2 часа Типы условных предложений Типы условных предложений Conditional Sentences icon

2 часа Типы условных предложений Типы условных предложений Conditional Sentences


2 чел. помогло.

Смотрите также:
«Conditional Sentences»...
Сравнительный анализ основных требований к учету условных фактов хозяйственной деятельности и...
Конспект урока по теме : «Conditional Sentences. Types I and ii»...
Учебно-методический комплекс по дисциплине «Теоретическая грамматика» для специальности...
Учебно-методический комплекс по дисциплине “Теоретическая грамматика ” специальности 033200 /...
Учебно-методический комплекс по дисциплине “Теоретическая грамматика ” специальности 033200 /...
Программа дисциплины дпп. Ф. 08. 3 Грамматика Цели и задачи дисциплины...
Учебно-методический комплекс по дисциплине «Теоретическая грамматика» для специальности 033200...
Программа дисциплины опд. Ф. 04 2 Практическая грамматика...
Инструкция по участию в открытом Запросе предложений...
Список использованных источников...
О мероприятиях, проводимых Ассоциацией белорусских банков по реализации предложений...



скачать
Грамматический блок № 7


2 часа


Типы условных предложений

Типы условных предложений Conditional Sentences


Тип

Придаточное предложение

Главное предложение

Перевод на русский язык

I. Реальное условие. Относится к будущему времени.

If the weather is clear,


^ Present Ind./ Cont.


we will go for a walk


will + глагол


Если погода улучшится, мы пойдем на прогулку.

^ II. Маловероятное условие.

Относится к настоящему и будущему времени.

If you moved to the country,


Past Ind./ Cont.


you would (could)

buy a bigger house.


Если бы вы переехали за город, вы бы могли купить больший дом.

would

could

might


+ глагол


III. Нереальное условие.

Относится к

прошедшему времени.

Выражает сожаление

If he had known the facts,


Past Perfect

he would have told

us what to do.


Если бы он тогда знал эти факты, он бы сказал нам, что делать.

would

could

might

+ глагол

+ III

форма



Notes:

1. Союзы: if - если; in case - в случае; provided - при условии, если; unless - если не.

 You won't pass the exam, unless you work hard.

2. Во втором типе условных предложений глагол "to be" всегда имеет форму "were" в британском варианте; в современном американском возможен "was".

 If I were a millionaire, I would buy you a palace. '

3. Существуют предложения смешанного типа; одна часть относится ко II, а другая - к III типу условия.

 If I had taken the medicine yesterday, I would be well now.

4. Запомните выражение:

If I were you/in your position/in your shoes - на вашем бы месте


Выражение пожелания и сожаления

Making a Wish


Для этой цели используется конструкция с глаголом wish.


^ I wish/ wished

-I were/was beautiful.

- Как бы мне хотелось быть красивой.

- we knew Sue's address.

- Как жаль, что мы не знаем адреса Сью.

- it wasn't raining.

- Жаль, что идет дождь.

- you didn't work so much.

-Я бы не хотела, чтобы вы так много работали.

Present

- I had brought my camera.

- Жаль, что я не взял с собой фотоаппарат.

- the hotel had been better.

- Жаль только, что гостиница была такой плохой.

Past

- they could come to see us tomorrow.

- Как жаль, что они не смогут зайти к нам завтра.

Future

- someone would answer that telephone!

- Да снимите же кто-нибудь трубку!

- the music would stop!

- Когда же прекратится эта музыка!

- you would give her my message.

- He могли бы вы передать ей мое сообщение?

complaint,

annoyance,

request

(жалобы,

раздражение,

просьбы)


^ Conditional Sentences.

Условные Предложения.


В английском языке существует три типа условных предложений.

1). Первый (I) тип называет вполне реальное условие, при осуществлении которого осуществится другое связанное с ним действие.

Например: ^ Если погода улучшится, мы пойдём на прогулку.

If the weather is clear, we will go for a walk.

После “if” для обозначения будущего времени используется the Present Simple: If you study properly, you will pass the exam well.

Если вы будете заниматься, как следует, вы хорошо сдадите экзамен.


2). Второй (II) и третий (III) тип условных предложений содержат нереальные условия, которых нет. Но, если бы они были, то зависящее от этих условий действие произошло бы. II и III типам условных предложений в русском языке соответствуют формы с бы (сослагательное наклонение), и их разные значения определяются только по контексту.

В английском же языке это грамматически разные формы.

Рассмотрим это на примерах. Представим себе, что некто Смирнов плохо занимается. И преподаватель считает, что при такой работе он не сдаст экзамен хорошо. На протяжении семестра преподаватель несколько раз говорит об этом Смирнову: Если бы вы занимались, как следует, вы бы хорошо сдали экзамен. If you studied properly, you would pass the exam well.

По мере того, как время идёт, надежды на успех остаётся всё меньше. Но, тем не менее, это условие, хотя оно и не очень реальное, т.е. если бы вы занимались как следует, всё же ещё может осуществиться.

Подошёл день экзамена, 15 января, Смирнов провалился. Изменить уже ничего нельзя. И, хотя преподаватель повторяет ту же фразу, значение её совершенно другое. Это несостоявшееся условие, из-за которого теперь не может состояться другое действие. Т.е. Если бы вы занимались, как следует (а занимался он плохо), вы бы хорошо сдали экзамен (а он его не сдал вовсе). If you had studied properly, you would have passed the exam well.

В английском языке II тип – это то, что относится к настоящему или будущему времени, то, что ещё можно изменить, в нашем примере – слова преподавателя до экзамена, до 15 января. А III тип – это то, что относится к прошлому, то, что уже нельзя изменить, в нашем примере – слова преподавателя после экзамена, после 15 января.


Во ^ II типе после “if” используется the Past Simple, в главном предложении – would, could (мог бы) или might (может быть) + глагол.

