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ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНТСТВО ПО ОБРАЗОВАНИЮ`

ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ


ВЫСШЕГО ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ

«УРАЛЬСКАЯ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННАЯ ЮРИДИЧЕСКАЯ АКАДЕМИЯ»


АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК




Учебный материал и контрольные задания


(Для студентов заочного факультета)


Екатеринбург 2005




Составители

Доценты Л.Д. Дерун, Л.И. Круглова


Английский язык: Учебный материал и контрольные задания. - Екатеринбург: Изд-во УрГЮА, 2005. – 79 с.


© Издательский Дом “ Уральская

государственная юридическая

академия”, 2005


^
Общие указания


Студенты заочного факультета изучают английский язык в течение двух лет (четырех семестров). Программой предусмотрены зачеты в 1, 2, 3 семестрах и итоговой экзамен в 4 семестре.

Материал каждого семестра включает: 1) изучение определенных разделов грамматики, 2) выполнение упражнений (устно и письменно), 3) чтение и перевод текстов (с обязательным составлением словаря к каждому тексту), 4) внеаудиторное чтение (2 и 4 семестры), 5) выполнение контрольной работы (письменно), 6) рассказы по темам устой речи.


^ Изучение грамматического материала. Проработайте и законспектируйте (в рабочей тетради) по любому учебнику английского языка (полный курс) соответствующие разделы грамматики. Выполните устно и письменно все упражнения данного семестра. Рабочая тетрадь с конспектами и упражнениями предъявляется преподавателю в первый день практических занятий.

^ Работа над текстом. Прочитайте текст вслух в соответствии с правилами чтения. Выпишите незнакомые слова и найдите их значение в словаре. Для этого установите, какой частью речи слово является, и исходя из его грамматической функции и общего содержания текста, выберите в словаре наиболее подходящее значение. Пользуясь выписанными словами, переведите текст устно.

Примечание. Составление словаря к каждому тексту обязательно!


Внеаудиторное чтение. Для внеаудиторного чтения (2 и 4 семестры) используется актуальный материал из последних номеров газет и журналов на английском языке. Рекомендуемая тематика: «Визиты», «Встречи», «Заключение контрактов», «Подписание документов», “Судебные процессы”,”Правонарушения”, “Совершение преступлений”. Составление словаря к каждой статье обязательно! Внеаудиторное чтение сдается устно с использованием составленного словаря незнакомых слов.


^ Контрольная работа. Студенты, фамилии которых начинаются с букв от «А» по «О», должны выполнить 1 вариант контрольной работы, от «П» по «Я» - 2 вариант. Контрольная работа пишется в отдельной тонкой тетради, на обложке которой указывается: имя и фамилия студента, номер группы, номер и вариант контрольной работы. Контрольная работа сдается преподавателю в первый день практических занятий по английскому языку.

^ Работа над разговорной темой. На основе предложенных текстов по темам устной речи и любых других источников (учебников, пособий, справочников и т.д.) постройте свое сообщение на конкретную тему. Для этого: 1) прочитайте и переведите текст, 2) составьте план своего высказывания, 3) выберете из текста нужные для пересказа ключевые слова, 4) составьте рассказ по теме (20 - 25 предложений). Кроме того, умейте задать 10 - 15 вопросов по теме и будьте готовы ответить на предложенные вопросы.

Требования на зачетах и экзамене


К зачету допускаются студенты, активно работавшие на практических занятиях, изучившие и законспектировавшие грамматический материал данного семестра, выполнившие все устные и письменные упражнения, умеющие читать и переводить тексты данного семестра, сдавшие нормы внеаудиторного чтения в установленном объеме, предъявившие выполненную письменно контрольную работу. Для получения зачета необходимо: уметь прочитать, перевести любой раздел контрольной работы и объяснить грамматический материал, прочитать и перевести письменно со словарем предложенный незнакомый текст, рассказать темы данного семестра.

К экзамену допускаются студенты, не имеющие задолженности за предыдущие семестры.


Содержание экзамена.


  1. Чтение и письменный перевод со словарем юридического текста (1000 - 1200 знаков за 45 минут)




  1. Чтение без словаря общественно - политического или обще-юридического текста и передача его содержания на русском (800 - 1000 знаков за 15 минут)




  1. Беседа по одной из пройденных тем устной речи (10 тем).


Примечание: наличие англо - русского словаря на практических занятиях, зачетах и экзамене обязательно!


