconomic models and their forecasts used by govern­ments and large corporations?

  5. What do governments do to avoid economic shocks?

  6. How is economic management achieved?

4. Read the text and A) think of the suitable heading, B) make up an annotation.

The traditional distinction is between two different approaches to economics: Keynesian economics, focusing on demand; and supply-side (or neo-classical) economics, focusing on supply. Neither view is typically endorsed to the complete exclusion of the other, but most schools do tend clearly to emphasize one or the other as a theoretical foundation.

Keynesian economics focuses on aggregate demand to explain levels of unemployment and the business cycle. That is, business cycle fluctuations should be reduced through fiscal policy (the government spends more or less depending on the situation) and monetary policy. Early Keynesian macroeconomics was "activist," calling for regular use of policy to stabilize the capitalist economy, while some Keynesians called for the use of incomes policies.

Supply-side economics delineates quite clearly the roles of monetary policy and fiscal policy. The focus for monetary policy should be purely on the price of money as determined by the supply of money and the demand for money. It advocates a monetary policy that directly targets the value of money and does not target interest rates at all. Typically the value of money is measured by reference to gold or some other reference. The focus of fiscal policy is to raise revenue for worthy government investments with a clear recognition of the impact that taxation

19

has on domestic trade. It places heavy emphasis on Say's law, which states that recessions do not occur because of failure in demand or lack of money.

3.3 MICROECONOMICS

1. Translate the following expressions into Russian:

Elasticity, game theory, uncertainty, competition, market, failure, allocation, individuals, households, to make decisions, to determine, to establish, efficient, condition, alternative use, to fail, relative price, goal, to buy, to sell, behavior, to affect, commodity, industrial organization, labor market, expenditure, workforce.

2. Read the text and translate paragraph 1,3.

  1. Microeconomics is a branch of economics. Microeconomics studies how individuals, households, and firms make decisions to allocate limited resources, typically in markets where goods or services are being bought and sold.

  2. Microeconomics examines how these decisions and behaviors affect the supply and demand for goods and services, which determines prices. It also studies how prices determine the supply and demand of goods and services. Microeconomic analysis offers a detailed treatment of individual decisions about particular commodities.

  3. One of the goals of microeconomics is to analyze market mechanisms. Market mechanisms establish relative prices amongst goods, services and allocation of limited resources amongst many alternative uses. Microeconomics analyzes market failure, where markets fail to produce efficient results. It also describes the theoretical conditions needed for perfect competition. Significant fields of study in microeconomics include markets under asymmetric information, choice under uncertainty and economic applications of game theory. Also considered is the elasticity of products within the market system.

^ 3. Answer the questions:

  1. What is microeconomics?

  2. What does microeconomics study?

  3. What does microeconomics examine?

  4. What does microeconomic analysis offer?

  5. What is one of the goals of microeconomics?

  6. What do market mechanisms do?

  7. What do significant fields of study in microeconomics include?

4. Read the text and A) think of the suitable heading, B) make up an annotation.

Applied microeconomics includes a range of specialized areas of study, many of which draw on methods from other fields. Industrial organization and regulation examines topics such as the entry and exit of firms, innovation, role of trademarks. Law and economics applies microeconomic principles to the selection and enforcement of competing legal regimes and their relative efficiencies. Labor economics examines wages, employment, and labor market dynamics. Public finance examines the design of government tax and expenditure policies and economic effects of these policies (e.g., social insurance programs). Political economy examines the role of political institutions in determining policy outcomes. Urban economics, which examines the challenges faced by cities, such as are sprawl, air and water pollution, traffic congestion, and poverty, draws on the fields of urban geography and sociology. The field of financial economics examines topics such as the structure of optimal portfolios, the rate of return to capital, econometric analysis of security returns, and corporate financial behavior. The field of economic history examines the evolution of the economy and economic institutions, using methods and techniques from the fields of economics, history, geography, sociology, psychology, and political science.


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