If you studied properly, you would pass the exam well.

Если бы вы занимались, как следует, вы бы хорошо сдали экзамен.


If you studied properly, you could pass the exam well.

Если бы вы занимались, как следует, вы могли бы хорошо сдать экзамен.


If you studied properly, you might pass the exam well.

Если бы вы занимались, как следует, вы, может быть, хорошо сдали бы экзамен.

В III типе после “if” используется the Past Perfect, в главном предложении – would, could (мог бы) или might (может быть) + have + глагол в 3 форме, т.е. Participle II.

If you had studied properly, you would have passed the exam well.

Если бы вы раньше занимались, как следует, вы бы хорошо сдали экзамен.


If you had studied properly, you could have passed the exam well.

Если бы вы раньше занимались, как следует, вы могли бы хорошо сдать экзамен.


If you had studied properly, you might have passed the exam well.

Если бы вы раньше занимались, как следует, вы, может быть, хорошо сдали бы экзамен.


3). Кроме “if” в условных предложениях могут использоваться и другие союзы: in case (в случае), provided (при условии, если), unless (если не).

Provided you studied properly, you would pass the exam well.

Если бы вы занимались, как следует, вы бы хорошо сдали экзамен.

Unless you studied properly, you wouldn’t pass the exam well.

Если бы вы не занимались, как следует, вы бы не сдали экзамен хорошо.


4). В условных предложениях II и III типа “if” иногда опускается, и на его место выносятся глаголы had, could, were, should. При переводе следует ввести союз если.

Had you studied properly, you could have passed the exam well.

Если бы вы раньше занимались, как следует, вы могли бы хорошо сдать экзамен.


5). В письменной речи в условных предложениях III типа (реже II типа) вместо придаточного предложения может употребляться оборот but for + существительное или местоимение.

But for the rain we would have joined you.

Если бы не дождь, мы бы к вам тогда присоединились.


6). Пожелание того, чтобы положение вещей, существующее в данный момент, было изменено, или сожаление по поводу упущенной возможности можно выразить с помощью глагола wish.

Если это пожелание относится к настоящему времени, то в английском предложении глагол ставится в the Past Simple, а если возможность была упущена в прошлом, то форма глагола будет соответствовать the Past Perfect.

I wish I passed the exam well.

Хотел бы я сдать экзамен хорошо.

I wish I had passed the exam well.

Жаль, что я не сдал экзамен хорошо.


Иногда используется would для выражения жалобы, раздражения или просьбы.

I wish you wouldn’t sing so loudly!

Не пойте же так громко!

I wish you would give her my message.

Не могли бы вы передать ей моё сообщение?


Тренировочные упражнения.



  1. ^ Выберите правильный вариант перевода следующих условных предложений.

  1. If he calls me tomorrow, I’ll tell him everything.

а). Если он позвонит мне завтра, я всё ему расскажу.

б). Если бы он позвонил мне завтра, я бы всё ему рассказал.

в). Если бы он позвонил мне тогда, я бы всё ему рассказал.


  1. If I knew the truth, I would not be so nervous.

а). Если бы я тогда знал правду, я бы так не нервничал.

б). Если бы я знал правду, я бы так не нервничал.

в). Если я буду знать правду, я не буду так нервничать.


  1. I would understand you better, if I were of your age.

а). Я пойму тебя лучше, если буду твоего возраста.

б). Я бы понял тебя тогда лучше, если бы был твоего возраста.

в). Я бы понял тебя лучше, если был твоего возраста.


  1. If I had been told about the meeting a day earlier, I might have arranged it much better.

а). Если бы мне сказали о собрании днём раньше, я бы организовал его гораздо лучше.

б). Если бы мне сказали о собрании днём раньше, я, возможно, организовал бы его тогда гораздо лучше.

в). Если бы мне сказали о собрании днём раньше, я бы организовал его гораздо лучше.


  1. If you have more spare time next week, you can join us.

а). Если бы у вас было больше свободного времени на следующей неделе, вы бы могли присоединиться к нам.

б). Если бы у вас было больше тогда свободного времени, вы бы могли присоединиться к нам.

в). Если у вас будет больше свободного времени на следующей неделе, вы сможете присоединиться к нам.


  1. If she had known that he didn’t love her, she would have never married him.

а). Если бы она тогда знала, что он не любит её, она бы никогда не вышла замуж за него.

б). Если бы она знала, что он не любит её, она бы никогда не вышла замуж за него.

в). Если она узнает, что он не любит её, она не выйдет замуж за него.


  1. They would have come, if Jane had invited them.

а). Они бы пришли, если бы Джейн их пригласила.

б). Они придут, если Джейн их пригласит.

в). Они бы пришли, если бы Джейн их тогда пригласила.


  1. If he was late, we would go without him.

а). Если он опоздает, мы поедем без него.

б). Если бы он опоздал тогда, мы бы ушли без него.

в). Если бы он опоздал, мы бы ушли без него.


  1. If you don’t go away, I’ll call my brother.

а). Если вы не уйдёте, я позову своего брата.

б). Если бы вы не ушли, я бы позвал своего брата.

в). Если бы вы не ушли тогда, я бы позвал своего брата.


10. I wouldn’t have gone to the cinema, if I had known how dull the film was.

а). Я бы не пошёл в кино, если бы знал, что фильм такой скучный.

б). Я бы не пошёл тогда в кино, если бы знал, что фильм такой скучный.

в). Я не пойду в кино, если буду знать, что фильм такой скучный.


  1. Распределите условные предложения по трём типам и переведите.