I C Е М Е С Т Р


  1. Проработайте следующие разделы курса:

  • правила чтения;

  • артикли (определенный и неопределенный);

  • порядок слов в предложении (утвердительном, вопросительном, отрицательном);

  • типы вопросов (общий, специальный, альтернативный, разделительный);

  • множественное число существительных;

  • числительные (количественные и порядковые);

  • местоимения: личные (в именительном и объектном падеже), указательные, притяжательные (в простой и абсолютной форме), возвратные;

  • местоимения “some, any, no” и их производные;

  • “much, many, few, little, a few, a little”;

  • предлоги места, времени, направления, предлог “of” и другие;

  • притяжательный падеж существительных;

  • степени сравнения прилагательных и наречий;

  • конструкция “there is, there are, there was, there were, there will be”;

  • сложные предложения (соединительные союзы и союзные слова);

  • глаголы “to be” и “to have”, их формы в настоящем и прошедшем времени;


2. Проработайте и законспектируйте следующие разделы:

  • формы глагола: инфинитив (I), прошедшее время (II), причастие прошедшего времени (III), причастие настоящего времени (IV);

  • глаголы правильные и неправильные (стандартные и нестандартные)

(см. таблицу №3);

  • времена группы Indefinite (Present, Past, Future) в активном (см. таблицу №1) и пассивном залоге (см. таблицу №2).


^ 3. Выполните письменно упражнения V, VI, IX, остальные - устно.


4. Прочитайте и переведите устно тексты 1, 2, 3 (составление словаря к каждому тексту обязательно!).


^ 5. Используя материал текстов на стр. 16 - 19 , расскажите о себе, своей семье, Уральской Государственной Юридической Академии.


6. В отдельной тонкой тетради выполните письменно свой вариант контрольной работы № 1.


Таблица № 1


Употребление настоящего, прошедшего и будущего неопределенного времени в действительном (активном) залоге (Present Indefinite Active, Past Indefinite Active, Future Indefinite Active).



Настоящее

Present Simple

Прошедшее

Past Simple

Будущее

Future Simple



I live in Serov.

He lives in Kiev.


Я живу в Серове.

Он живет в Киеве.



I lived in Serov last year.

Я жил в Серове в прошлом году.


He wrote a letter yesterday

Он написал письмо вчера




I will (I’ll) live in Yekaterinburg next year.


Я буду жить в Eкатеринбурге в следующем году.


Do you live in Serov?

Yes, I do.- No, I don’t.


Does he live in Kiev?

Yes, he does.

No, he doesn’t.

Вы живете в Серове?

Да. - Нет.

Он живет в Киеве?

Да. - Нет.



Did you live in Serov last year?

Yes, I did.- No, I didn’t.

Вы жили в Серове в прошлом году?

Да. - Нет.


Did he write a letter

yesterday?

Yes, he did. – No, he didn’t.

Он написал письмо вчера? Да. - Нет.




Will you live in Yekaterinburg next year?

Yes, I will (shall)

No, I won’t. (shan’t)


Вы будете жить в Екатеринбурге в следующем году?

Да. - Нет.



I don't live inКiev. He doesn't live in Serov.


Я не живу в Киеве.

Он не живет в Серове.


I didn't live in Omsk last year.

Я не жил в Омске в прошлом году.

He didn't write a letter

yesterday

Он не написал письмо вчера.


I will not (won’t) live in Moscow next year.


Я не буду жить в Москве в следующем году.


Таблица № 2

Употребление настоящего, прошедшего и будущего неопределенного времени в страдательном (пассивном) залоге. (Present Indefinite Passive, Past Indefinite Passive , Future Indefinite Passive в утвердительных, вопросительных и отрицательных предложениях).


Present

Simple

Past

Simple

Future

Simple


I am often asked

about it.

Меня часто спрашивают об этом



I was asked about it yesterday.

Меня спросили об этом вчера.


I will (I’ll) be asked about it tomorrow.

Меня спросят об этом завтра.


Аre you often asked about it? - Yes, I am.

No, I am not.


Were you asked about it yesterday?

Yes, I was. – No, I wasn’t.



Will you be asked about it tomorrow?

Yes, I will.

No, I won’t.


I am not often asked

about it.



I wasn't asked

about it yesterday.



I will not (won’t) be asked about it tomorrow.


He is given

much home work every day.

Ему дают большое домашнее задание каждый день



He was given much home work yesterday.

Ему дали вчера большое домашнее задание.


He will be given

much home work

tomorrow.

Ему дадут

завтра большое домашнее задание.


Is he given much

home work every day?

Yes, he is. – No, he isn’t.



Was he given

much home work yesterday?

Yes, he was. – No, he wasn’t.



Will he be given much home work tomorrow?

Yes, he will.

No, he won’t.


He is not given

much home

work every day.




He wasn't given

much home

work yesterday.


He will not (won’t) be

given much

home work

tomorrow












^ Таблица №3


Основные формы нестандартных (неправильных) глаголов.



