Федеральное агентство по образованию
Югорский государственный университет
Кафедра иностранных языков
Одинцова Маргарита Петровна
Методические указания к выполнению контрольной работы для студентов заочной формы обучения
Дисциплина Английский язык
Специальность 050706 – « Педагогика и психология»
Семестр осенний учебного года 2007-2008
1. Содержание теоретического раздела дисциплины, необходимого для выполнения контрольной работы
2. Основные требования к выполнению, оформлению и защите контрольной работы
1. Контрольную работу нужно выполнять чернилами в школьной тетради, на обложке которой следует привести необходимые сведения:
Югорский государственный университет
Факультет заочного обучения
Контрольная работа №________по ___________
_________семестр ______________учебного года
Номер зачетной книжки_____________________
Дата предоставления на проверку_____________
2. Контрольные работы должны выполняться аккуратно, четким почерком, либо в печатном варианте (формат А4). При выполнении контрольной работы оставляйте в тетради широкие поля для замечаний, объяснений и методических указаний рецензента.
3. Контрольные работы должны быть выполнены в той последовательности, в которой они даны в настоящем пособии.
4. Выполненные контрольные работы направляйте для проверки и рецензирования в университет в установленные сроки.
5. Если контрольная работа выполнена без соблюдения указаний или не полностью, она возвращается без проверки.
Исправление работы на основе рецензий
После получения проверенной контрольной работы следует внимательно прочитать рецензию, ознакомиться с замечаниями и проанализировать отмеченные ошибки.
Руководствуясь указаниями рецензента, нужно еще раз проработать учебный материал. Все предложения, в которых были обнаружены орфографические и грамматические ошибки либо неточности перевода, следует переписать начисто и поместить в конце данной контрольной работы.
После того как будут выполнены все указания и исправлены все ошибки, можно приступить, к изучению материала следующего контрольного задания и к его выполнению.
Отрецензированные контрольные работы - это учебные документы, и их необходимо сохранять. Во время зачета или экзамена проверяется, насколько успешно усвоен материал, вошедший в контрольные работы.
Контрольная работа своевременно передается студентом на факультет заочного обучения для проверки, рецензирования и оценки.
Если контрольная работа при рецензировании не зачтена, студент обязан внести необходимые изменения и представить работу на повторную рецензию.
.Студент должен быть готов во время зачета или экзамена дать пояснения по решению задач соответствующей контрольной работы.
Контрольные задания составлены в пяти вариантах.
Номер варианта следует выбирать в соответствии с первой буквой фамилии студента:
1. Прочитайте и переведите текст.
2. Выпишите 3 любых предложения из текста. Определите временную форму, не повторяя сами предложения, образуйте все временные формы страдательного залога.
3. Выпишите пять интернациональных существительных.
4. Напишите пять вопросов к тексту.
If you do not use your arms or your legs for some time, they become weak; when you start using them again, they slowly become strong again. Everybody knows this, and nobody would think of questioning this fact. Yet there are many people who do not seem to know that memory works in the same way. When someone says that he has a good memory, he really means that he keeps his memory in practice by exercising it regularly, either consciously or unconsciously. When someone else says that his memory is poor, he really means that he does not give it enough opportunity to become strong. The position is exactly the same as that of two people, one of whom exercises his arms and legs by playing tennis, while the other sits in a chair or a car all day.
If a friend complains that his arms are weak, we know that it is his own fault. But if he tells us that he has a poor memory, many of us think his parents are to blame, or that he is just unlucky, and few of us realize that it is just as much his own fault as if it was his arms and legs that were weak. Not all of us can become extremely strong or extremely clever; but all of us can, if we have ordinary bodies and brains, improve our strength and our memory by the same means — practice.
Have you ever noticed that people who cannot read or write usually have better memories than those who can? Why is this? Of course, because those who cannot read or write have to remember things: they cannot write them down in a little notebook. They have to remember dates, times, and prices, names, songs and stories; so their memory is the whole time being exercised. So if you want a good memory, learn to practice remembering.
Each nation has its own peculiar character which distinguishes it from others. But the peoples of the world have more points in which they are all like each other than points in which they are different. One type of person that is common in every country is the one who always tries to do as little as he possibly can and to get as much in return as he can. His opposite, the man who is in the habit of doing more than is strictly necessary and who is ready to accept what is offered in return, is rare everywhere.
Both these types are usually unconscious of their character. The man who avoids effort is always talking about his "rights": He appears to think that society owes him. The man who tries to do as little as he can is always full of excuses: If he has neglected to do something, it was because he had a headache, or the weather was too hot, or too cold, or because he was prevented by bad luck. At first, other people, such as his friends and his employer, generously accept his stories; but soon they realize what kind of person he is. In the long run he deceives only himself. When his friends become cool towards him and he fails to make progress in his job, he is surprised and hurt. He blames everyone and. everything except himself. He feels that society is failing in its duties towards him, and that he is being unjustly treated. He soon becomes one of the discontented members of the society he lives in.