  1. If I were you, I would read the book in the original.

  2. They will go to the beach, if it is warmer.

  3. If you really wanted to buy the house, you could do it even now.

  4. Someone might have noticed, if she had opened the letter.

  5. If she lived near her work, she would never be late.

  6. If you go to bed early, you’ll wake up in time.

  7. I would have helped you, if I had known about it.

  8. We’ll go swimming, if the water is not very cold.

  9. If I didn’t have an examination tomorrow, I might go with you.

  10. If they had had a good guide, they would have seen all the sights.




  1. Раскрывая скобки, напишите каждое предложение три раза, образуя условные предложения I, II и III типов.

1. If I (see) John, I (tell) him your news.

2. If she (want) to talk, she (ring up).

3. He (be) very pleased if it (be) really true.

4. We (have) a picnic lunch if the day (be) fine.

5. If you (ask) a policeman, he (tell) you the way.

6. He (find) the answers if he (look) at the end of the book.

7. If she (be) patient, I (try) to explain.

8. If he (write) to her, she (answer) at once.

9. He (lose) weight if he (stop) eating too much.

10. If we (leave) immediately; we (catch) the early train.


  1. Выберите правильный вариант.

1. If I don't feel/won't feel well tomorrow, I will stay at home.

2. If the weather is/will be nice tomorrow, we can go to the beach.

3. It will be hard to find a hotel if we arrive/will arrive late.

4. The alarm will ring if there is/will be a fire.

5. I am/will be surprised if they get married.

6. Will you go to the party if they invite/will invite you?

7. If I am/will be late this evening, don't wait for me.

8. What shall we do, if it rains/will rain?

9. I'll be able to understand you, if you speak/will speak slowly.

10. If I see Mike I will tell/tell him everything.

11. If she changed/would change her job she would earn more.

12. If Jane had studied more she passed/would have passed her exams.

13. If Mike receives the telegram I'm sure he phones/will phone you tomorrow.

14. If you worked/had worked more, you would be a student now.

15. If I lived in Spain I did/would do a lot of sunbathing.

16. If I met/had met you earlier I wouldn't have married Betty.

17. If you phone me I pick/'will pick you up.

18. If I stay/will stay late I will get a taxi home.

19. If she had loved Bob she stayed/would have stayed with him


Ключи.

I. 1-а, 2-б, 3-в, 4-б, 5-в, 6-а, 7-в, 8-в, 9-а, 10-б.


II. I тип – 2, 6, 8

II тип – 1,3,5,9

III тип – 4,7,10

  1. На твоём месте я бы читал эту книгу в оригинале.

  2. Они пойдут на пляж, если будет теплее.

  3. Если бы вы действительно хотели купить дом, вы могли бы сделать это даже сейчас.

  4. Возможно, кто-то заметил бы, если бы она тогда открыла письмо.

  5. Если бы она жила недалеко от своей работы, она бы никогда не опаздывала.

  6. Если вы рано ляжете спать, вы проснётесь вовремя.

  7. Я бы помог тебе тогда, если бы знал об этом.

  8. Мы пойдём плавать, если вода будет не очень холодная.

  9. Если бы завтра у меня не было экзамена, я, возможно, пошёл бы с тобой.

  10. Если бы тогда у них был хороший гид, они увидели бы все достопримечательности.


III.

  1. a. If I see John, I’ll tell him your news.

b. If I saw John, I would tell him your news.

c. If I had seen John, I would have told him your news.

2. a. If she wants to talk, she will ring up.

b. If she wanted to talk, she would ring up.

c. If she had wanted to talk, she would have rung up.

3. a. He will be very pleased, if it is really true.

b. He would be very pleased, if it was really true.

c. He would have been very pleased, if it had been really true.

4. a. We will have a picnic lunch, if the day is fine.

b. We would have a picnic lunch, if the day was fine.

c. We would have had a picnic lunch, if the day had been fine.

5. a. If you ask a policeman, he will tell you the way.

b. If you asked a policeman, he would tell you the way.

c. If you had asked a policeman, he would have told you the way.

6. a. He will find the answers, if he looks at the end of the book.

b. He would find the answers, if he looked at the end of the book.

c. He would have found the answers, if he had looked at the end of the book.

7. a. If she is patient, I’ll try to explain.

b. If she was patient, I would try to explain.

c. If she had been patient, I would have tried to explain.

8. a. If he writes to her, she will answer at once.

b. If he wrote to her, she would answer at once.

c. If he had written to her, she would have answered at once.

9. a. He will lose weight, if he stops eating too much.

b. He would lose weight, if he stopped eating too much.

c. He would have lost weight, if he had stopped eating too much.

10. a. If we leave immediately, we will catch the early train.

b. If we left immediately, we would catch the early train.

c. If we had left immediately, we would have caught the early train.


IV.

  1. don’t feel

  2. is

  3. arrive

  4. there is

  5. will be

  6. invite

  7. am

  8. rains

  9. speak

  10. will tell

  11. changed

  12. would have passed

  13. will phone

  14. worked

  15. would do

  16. had met

  17. will pick up

  18. stay

  19. would have studied







Проверочные упражнения.


^ I. Выберите правильный вариант перевода следующих условных предложений.

1. If he was not busy at the office, he could see us off.

а). Если он не будет занят в офисе, он сможет проводить нас.

б). Если бы он не был занят в офисе, он смог бы проводить нас.

в). Если бы он не был занят в офисе, он бы проводил нас.


2. We’ll go for a walk, if it doesn’t begin to rain.

а). Мы пойдем гулять, если не начнётся дождь.

б). Мы бы пошли гулять, если бы не начался дождь.

в). Мы бы пошли тогда гулять, если бы не начался дождь.


3. You could have prepared the contract, if the computer hadn’t been out of order.

а). Вы бы подготовили контракт, если бы компьютер не был неисправен.

б). Вы бы смогли подготовить контракт, если бы компьютер не был неисправен.

в). Вы бы смогли подготовить контракт, если бы компьютер тогда не был неисправен.