Инфинитив

to be

to become

to begin

to bring

to build

to come

to do

to fall

to feel

to fight

to find

to forget

to get

to give

to go

to have

to hear

to know

to leave

to make

to meet

to put

to read

to run

to say

to see

to sell

to send

to show

to sit

to speak

to stand

to take

to teach

to tell

to think

to understand

to win

to write

Прошедшее время


was, were

became

began

brought

built

came

did

fell

felt

fought

found

forgot

got

gave

went

had

heard

knew

left

made

met

put

read

ran

said

saw

sold

sent

showed

sat

spoke

stood

took

taught

told

thought

understood

won

wrote

Причастие II

been

become

begun

brought

built

come

done

fallen

felt

fought

found

forgotten

got

given

gone

had

heard

known

left

made

met

put

read

run

said

seen

sold

sent

shown

sat

spoken

stood

taken

taught

told

thought

understood

won

written


Перевод

быть

становиться

начинать

приносить

строить

приходить

делать

падать

чувствовать

бороться

находить

забывать

получать

давать

идти

иметь

слышать

знать

покидать

делать

встречать

класть

читать

бежать

сказать

видеть

продавать

посылать

показывать

сидеть

говорить

стоять

брать, взять

обучать

рассказывать

думать

понимать

выиграть

писать


^ Выполните следующие упражнения:


I. Прочитайте и переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на подчеркнутые слова:


1.Ann's child usually rests in the country in summer. Let's have a rest it's 2 p.m. already. 2. We always help them with their English. I don't need his help. 3. Don't stop the car, there is no parking here. They often meet at the bus stop in the morning. 4. They plan to walk tonight. I like his plan to rest in Sochi. 5. He always answers his teachers’ questions very well. Their answers in English are usually very good. 6. Let's speak about this play. They play chess very well. 7. They watch all the plays of this team. His watch is always slow. Nick plays tennis very well. 8. I like this writer's works. She works at school. 9. We don't know her name. Name the days of week, please. 10. Pavel studies at the Law Academy. Judges must know all laws. All studies here are very comfortable. She gives all the time to studies.


II. Прочитайте и переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на подчеркнутые слова:


1. The students trained at our Academy study jurisprudence. 2. Last month he trained in the club twice a week. 3. Ann taught English two years ago. 4. The subjects taught at the academy are very important for our future career. 5. They read a few new texts every week. 6. We read only two new texts last week. 7. All the read texts were very interesting. 8. The article read by us was about combating crime. 9. A very interesting report was read at the conference. 10. Read Text 2 at home and be ready to answer some questions on it.


III. Выполните упражнение по модели:


Model: He usually leaves home at 8 o' clock. (When…?)

When does he usually leave home?


1.The Blacks live in a small village near Liverpool. (Where…?). ^ 2. These men go to the pub every evening. (How often…?). 3. They take exams in January and in June. (When…?). 4. Mary usually does her room very quickly. (How…?). 5. We want to catch the six-o'clock train. (What train…?). 6. Mother wakes him up at a quarter to 7 a. m. (At what time…?). 7. They want to buy a new dictionary for their son. (Who…for?). 8. He likes home-produced foodstuffs best. (Which…?). 9. He studies at the Law Academy because of the family tradition. (Why…?). 10. She often uses her father's computer. (Whose…?).


^ IV. Выполните упражнение по модели:


Model 1: Jim speaks German,… (Polish)

Jim speaks German, but he doesn't speak Polish.

Model 2: They speak English,… (French)

They speak English, but they don't speak French.


1.Mr. Cook writes newspaper reports, … (books). 2. My grandmother does all the cooking, … (the shopping). 3. Briаn drives a motor-cycle, … (a car). 4. My sister plays table tennis,… (lawn tennis). 5. I like serious music, … (pop music). 6. These workers build blocks of flats,… (factories). 7. I like tea, … (coffee). 8. They take exams in January, … (in December). 9. Her brother studies at school, …(at the University). 10. We live in Russia, … (in the USA).


V. Отнесите действие следующих предложений к прошедшему времени, используя слова в скобках:


Model: Every day she gets up at 7 p. m. (yesterday)

She got up at 7 a. m. Yesterday.


1.We always listen to the latest news (last night). 2. I often buy new records (yesterday). 3. Father takes my younger brother for a walk every Sunday (last Saturday). 4. She often gets presents from her parents (two days ago). 5. Jack brings Nelly flowers on every date (on her last birthday). 6. Ann wakes up late on Sunday (last Sunday). 7. Sometimes the Belovs have dinner at the restaurant (last week). 8. We always use dictionaries when we write a test (last Monday). 9. In summer he usually rests at his grandparents (two years ago). 10. They always translate such texts in writing (the day before yesterday).