His public-spirited opposite is never too busy to take an extra piece of work: That is the strangest thing about the whole business. If you want something done in a hurry, don't go to the man who has clearly not much to do. He will probably have a dozen excellent excuses for not being able to help you, much as he claims he would like to. Go to the busiest man you know, particularly if you are sure that he has not a spare minute in the week. If your work is really important, he will make time for it.
When do people decide whether or not they want to become friends? During their first four minutes together, according to a book by Dr. Leonard Zunin. In his book "Contact. The First Four Minutes" he offers this advice to anyone interested in starting new friendship, "Every time you meet someone in a social situation, give him your undivided attention for four minutes. A lot of people's whole lives would change if they did just that".
You may have noticed that the average person does not give his undivided attention to someone he has just met. e keeps looking over the other person's shoulder, as if hoping to find someone more interesting in another part of he room. If anyone has ever done this to you, you probably will not like him very much.
When we are introduced to new people, the author suggests, we should try to appear friendly and self-confident, л general, he says, "People like people who like themselves". On the other hand, we should not make the other person think we are too sure of ourselves. It is important to be interested and sympathetic, realizing that the other reason has his own needs, fears, and hopes. Hearing such advice, one might say, "But I am not a friendly, self-confident person. That's not my nature. It would be dishonest for me to act that way".
In reply, Dr. Zunin would claim that a little practice can help us feel comfortable about changing our social habits.
We can become accustomed to any changes in our personality. "It's like getting used to a new car. It may be unfamiliar at first, but it goes much better than the old one".
But isn't it dishonest to give the appearance of friendly self-confidence when we don't actually feel that way? Perhaps, but according to Dr. Zunin, "total honesty" is not always good for social relationships, especially during the first few minutes of contact. There is a time for everything, a certain amount of play-acting may be best for the first minutes of contact with strangers. That is not the time to complain about one's health or mention faults one finds in other people. It is not the time to tell the whole truth about one's opinions and impressions.
Much of what has been said about strangers also applies to relationships with family members and friends. For a husband and wife or a parent and a child problems often arise during their first four minutes together after they have been apart. Dr. Zunin suggests that these first few minutes together should be treated with care. If there are unpleasant matters to be discussed they should be dealt with later.
The author declares that interpersonal relations should be taught in every school, along with reading, writing and mathematics. In his opinion, success in life depends mainly on how we get along with other people. That is at least as important as how much we know.
Occasional solitude is absolutely necessary for a developing mind. To have time to think is rare in the world today, and time must be made. To continue living and working without moments of solitude is like expecting a machine to work indefinitely without oil.
Solitude is the best society for artists. The creation of any form of beauty depends upon the state of a man's mind, whether the person writes something or paints something. To know one's mind is a thing achieved only by solitude and quiet thinking. And it is this peace that is the force of creation.
But few people like being alone for a long time. The close society of acquaintances and friends, doing useless things to pass the time: These are the necessities of the modern world. People are afraid of having time to think, so they go to the cinema, the television set, or a football match, because they can think of nothing better to do. Creative work is fast disappearing; instead, we'll have a generation of watchers and thought will be left to the poets and scientists.
Some people wouldn't know what to do being alone at times. Finding other people's company preferable to their own, they begin to feel unhappy and grow introspective. Self-analysis can be carried too far by some; others lose the art of conversation, and ability to give and take — and so run indefinitely without oil...
But to the rest of us solitude brings new worlds. "When we think and feel, unwatched by man, ideas and feelings come to us, and we get new strength instead of becoming lost in a hurrying world. Ideas and knowledge of oneself that come from peace are the best things in life; these come only from solitude — occasional solitude, of course.
The fascination of dreams has been felt by all people at every stage of human history. In primitive societies it is sometimes believed that the soul takes leave of the body during sleep and actually visits the scenes of the dream. In general, however, the view that dreams are illusory experiences is universally accepted.
To the psychologist, the dream is a form of natural expression which occurs only when the activity of the brain is depressed by sleep or by the influence of anaesthetics or drugs. It has much in common with the fantasies and day-dreams of waking life and differs from them mainly in being expressed in a dramatic form in which the dreamer himself appears to play a part. When dreaming, moreover, one tends to believe in the "reality" of the dream world, however inconsistent, or illogical it may be. It is only when one awakes that happening of the dream dissolve into a half-forgotten fantasy.
The sense of time is often said to be greatly altered in dreams. There is some evidence that dream happenings which seem to occupy a very considerable time, occur in fact within a few seconds.
People differ very much in the frequency of their dreams. Some claim to dream every night, others but very occasionally. Although it is probable that there exist real individual differences in the capability to dream, it must be borne in mind that some people appear to forget their dreams much more rapidly than others and are therefore apt to claim that they seldom dream.
Many superstitions and occult practices have been built round the supposed power of dreams to foretell the future. Instances of dreams which have later turned out to be "prophetic" have often been recorded.
Do animals dream? Unfortunately, we cannot be sure of the answer. Everyone knows that a sleeping dog often behaves as though it were dreaming, but it is impossible to tell whether it is really dreaming. By analogy with human experience, however, it is reasonable to suppose that at least the higher animals are capable of dreaming.
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