4. If I find your wallet, I’ll telephone you at once.

а). Если бы я нашёл твой бумажник, я бы сразу тебе позвонил.

б). Если бы я нашёл тогда твой бумажник, я бы сразу тебе позвонил.

в). Если я найду твой бумажник, я сразу тебе позвоню.


5. He would look a lot better, if he did more exercise.

а). Он бы выглядел гораздо лучше, если бы он больше занимался.

б). Он бы выглядел гораздо лучше, если бы он тогда больше занимался.

в). Он будет выглядеть гораздо лучше, если он будет больше заниматься.


6. We might have gone by air, if we had had enough money.

а). Мы бы полетели, если бы у нас было достаточно денег.

б). Мы бы возможно полетели, если бы у нас было достаточно денег.

в). Мы бы возможно тогда полетели, если бы у нас было достаточно денег.


7. If she weren’t so shy, she would speak to him.

а). Если она не будет такой робкой, она поговорит с ним.

б). Если бы она не была такой робкой, она бы поговорила с ним.

в). Если бы она не была тогда такой робкой, она бы поговорила с ним.


8. I could have entered the house, if I hadn’t lost my key.

а). Я бы вошел в дом, если бы не потерял свой ключ.

б). Я бы вошел тогда в дом, если бы не потерял свой ключ.

в). Я бы смог войти тогда в дом, если бы не потерял свой ключ.


9. If you put on the kettle, I’ll make the tea.

а). Если ты поставишь чайник, я приготовлю чай.

б). Если бы ты поставил чайник, я бы приготовил чай.

в). Если бы ты поставил тогда чайник, я бы приготовил чай.


10. If I didn’t know the meaning of a word, I would use a dictionary.

а). Если я не буду знать значение слова, я воспользуюсь словарём.

б). Если бы я не знал значение слова, я бы воспользовался словарём.

в). Если бы я не знал тогда значение слова, я бы воспользовался словарём.


^ II. Распределите условные предложения по трём типам и переведите их.

  1. I wouldn’t do it, if I were you.

  2. Ice will turn to water, if you heat it.

  3. If he likes the car, will he buy it?

  4. If Tom had helped us, the job would have taken half an hour.

  5. If the ice was thick enough, we could walk across the river.

  6. I would have found the way last night, if I had had a map.

  7. Her English would improve, if they spoke English to her.

  8. If he eats all these apples, he will be ill.

  9. If I had known that you were coming, I’d have baked a cake.

  10. I could get a job easily, if I had a degree.


III. Раскрывая скобки, напишите каждое предложение три раза, образуя условные предложения I, II и III типов.

  1. If you (type) the letter, it (be) a lot easier to read.

  2. If I (have) more time, I (read) not so little.

  3. If I (ask) him for help, he (help) me.

  4. We (visit) the museum, if we (have) time.

  5. If my friend (know) my address, he (find) my house.

  6. If we (work) all night, we (finish) in time.

  7. If I (see) him, I (give) him that book.

  8. If he (read) in bad light, he (ruin) his eyes.

  9. The teacher (be) very angry, if he (make) any more mistakes.

  10. If you (not find) her at home, you (leave) her a note.


^ IV. Выберите правильный вариант.

  1. The table will collapse, if you stand /stood/had stood on it.

  2. The police would have arrested the criminal, if they catch/caught/had caught him.

  3. If he worked more carefully, he won’t make/wouldn’t make/ wouldn’t have made so many mistakes.

  4. If he knew that it was dangerous, he won’t come/wouldn’t come/ wouldn’t have come.

  5. If I know/knew/had known that you were in hospital, I would have visited you.

  6. He can have a holiday next week, if he works/worked/had worked hard today.

  7. If I had had a map, I will be/ would be/ would have been all right.

  8. If she does/did/had done her hair differently, she might look quite nice.

  9. She will know/would know/ would have known how to behave, if she was a born lady.

  10. If you lose/lost/had lost my library book, I will have to buy a new one.


^ V. Раскройте скобки.

1. If it (rain), I won’t go out.

2. You would learn more if you (study) sometimes.

3. If he (ask) me, I would have told him the answer.

4. Unless you apologize at once, I never (speak) to you again.

5. If we (have) nothing to do, life would be boring.

6. If Mark needed help, I (give) it.

7. I would buy it myself if I (have) money.

8. If you had sworn to keep it a secret, I (tell) you.

9. She (feel) lonely if Peter goes out.

10. If he (drink) that medicine, he would have felt much better.


Дополнительные упражнения.


^ I. Раскройте скобки.

Model: If I were you, I (to read) the book in the original.

If I were you, I would read the book in the original.

If I had known how dull the film was, I (not to go) to the cinema.

If I had known how dull the film was, I would not have gone to the cinema.

1. They (to go) to the beach if it were warmer. 2. If the poem were not so long, I (to learn) it by heart. 3. Even if it were not so late I don't think I (to go) to the cinema. 4. Even if he knew how difficult the situation was, he (not to stop) the preparations. 5. Even if I had a dictionary, don't believe I (to be able) to write the test. 6. Even if you had given her your car, she (cannot arrive) in so short a time. 7. Even if I wanted to, I (can do) nothing now. 8. If you really wanted to buy the house, you (can do) it even now.


^ II. Раскройте скобки.

Model: If I (to know) about it, I (to help) you.

If I had known about it, I would have helped you.

1. The place was very dull. Even if it (not to be raining) the whole week, we (not enjoy) our holiday. 2. If you (not to interfere), they (to forget) ail about it in an hour. 3. If you (to trust) me, I (can lead) you safely through. 4. The dinner (not to be spoiled) if you (not forget) the dish in the oven. 5. She (to know) how to behave if she (to be) a born lady. 6. He (not to take) this case even if he (to be asked). 7. The accident (not to happen) if you (to be) more attentive. 8. She (to go) there even if she (to have) to walk all the way.