VI. Прочитайте и переведите следующие предложения, затем отнесите их к Future Indefinite Active, используя слова в скобках:


1.She went to New York last year (London next year). 2. Nick visited Washington last month (Boston next month). 3. They left for Geneva two weeks ago (Paris soon). 4. Kate lived in Italy last summer (Spain next summer). 5. Ann started for France yesterday (England on Friday). 6. The Petrovs went on a tour of Russia two years ago (the Ukraine next summer). 7. He left Yekaterinburg the day before yesterday (Moscow the day after tomorrow). 8. They came from the USA a fortnight ago (the UK in a day) 9. She was in lraq last year (Cuba soon). 10.Steve studied at school two years ago. (a higher school next year)


VII. Выберите правильный ответ:


  1. There … many higher schools in our city.

  1. do b) does c) is d) has e) are

  1. I … nothing in my hand.

  1. am b) do c) have d) does e) has

  1. This girl … to School No. 5

  1. to go b) go c) has d) goes e) is

  1. Yekaterinburg … one of the largest cities in Russia.

  1. is b) does c) has d) are e) is not

  1. The students of our group … English.

  1. to study b) studies c) study d) don't study e) teach

  1. My family and I … in the USA.

  1. live b) lives c) don't live d) living e)doesn't live

  1. … there any pictures on the walls?

a) does b) do c) is d) has e) are

  1. … you sleep in the daytime?

a) does b) is c) do d) have e) are

  1. Ann … like to read detective stories.

a) do b) does c) is d) don't e) doesn't

  1. На какой вопрос можно ответить “Yes, he does”?

  1. Is Mike at home now?

  2. Has Mike a sister?

  3. Does Mike live in Yekaterinburg or in Omsk?

  4. Does Mike live in Yekaterinburg ?

  5. Where does Mike live?

11. Найдите «общие вопросы»:

  1. Do you prefer tea or coffee in the morning?

  2. Do you often go to the cinema?

  3. What is there in your bag?

  4. Is there a superstore near here?

  5. You are a first-year student, aren't you?


VIII. Прочитайте и переведите следующие предложения.


  1. English is a widespread language. It is spoken all over the world.

  2. It's a very good dictionary. It was bought last week.

  3. He will be sent on business next week.

  4. The book is much spoken about.

  5. The doctor was sent for at once.

  6. Is she often invited to the cinema or to the theatre?

  7. When he was a teenager, he was often laughed at.

  8. Spanish is not taught at our Academy.

  9. A new hostel will be built in a year.

  10. All the exams were passed successfully in January.



IX. Поставьте правильную форму глагола.


  1. The post … (deliver) at about 7 o'clock every morning.

  2. Dinner … (serve) in the hotel at 6.30 p.m.

  3. That building … (not/use) any more.

  4. The Olympic Games … (hold) every 4 years.

  5. How … your name (spell)?

  6. What texts … (translate) with a dictionary?

  7. Tickets for all shows … (sell) at the Box office.

  8. These video recorders … (make) in Japan.

  9. Many new houses … (build) every year.

  10. Tests and exams … (take) at the end of each semester.


X. Раскройте скобки , выбирая нужную форму глагола.



  1. The porter will (bring, be brought) your luggage to your room.

  2. Your luggage will (bring, be brought) up in the lift.

  3. Your hat and coat may (leave, be left) in the cloak room downstairs.

  4. They can (leave, be left) the key with the room clerk downstairs.

  5. From the station they will (take, be taken) straight to the hotel.

  6. Tomorrow he will (take, be taken) them to the Russian Museum.

  7. Nick will (send, be sent) on business next month.

  8. Nick will (send, be sent) a telegramme to his parents.

  9. His new book will (publish, be published) next month.

  10. He will (publish, be published) his book next month.



Прочитайте и переведите следующие тексты:


T e x t 1


The Characteristics of the English Law.


The United Kingdom does not have a single legal system. The law in Scotland was infuenced by the Roman law and is different from the law of England, Wales and Northern Ireland.

The English legal system is centralised through a court structure which is common to the whole country.

Some important characteristics of the English law are:

English law is based on the common law tradition. By this we mean a system of ‘judge made’ law which is continuously developed through the decisions of judges in the cases brought before them. These judicial precedents are an important source of law in the English legal system.

Common law systems are different from the civil law systems of Western Europe and Latin America. In these countries the law is codified or systematically collected to form a consistent body of legal rules.

English judges have an important role in developing case law and stating the meaning of Acts of Parliament.

English judges are independent of the government and the people appearing before them. This allows them to make impartial decisions.

Court procedure in England is accusatorial. This means that judges do not investigate the cases before them but reach a decision based only on the evidence presented to them by the parties to the dispute. This is called the adversarial system of justice.

It can be compared to the inquisitorial procedure of some other European systems where the function of the judges is to investigate the case and to collect evidence.


T e x t 2


Who is Who in the Law?