III. Измените предложения по образцу.

Model: He runs round the park every morning, so he keeps very fit.

If I ran round the park every morning I would keep fit too.

1. He lives in the South, so he can grow a lot of flowers.

2. They use electric typewriters, so they finish their work soon.

3. He lives near his work, so he is never late.

4. He goes to bed early, so he always wakes up in time.

5. His French is good, so he reads French books in the original.

6. They have a maid, so they can enjoy themselves.


^ IV. Раскройте скобки.

A

1. If I had this tool, I (give) it to you.

2. If he worked more slowly, he (not make) so many mistakes.

3. I could give you his address if I (know) it.

4. He might get fat if he (stop) smoking.

5. If he knew you were away, he (not come).

6. I (keep) a gardener if I could afford it.

7. What would you do if the lift (get) stuck between two floors?

8. He (not go) there if his family were not invited.

9. The car wouldn't break so often if you (have) it serviced regularly.

B

1. If I (know) her better, I (introduce) you.

2. The journey takes about 3 hours by bus. You (get) there much sooner if you (go) by train

3. If I (have) money with me then, I (can lend) you some.

4. He couldn't find a job when he came to Germany. If he (like) children, he (work) at school

5. The teacher told Peter that he (not pass) the exam if he (not work) harder.

6. If you (go) to bed earlier you (not feel) so tired.

7. If I (get) a promotion I (not look for) another job.

8. We (have) plenty of time if it (be) only 5 o'clock.

9. If I (be) very poor I (be) upset.

10. If it (rain) I (go) to see the races.

11. If I (be invited) to the yesterday's party I (go) there.

12. If I (know) her well I (phone) her at home.

13. If the theatre (not be) so far we (walk) there.

14. I (buy) a Jaguar if I (be) rich.

15. If you (come) to my place I (show) you my shots.


V.

A. Используйте "might" вместо "would", чтобы придать высказыванию значение "perhaps".

1. She's getting fat. If she (not eat) much sweet, she (lose) weight.

2. I didn't watch the film yesterday. If I (have) some free time yesterday, I (watch) it.

3. She feels very tired in the morning. If she (go) to bed earlier, she {not feel) so tired.

4. He's not a strong man. If he (go) to the fitting center, he (be) stronger.


B. Используйте "could" вместо "would", чтобы придать высказыванию значение "possible".

1. We (understand) the English teacher better if she (speak) more slowly.

2. I like reading but we don't have books in our country house. If I (have) books there, I (read) a lot in summer.

3. I don't know where he's living now. If I (know) his address, I (write) to him.

4. Roberta is very pretty but rather short. If she (be) taller, she (be) a model.


^ VI. Составьте предложения по модели, используя but for + noun/pronoun

Model: I don't want to tell you this, but I promised to.

But for my promise, I wouldn't tell you this.

He didn't die. The operation saved him.

But for the operation he would have died.

1. He wants to go swimming but the water is cold. 2. He couldn't see us off as he was busy at the office. 3. She wasn't alone in the house, her husband was asleep in his room. 4. I want to go but I have an examination tomorrow. 5. In the end he went to see the doctor. His wife made him do it. 6. It began to rain and we didn't go for a walk. 7. We couldn't have a picnic. The weather was too bad. 8. Of course I want to help you but I have a conference today. 9. He had a good guide so he could see all the sights.10. You can't prepare the contract because the computer is out of order.


VII. Отработайте следующие модели.

Model 1: A. I know five languages.

B. I wish I knew five languages.

1. I have a flat here.

2. I live near my work.

3. I have plenty of time for reading.

4. I understand it.

5. My son writes every week.

6. My house looks out on a park.

7. I can take a day off anytime.


Model2: A. I asked Bill.

B. I wish you'd asked Tom too. Or: B. If only you'd asked Tom too. 1. I invited Paul.

2. I stopped Mary.

3. I rang Ann.

4. I wrote to Alex.

5. I spoke to John.

6. I warned Philip.

7. I voted for Peter.


Model 3: Take more care. - I wish you would take more care.

Don't shout at me. – I wish you wouldn't shout at me.

1. Don't throw rubbish on the floor.

2. Listen to me.

3. Don't waste so much time.

4. Try to answer my questions.

5. Get up earlier.

6. Don't be so impatient.

7. Look where you are going.

8. Speak more clearly.

9. Don't open the windows.

10. Don't walk so fast.

11. Write more carefully.

12. Don't come into the room without knocking.

13. Help me to move this cupboard.

14. Keep quiet.


IX. Продолжите предложения, начиная с “I wish ...”

The words in brackets will help you to form your sentences.

1. We lost the game yesterday, (win) 2.1 sat at the back of the hall, and couldn't hear his speech very well, (every word) 3. The sea is rough, we can't sail to the island, (calm) 4. There were no taxis, so I had to walk from the station, (find) 5. I went to bed very late last night, and I'm half asleep this morning, (so late) 6.1 could only answer three of the questions at the last examination, (all of them) 7. The box was heavy, I couldn't carry it. (help me) 8. My father gave me some good advice, but I didn't take it. (his advice) 9. One of my friends went to London for a holiday last summer, but I couldn't go. (with him) 10. Why didn't you watch the cat? It ate all the fish. I'm so angry with you. (more attentive) 11. There was so much noise in the streets last night that I couldn't sleep well, (better) 12. There was a very good film on last week, but I didn't see it (read the program) 13. We went for a picnic yesterday, but it rained all the time, (so hard) 14.1 was lazy and wasted my time when I was at school, (harder) 15.1 didn't understand what he said yesterday (louder) 16. This house is very nice and comfortable. I'd like to buy it, but it is very expensive, (less expensive)


^ X. Измените предложения, используя конструкцию "I wish" (фразы в скобках опускайте).

1. I'm sorry I don't live near my work. I wish I lived near my work.

2. I'm sorry I don't know Finnish.

3. I'm sorry I didn't book a seat.

4. I'm sorry I can't drive.

5. I'd like you to keep quiet. (You are making so much noise that I can't think.)

6. It's a pity he didn't work harder during the term.

7. I'm sorry you didn't see it.

8. It's a pity you are going tonight.

9. I'd like you to wait for me (even though you are ready to start now).

10. I'm sorry I didn't bring a map.

11. I'm sorry I didn't know you were coming.

12. I'm sorry I can't swim.

13. I'm sorry you aren't coming with us.


^ XI. Составьте предложения.

1. She/it/so/have/had/fallen/slippery/been/wouldn't/if/not

2. had/I/you/chosen/would/I/have/If/been/green/been/the/one

3. lot/if/would/trained/the/they/have/had/Our/won/a/team/game

4. would/to /ill/place/have/your/if /been/had/He/come/not/he

5. day/would/gone/country/had/if/not/a/have/it/I/the/been/nasty/to

6. it/were/wish/now/summer/I

7. I/had/I/been/wish/so/not/modest

8. Wish/I/had/to/time/homework/finish/I/my/enough

9. Not/wish/today/did/have/I/school/to/I/to/go

10. I/my/washed/yesterday/had/I/trousers/wish


XII. Составьте предложения.

1. He wouldn't have become so strong ...

2. They would have come ...

3. If they had been ready the day before ...

4. If I hadn't needed the book ...

5. If they had had a city map ...

6. If you had warned us ...

7. He wouldn't know much ...

8. We wouldn't have wasted so much time ...

9. If you had sent me a telegram ...

10. We had never done this ...

a. ... I wouldn't be worried now.

b. ... I wouldn't have gone to the library.

c. ... we wouldn't have come so early.

d. ... unless he had done sports.

e. ... they wouldn't have been lost.

f. ... if Jane had invited them.

g. ... unless you had agreed with us.

h. ... unless he read much.

i. ... they would have taken their exam.

j. ... if you had bought everything beforehand.


XIII. Раскройте скобки, построив условные предложения I типа.

A.

1. If I see him, I (give) him that book.

2. The table will collapse if you (stand) on it.

3. If he (eat) all these apples, he will be ill.

4. If I find your wallet, I (telephone) you at once.

5. The police (arrest) the criminal if they catch him.

6. If he (read) in bad light, he will ruin his eyes.

7. I'm sure they (steal) your car if you leave it unlocked.

8. What will happen if they (not bring) us that parcel?

9. If he (clean) my window, I'll give her $10.

10. If he (need) a bicycle, he can borrow mine.

11. If you (not go) away, I'll call my brother.

12. The teacher will be very angry if he (make) any more mistakes.

13. If he (be) late, we'll go without him.

14. She will be absolutely furious if she (find out) this.

15. If you put on the kettle, I (make) the tea.

16. If you give my dog a bone, he (be very glad).

17. If we leave the car here, it (not be) in anybody's way.

18. We'll be late for the train if we (not start) right now.

19. If you come late, they (not let) you in.

20. If this guy (go) on telling lies, nobody will believe a word he says.

21. If I lend you $10 when you (pay) me back?

22. We'll have to move upstairs if the river (rise) any higher,

23. If he (work) hard today, can he have a holiday next week?

24. Ice (turn) to water if you heat it.

25. If the house (burn) down, we can claim compensation.


В.

1. If you (not like) this magazine, I'll bring you another.

2. Tell him to call me up if you (happen) to see him.

3. If he (like) the car, will he buy it?

4. I'll look for your book and if I (find) it I (give) you a ring.

5. If you (smoke) in a non-smoking compartment, the other passengers (object).

6. If you (put) the ice cubes into very hot water, they (crack).

7. If you (see) my cousin, tell him I have a message for him.

8. If he (win), he (get) $100,000; if he (come) in second, he (get) $50,000.

9. If you (feel) too cold during the night, turn on the central heating.

10. If he (want) more money, he (have) to do more work.

11. The lift wasn't working when I was here last. If it still (not work), we (have) to use the stairs.

12. I shan't wake if the alarm clock (not go) off.

13. If you'd like some ice, I (get) some from the fridge.

14. If he (leave) university now, he (be) sorry afterwards.

15. If it (freeze) tonight, the roads (be) very slippery tomorrow.

16. If you (not take) this book back to the library tomorrow, you (have) to pay a fine.

17. You'd better take the day off if you (not feel) well tomorrow.

18. If a driver (brake) suddenly on a wet road, he (skid).

19. If you (like), I (get) you a job in this company.

20. If you (like) a job in this company, I'll get you one.

21. You can use my phone if yours (not work).

22. If you (not know) the meaning of a word, you may use a dictionary.

23. If the weather (be) good, we'll go to the country.

24. I'll tell him the whole truth if I (know) it.

25. If he invites me, I (go) to his party.


XIV. Раскройте скобки, построив условные предложения II типа.

А.

1. If I had a typewriter, I (type) it myself.

2. If I (know) his name, I'd give it to you.

3. He (look) a lot better if he did more exercise.

4. И you (play) for lower stakes, you wouldn't lose so much.

5. If he worked more carefully he (not make) so many mistakes.

6. I shouldn't do that if I (be) you.

7. More tourists would come to this seaside if it (have) a better climate.

8. If your brother were sent to prison, you (visit) him?

9. If someone (give) you a submarine, what would you do with it?

10. I (buy) saving bonds if I had some money.

11. If he (clean) his windscreen, he'd be able to see where he was going.

12. If you drove your car into the river, you (be able) to get out?

13. If you (not belong) to a union, you couldn't get a job.

14. If I (win) a big prize in a lottery, I'd give up my job.

15. What you (do) if you found a burglar in your house?

16. I could tell you what this means if I (know) Chinese.

17. If everybody (give) him it, he would have enough.

18. He might get fat if he (go on) eating like that.

19. If he knew that it was dangerous, he (not come).

20. If you (see) someone asking for your assistance, what would you do?

21. I (be) ruined if I bought her everything she asked for.

22. If you slept under a mosquito net, you (not be) bitten so often.

23. I could get a job easily if I (have) a degree.

24. If she (do) her hair differently, she might look quite nice.

25. If we had more rain, our crops (grow) faster.


В.