If you are prosecuted for a crime in Britain, you may meet the following people during your process through the courts:

MAGISTRATES. Magistrates are unpaid judges, usually chosen from well–respected people in the local community. They are not legally qualified. They are guided on points of law by an official, the Clerk.

SOLICITORS. After the suspect was arrested, the first person he/ she needs to see is a solicitor. Solicitors are qualified lawyers who advise the person and help prepare the defence case.

BARRISTERS. In more serious cases, or where there are special difficulties, it is usual for the solicitor to hire a barrister to defend the accused. The barrister is trained in the law and in the skills required to argue a case in court.

JURORS. A jury consists of twelve men and women from the local community. They sit in the Crown Court, with a judge, and listen to witnesses for the defence and prosecution before deciding whether the accused is guilty or innocent.

JUDGES. Judges are trained lawyers nearly always ex-barristers, who sit in the Crown Court and Appeal Court. The judge rules on points of law, and makes sure that the trial is conducted properly. He/she does not decide on the guilt or innocence of the accused – that is the jury's job. However, if the jury find the accused guilty, then the judge will pass sentence.


T e x t 3

Solicitors and Barristers


England is unique in having two different kinds of lawyers. They are solicitors and barristers.

If a person has a legal problem, he goes to see a solicitor. Almost every town has at least one. In fact, there are about 60,000 solicitors in Britain.

Many problems are dealt with exclusively by a solicitor. For instance, the solicitor deals with petty crimes and some matrimonial matters in magistrates courts. He prepares the case and the evidence. He may represent his client in the lower courts. In a civil action, he can speak in the county court, when the case is one of divorce or recovering some debts. Besides, a solicitor deals with other matters. He does the legal work involved in buying a house, he writes legal letters for you, he helps you to make a will, etc.

Barristers are different from solicitors. Barristers are experts in the interpretation of the law. They advise on really difficult points, and conduct legal proceedings in the higher courts. Barristers are rather remote figures. A barrister’s client can come to him only via a solicitor. Barristers do not have public offices in any street. They work in chambers, often in London. There are about 6,000 barristers in England. Usually only barristers can become judges in English courts.


Выполните письменно свой вариант контрольной работы:


Контрольная работа №1

Вариант 1


Упр. I: Перепишите следующие предложения, раскрывая скобки. Переведите предложения письменно.


  1. Crimes committed by the juveniles (try / are tried) in juvenile courts.

  2. The Lord Chancellor (appoints, is appointed) Justices of the Peace.

  3. Some minor cases (hear / are heard) by 2 magistrates.

  4. This case (will consider / will be considered) next week.

  5. Justices of the Peace (choose / are chosen) from ordinary people

  6. Magistrates (advise / are advised) on points of law by the clerk of the court.

  7. A serious crime (committed / was committed) last week in this town.

  8. Twelve men and women (will select / will be selected) from the local community to try this case.


Упр. II: Заполните пропуски правильной видо-временной формой глагола. Перепишите и переведите предложения.


  1. Magistrates ……….. minor cases. will be tried

  2. They ………. this case two days ago. is tried

  3. A serious case ………. in the Crown Court will try

last month. try

  1. The County Court ………. this case in 2 days. tried

  2. As this case is connected with property was tried

rights it ……… by the High Court.

  1. If an offender is under seventeen, his

case …… ... the juvenile court.

Упр. III. Переведите текст письменно.


Judges in Great Britain.


In Britain, the vast majority of judges (that is, the people who decide what should be done with people who commit crimes) are unpaid. They are called “Magistrates”, or “Justices of the Peace” (JPs).

They are ordinary citizens who are selected not because they have any legal training but because they have “common sense” and understand their fellow human beings. They work voluntarily. They are appointed by the Lord Chancellor on the recommendation of local advisory committees.

A case is usually heard by a bench of three magistrates who are advised on the law by the clerk of the court. There are about 30,000 magistrates and they hear over 90 per cent of criminal cases.

Besides, there is a small proportion of district judges. These are full-time paid judges appointed by the Queen on the recommendation of the Lord Chancellor. There are about 100 district judges in England and Wales. They sit in the magistrates’ courts in the larger cities, particularly in London. A case is usually heard by a single district judge. Barristers or solicitors of seven years’ experience can be appointed district judges.


Вариант 2


Упр. I Перепишите следующие предложения, раскрывая скобки. Переведите предложения письменно.

  1. All criminal cases (start / are started) in the magistrates’ courts.

  2. This serious case (referred / was referred) to the Crown Court.

  3. The jury (will decide, will be decided) on guilt or innocence of this man.

  4. English law (bases / is based) on the common law tradition.

  5. Accusatorial procedure (means / is meant) that judges do not investigate the cases.

  6. This case (will try / will be tried ) by 2 magistrates.

  7. This matrimonial matter ( dealt with / was dealt with) the solicitor.

  8. A solicitor (prepares, is prepared) the case and the evidence for the trial


Упр. II Заполните пропуски правильной видо-временной формой глагола. Перепишите и переведите предложения.

  1. Baristers … really difficult matters.

  2. Magistrates … on points of law by a court clerk. advised

  3. I … to see a solictor on this matter yesterday. advise

  4. The solictor … you how to write a will. are advised

  5. If you come to see a solicitor, you … on all the will be advised

problems connected with your property. was advised

  1. The solicitor … me to begin an action to recover will advise

the debt.

Упр. III. Переведите текст письменно.


Judges in Great Britain


A distinctive feature of the British system in comparison with many continental systems is that it does not have law schools training judges.

Judges are chosen from lawyers who gained considerable experience as legal practitioners before they are appointed to the judiciary. In continental systems a law graduate can choose to be a judge at the beginning of his/her career. In Great Britain they cannot.

The vast majority of judges are magistrates. A small proportion of judges are not magistrates. They are called “High Court Judges” and they deal with the most serious crimes, such as those for which the criminal must be sent to prison for more than a year. High Court Judges are paid salaries by the state and have considerable legal training.

The work of judges is not easy. They even make mistakes sometimes. These mistakes are often overruled by appeal courts. People usually say that the judge has ‘power over the lives and livelihood’ of all litigants who enter the court. . The judge’s decision may frequently affect the interests of individuals and groups of people who are not present in court. That’s why it’s true to say that the judge has burdensome responsibilities to make decisions. That’s why we say that the judge’s work is not easy.


На основе следующих текстов составьте темы:

About Myself and My Family”, The Urals State Law Academy”


My Biography


Let me introduce myself. My name is Vladimir Pavlov. I was born in a small settlement situated not far from Yekaterinburg. I am the only child in the family. My parents are doctors. They studied at the Sverdlovsk Medical Institute. They got married when they were fifth-year students. After graduation from the Institute they were sent to work at a rural hospital. They have been working there for more than twenty years since.

At the age of seven I entered secondary school. I liked to go to school and studied very well. I liked all subjects taught at school. But I was especially good at history, Russian, literature and English. Besides, I went in for different kinds of sports: running, jumping, playing football, skating, skiing, playing hockey. I participated in many competitions held in our settlement.

After leaving school on my parents' advice to follow the family tradition I tried to enter the Medical Academy. I passed all entrance exams, but I was not enrolled as I had one satisfactory mark. First I became greatly upset but then I calmed down as I knew that medicine was not my calling.

The same year I was called up for military service. I served in the Russian Army for two years. Almost all the time I served in the north of the country. By the time I was demobbed I had decided to become a lawyer. After demobilization I began to work as a driver at one of motor transport enterprises in Yekaterinburg, and in the evenings three times a week I attended preparatory courses to the Urals State Law Academy. I thought it would help me to revise all the materials and get ready for the entrance exams much better. And the courses really helped me very much. I passed all entrance exams successfully and became a first-year student of the correspondence department. My desire to become a lawyer is so great that I'll do my best to study well.


About Myself

My name is ... . I was born on … . Now I am … (years old). I am the … child in the family of a lawyer and an economist. My father works as a jurisconsult. My mother is a chief accountant. They both work at the same plant.

At the age of … I entered School No….. I studied well. My favourite subjects were …, … and … . I got only good and excellent marks in these subjects. Besides, I had a liking for music and learned to play the guitar. Sometimes I even took part in school concerts. At school I also went in for sports. I played football and went skiing.

I finished school in … and decided to enter the Urals State Law Academy. In order to pass my entrance exams successfully I attended six-month preparatory courses. We had classes in Russian, literature and history. I worked hard and tried to do my best to revise all the materials necessary for the entrance examinations. Now I am a …-year student of the … department of the Academy.


Our (My) Family


Our family is not large. We are four. I have father, mother and , a younger sister. My father's name is Vladimir Petrovich. He is …. In 19.. he graduated from the Sverdlovsk Institute of Law and since then he has been working as an investigator at the Prosecutor's Office. He has a sister. My aunt is a doctor. She lives and works in Omsk. My aunt's son, my cousin, is a second-year student of the University.

My mother's name is Anna Pavlovna. She works as an accountant at a bank. She has two brothers. One of my uncles graduated from the Institute of National Economy (now the Urals State Economic University) and now works at the Tax Inspection.

My sister's name is Vera. She is 13. She studies at school No.70. She is in the 7th form. Her favourite subject is English. She wants to become an interpreter.

Both my mother's and father's parents don't live with us. My grandparents live in other towns. They are pensioners.