1. If he (pay) me tomorrow, I'd have enough money for the tickets.

2. If I (get) a work permit, I'd stay for another six months.

3. If I (pass) this exam, I'd go to the university next October.

4. If he (agree) to let me go on working after marriage, I'd marry him.

5. If I (can) find a cheap room, I'd stay a fortnight.

6. If the baby (be) a girl, we'd call her Alice.

7. If I (wake) up to find the room full of smoke, I would have no idea what to do.

8. If he (go) off with another girl, I (pine) away and die.

9. If you (go) on a diet, you (lose) weight.

10. If someone (say), "I'll give you $500 to go into court and swear that this statement is true", what you (do)?

11. If we (work) all night, we (finish) in time.

12. Do you know what (happen) if you (blow) out a gas light?

13. If I (see) a tiger walking across Hyde Park, I (climb) a tree.

14. If I (come) across two men fighting with knives, I (call) the police.

15. If I (throw) my clothes away, I (have) to ask my husband for $1,000 to buy new ones.

16. If you (ask) him for $1.000, what he (say)?

17. If someone (ring) my doorbell at 3 a.m., I (be) very unwilling to open the door.

18. If I (see) a python in Piccadilly, I (assume) it had escaped from a circus.

19. If I (have) heaps of money, I (drink) champagne with every meal.

20. If you (drink) champagne with every meal, you soon (get) tired of it.

21. If I (be) worried, I not (play) golf at this moment.

22. Where you (go) if you (want) to buy a snake?

23. If you (keep) a cat, the mice (not run) about everywhere.

24. If it (be) summer, the people (not sit) round that big fire.

25. If you (type) the letter, it (be) a lot easier to read.


^ XV. Раскройте скобки, построив условные предложения IIтипа.

А.

1. The whole machine would fall to pieces if you (remove) that screw.

2. I (keep) a car if I could afford it.

3. I'd go and see him more often if he (live) closer.

4. If they (ban) the sale of alcohol at football matches, there might be less violence.

5. I (offer) him my help if I thought I'd be any use.

6. What would you do if the lift (get) stuck between two floors?

7. If you (paint) the walls white, the room would be much bigger.

8. If you (change) your job, would it affect your salary?

9. If you knew you had only two days to make a decision, how you (spend) those two days?

10. You wouldn't have so much trouble with your car if you (have) it serviced regularly.

11. I'd climb over the wall if there (not be) so much broken glass on top of it.

12. If we (get) a lift, we'd be in time.

13. If London airport (be) clear of fog, we'd land there.

14. If Tom (help) us, the job would only take half an hour.

15. I haven't got a key but Jack would let us in if he (be) at home.

16. If the ice (be) thick enough, we'd be able to walk across the river.

17. If it (be) fine tomorrow, we'd go for a walk.

18. If I (have) a university degree, I now (sit) in a comfortable office instead of standing at a street corner selling newspapers.

19. I (be) very grateful if you kindly (sign) this document and let me have it back as soon as possible.

20. If the earth suddenly (stop) spinning, we all (fly) off it.

21. If I (win) an enormous sum, everybody (write) to me asking for money.

22. If he (not smoke) so much, he might get rid of his cough.

23. If she (not be) very shy, she (enjoy) parties.

24. If he (take) any exercise, he (not be) so unhealthy.

25. If I (have) the right change, we (can) get tickets from the machine.


В.

1. If they (speak) English to her, her English (improve).

2. If he (work) overtime, he (earn) as much as I do.

3. If my number (is) in the directory, people (ring) me up.

4. If the police (not be armed), we (not have) gun battles in the streets.

5. If the shops (deliver) now, the life (not be) difficult.

6. If we (have) any matches, we (can) light a fire.

7. If I (ask) him for help, he (help) me.

8. If I (can) drive, we (can) take the car.

9. If we (have) a ladder, we (can) get over the wall.

10. If I (have) more time, I (read) not so little.

11. If they (clean) the windows, the rooms (not look) rather dark.

12. If he ever (polish) his shoes, he (look) smart.

13. If he (pay) his staff properly, they (work) better.

14. If we (have) got central heating, the house (not be) cold.

15. If he (not spend) hours watching television, he (have) time to do some jobs in the house.

16. If I (have) a vacuum cleaner, I (not be) so slow.

17. If I (know) his address, I (can) write to him.

18. If you (not work) too fast, you (not make) so many mistakes.

19. If I (can) park near my office, I (come) by car.


XVI. Раскройте скобки, построив условные предложения III типа.

А.

1. If I had known that you were in hospital, I (visit) you.

2. If you (arrive) ten minutes earlier, you would have got a seat.

3. You would have seen my garden at its best if you (be) here last week.

4. I shouldn't have believed it if I (not see) it with my own eyes.

5. И he had slipped, he (fall) 500, metres.