The Urals State Law Academy


The Law Academy is one of the biggest higher educational institutions in our country. It was founded in April of 1931 on the basis of the Irkutsk University as a law faculty. Later, it was reorganised into the Siberian Institute of Soviet Law. In 1934 the Institute moved into Sverdlovsk, got the name of the Sverdlovsk Law Institute and bore this name till 1992. Now it is called the Urals State Law Academy.

The Academy has three forms of training: full-time (day), part-time (evening) and correspondence. There are seven institutes at the day-time department: of the Prosecutor's Office, of Justice, of Law and Business, of the Bar, of External Economic Relations, of Management and Law and of Agroeconomics, Ecology and Law Besides, there are also nine faculties: of Law and Psychology, of International Law, of Shortened Educational Programmes, of Training Bachelors, of Training Masters, of Secondary Professional Education (the former Law College) and also Part-time Faculty, Correspondence Faculty and Regional Faculty.

The Regional Faculty organizes training lawyers in several branches of the Academy : in Ufa, Kurgan, Noyabr’sk, Serov, Perm’, Chelyabinsk, Kamensk-Ural’ckiy, Severoural’sk ,Nizhniy Tagil, Belorechensk.

The teaching staff is about 500 people: over sixty professors, about 200 assistant professors and many experienced lecturers.

The student body of all forms of training numbers more than 12,000 people and several tens of postgraduates.

The Academy trains judges, prosecutors, advocates, jurisconsults, investigators and other lawyers. After completing their education, our graduates can work at courts, prosecutor's offices, militia, the Bar, notary offices, other law enforcement organs, and also at state and government bodies of different levels, and in legal service of the national economy system.

All subjects taught at the Academy are divided into humane, theoretical and special. The students learn such special subjects as criminal law, civil law, criminal procedure, civil procedure, employment law, criminology, criminalistics, and others. Humane and theoretical subjects are: theory of state and law, history of state and law, philosophy, and others. These subjects form the students' world outlook and improve the quality of their general education.

The academic year is divided into two semesters. Tests and examinations are taken after each semester. At the end of the whole course of studies the students take degree examinations, finals, as they are often called.

The timetable of lectures, tutorials and seminars is regulated by a study schedule. The students must attend seminars and tutorials and not miss lectures. They must do their best in using all the opportunities to become good specialists.


Questions on the topics:

  1. About Myself:


1. What's your name? 2. How old are you? 3. When and where were you born? 4. What family were you born in? 5. What are (were) your parents by profession? 6. When did you enter school? 7. What school did you attend? 8. What were your favourite subjects at school? 9. When did you leave school? 10. What did you do after leaving school? 11. Why did you decide to enter the Law Academy? 12. What did you do to pass your entrance exams successfully? 13. What entrance exams did you take? 14. Were you happy to become a first-year student of the correspondence department of the Academy? 15. What are your plans for the future?



  1. My (Our) Family:

1. Is your family large or small? 2. How many are you in the family? 3. What relatives do you have in the family? 4. What's your father's (mother's) name? 5. Where do your parents work? 6. Have you any aunts and uncles? 7. Where do they live and work? 8. Have you got any cousins? 9. How old are they? 10. What do they do? 11. Have you a sister or a brother? 12. How old is she (he)? 13 Does she (he) study or work? 14. Have you grandparents? 15. Where do they live and what do they do?


III. The Urals State Law Academy:


1. What do you know about the foundation of the Law Academy? 2. How many and what forms of training does the Academy offer? 3. How many and what institutes and faculties does the Academy have? 4. How many people does the teaching staff number? 5. What is the number of students? 6. What specialists does the Academy train? 7. Where can they work after graduating from the Academy? 8. What kinds of subjects do the students of the Academy learn? 9. What special subject do they study? 10. Why do they study theoretical and humane subjects? 11. What exams do the students take and when do they take them? 12. What are the students' duties?

Additional Texts

1. Trial by Jury


Trial by jury started in the twelfth century. But the jury was a very different body then. It was made up of the people who knew the accused - his friends and neighbours - not, as today, people who ought not to know a defendant.

One of the most significant changes to the jury system took place in 1973. In theory juries are chosen at random, as representatives of the community, but this has never been so in practice. Before 1973 there was an age qualification and a property qualification. A juror had to be between 21 and 60 and a house owner or ratepayer. It was discrimination against women, mainly because most married couples had their houses in the name of the husband rather than the wife's, and against the young, who were not householders. A pre-1973 jury was, therefore, predominantly male and middle-aged.

This has changed dramatically. Now jurors are chosen from the electoral register. They must be aged between 18 and 70 and must have been resident in the UK for a period of at least five years since the age of 13.

The following are ineligible for jury service: (1) past and present holders of any judicial office; (2) solicitors, barristers, members of a court staff, police officers, and others concerned with the administration of justice, if they have held the office within the preceding 10 years; (3) clergymen; and (4) the mentally ill.


2. ^ The Court System of England and Wales


The most common type of law court in England and Wales is the magistrates' court. There are about 700 magistrates' courts and about 30,000 magistrates there. Simple matters are considered by magistrates. The punishment inflicted by them can seldom exceed six months imprisonment. But mostly, it is a fine.

More serious criminal cases go to the Crown Court, which has 90 branches in different towns and cities.

As for the civil cases, they are tried in the county courts or in the High Court (of Justice). These courts deal with the matters connected with property rights, family relations, business, etc.

The legal system also includes juvenile courts (which deal with offenders under seventeen) and coroners' courts (which investigate violent, sudden or unnatural deaths).

Besides, there are administrative tribunals which make quick, cheap and fair decisions with much less formality. They deal with professional standards, disputes between individuals, and disputes between individuals and government departments (for example, over taxation).

The intermediate appellate tribunal in England is the Court of Appeal. It hears appeals from the High Court and from specialised tribunals. The Criminal Division of the Court of Appeal hears appeals from criminal courts of inferior instances.

The highest court in England is the House of Lords.


3. ^ Judicial System of the USA


The Supreme Court is the highest judicial organ of the United States and the head of the judicial branch.

The Supreme Court consists of the Chief Justice of the USA and such a number of Associate Justices as may be fixed by Congress. Power to nominate the Justices is vested in the President of the United States, and appointments are made by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. The appointments are made for life, that is, a Justice cannot be dismissed from his/her post. A Justice may if he/she so desires, retire at the age of 70 after serving 10 years as a Federal Judge, or at the age of 65 after 15 years of service. The Supreme Court has the right to declare unconstitutional any law passed by Congress, or any order issued by the President.

The USA is divided into 13 federal judicial circuits, each one being served with a court of appeals known as the United States Court of Appeals for the circuit. Included in these 13 judicial circuits is the Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia and the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit.

There are about 90 district courts in the USA. Each state is comprised of one or more federal judicial districts, and in each district there is a district court. The United States district courts are the trial courts with general Federal jurisdiction over cases involving federal laws or offenses and actions between citizens of different states. Each state has at least one district court. There is also a United States district court in the District of Columbia. Only one judge is usually required to hear and decide a case in a district court, but in some kinds of cases it is required that three judges be called together to comprise the court. In districts with more than one judge, the judge senior in commission who has not reached his seventieth birthday acts as the chief judge.


II С Е М Е С Т Р

1. Проработайте и законспектируйте следующие разделы грамматики:

  • модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты,

  • времена группы Continuous (Present, Past, Future) в активном залоге

  • времена группы Perfect (Present, Past, Future) в активном и пассивном залоге.


2. Выполните письменно упражнения I, III, IX, остальные - устно.


3. Прочитайте и переведите устно тексты 1, 2, 3, (Составление словаря к каждому тексту обязательно!)


4. Выполните письменно в отдельной тонкой тетради свой вариант контрольной работы № 2.


5. Используя материал текстов на стр. 35 - 37 расскажите о городе, в котором живете, и о Лондоне.

6. Подготовьте чтение и перевод текста (текстов) обще-юридического или общественно-политического содержания из свежих номеров газет или журналов, издаваемых на английском языке, объемом 2000 печатных знаков (букв). При переводе на зачете разрешается пользоваться постатейным словарем, составленным во время подготовки материала.

Внимательно изучите следующие таблицы:


^ Таблица № 1


Present Continuous, Past Continuous, Future Continuous

(Active Voice)

Настоящее Прошедшее Будущее


I am reading a new I was reading a new I'll be reading a new text

text now. text at that time at that time.

Я читаю новый Я читал новый текст Я буду читать новый

текст сейчас. в это время. текст в это время.


Are you reading Were you reading a Will you be reading a

a new text now? new text at that time? new text at that time?

Yes, I am. Yes, I was. Yes, I shall (will).

No, I am not. No, I was not. No, I shan't (won't).


What is she doing What was she doing What will she be doing

now? at that time? at that time?

She is watching TV. She was watching TV. She'll be watching TV.


She is just typing She was still writing She'll be translating the

the letter, isn't she? the article on crime, text from 10 till 12,

wasn't she? won't she?


Она как раз печата- Она все еще писала Она будет переводить

ет это письмо, статью о преступнос- текст с 10 до 12,

не так ли? ти, не так ли? не так ли?

Yes, she is. Yes, she was. Yes, she will.


Are they taking a test Were they reading an Will they be watching TV

or an exam now? English or a French or doing their homework

book when you came? when you come?

They are taking They were reading They'll be watching TV.

a test. an English book.

Таблица № 2





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