6. If he had asked you, you (accept)?

7. If I (had) a map, I would have been all right.

8. If I (know) that you were coming, I'd have baked a cake.

9. I (offer) to help him if I had realized that he was ill.

10. If you had left that wasp alone, it (not sting) you.

11. If I (realize) what a bad driver you were, I wouldn't have come with you.

12. If I had realized that the traffic lights were red, I (stop).

13. If you had told me that he never paid his debts, I (not lend) him the money.

14. If you (not sneeze), he wouldn't have known that we were there.

15. If you (put) some mustard in the sandwiches, they would have tasted better.

16. If he had known that the river was dangerous, he (not try) to swim across it.

17. If you (speak) more slowly, he might have understood you.

18. If he had known the whole story, he (not be) so angry.

19. I shouldn't have eaten it if I (know) that there was ginger in it.

20. If I (try) again, I think that I would have succeeded.

21. You (not get) into trouble if you had obeyed my instructions.

22. If you hadn't been in such a hurry, you (not put) sugar into the sauce instead of salt.

23. If I (be) ready when he called, he would have taken me with him.

24. If she had listened to my directions, she (not turn) down the wrong street.

25. If you (look) at the engine for a moment, you would have seen what was missing.


В.

1. We (go) by air if we (have) enough money.

2. The bus (stop) if you (put) your hand up.

3. If I (know) how thin the ice was, I (walking) on it quite confidently.

4. If the champion (take) the fight seriously at first, he (win) it.

5. They (not get) the children back alive if they (not pay) the ransom at once.

6. If the examiner (not read) the passage very quickly, the candidates (understand) it.

7. If they (wear) life-jackets, they (not be drowned).

8. He (get) to the top of his profession if his wife (encourage) him.

9. If the exit doors (not be blocked), the people (not be able) to escape from the burning hall.

10. The astronauts (walk) very far on the moon if they (not be hampered) by the thick dust.

11. She (be able) to walk faster if her shoes hadn't had such high heels.

12. I (bring) you some beer if I had known that you were thirsty.

13. If you had touched that electric cable, you (be) electrocuted.

14. If the story hadn't been true, the newspaper (not print) it.

15. If anyone had attacked me, my dog (jump) at his throat.

16. The ship would have run aground if the pilot (make) one mistake.

17. I shouldn't have taken your umbrella if I (know) that it was the only one you had.

18. If he (work) hard at his French, he (not fail) at the exam.

19. If the doctor (examine) the patient more carefully, he (find) something wrong with him.


XVII. Раскройте скобки, построив условные предложения III типа.

А.

1. Rome {be captured) by her enemies if the geese hadn't cackled.

2. He would have been arrested if he (try) to leave the country.

3. I (take) a taxi if I had realized that it was such a long way.

4. You (save) me a lot of trouble if you had told me where you were going.

5. They would have forced their way into the house if I (not call) for the help.

6. If he had put out his pipe before putting it in his pocket, he (not burn) a hole in his coat.

7. If I (see) the signal, I (stop).

8. If I (know) your number, I (ring).

9. If she (know) you were in hospital, she (visit) you.

10. If she (not be) so shy, she (speak) to him.

11. We (visit) the museum if we (have) time.

12. If we (listen) carefully, we (not make) this mistake.

13. If you (not wash) it in boiling water, it (not shrink).

14. We (not miss) the train if we (not use) an out-of-date timetable.

15. If his own men (not desert) him, he (not fail).

16. If they (not drive) very quickly, the accident (not be) so terrible.

17. If it (not rain), I (take) the children to the beach.

18. If Tom's father (not be) on the Board, he (not get) the job.

19. If he (look) where he was going, he (not be run over).

20. I (like) country life if I (be brought up) in the country.

21. К I (know) he was so quarrelsome, I (not invite) him.

22. If it (not rain) all the time, he (enjoy) his visit.

23. If I (work) hard at school, I (get) a good job when I left.

24. They (not ask) him to leave the dining-room if he (wear) a shirt.

25. It (not take) us a long time to find his house if the streets (be clearly marked).


В.

1. I (can) enter the house if I (lose) my key.

2. If my friend (fall ill), I would (go) to visit him.

3. If I (not enter) the University, I (find) a job.

4. I (be) very upset if I (not pass) my last exam.

5. If I (not make) the necessary arrangements for the party, I (cancel) it.

6. If I (be deceived) by my best, friend, I (be) very disappointed.

7. If I (have) a chance to come to England I, (visit) the birthplace of Shakespeare.

8. If I (knew) my friend was in trouble, I (do) my best to help him.

9. If a friend of mine (catch) a cold and got a high temperature, I (get) him some medicine.

10. If there (be) any snow round there, we (go) skiing.

11. If my luggage (not be) so heavy I (can) carry it.

12. If the boy (obey) his mother's orders, she (not punish) him.

13. If my friend (knew) my address, he (find) my house.

14. If she (have) some money on her, she (can) by a new dress.

15. If he (have) the tickets, he (invite) us to the cinema.

16. If I (receive) your letter, I (answer) you.

17. If you (come) to the party yesterday, you (can meet) my cousin.

18. If it (be) my fault, I (apologize).

19. If he (give up) smoking he (look) better.

20. If it (not rain) all day long yesterday, we (go out).


XVIII. Раскройте скобки, построив условные предложения смешанного типа.

А.

1. Не would still be alive today if he (not take) that drug.

2. I overslept; that's why I'm half an hour late; and if my phone (not ring) at nine o'clock, I might still be in bed.

3. If only they (turn) back with the others, they would be alive today.

4. I've hung out the clothes. It's lovely and sunny; if it (stay) like this, they (be) dry in two hours.

5. French is essential in this job. All the telephonists speak it. If they (not know) French, they (not understand) half the callers.

6. This flat would be all right if the people above us (not be) so noisy.

7. A group of spectators, including myself, left the stand just before the end of the game. When we were half way down the stairs a goal was scored and there was a great cheer from the spectators. If there (not be) a goal, the crowd (not cheer).

8. If the crowd (not cheer), we (not run) back up the stairs to sec what had happened.

9. If we (not run) back we, (not crash) into the rest of the spectators on their way down, and there (not be) this frightful accident.

10. If the pain (return), you'd better take another рill.

11. If you aren't going to live in the house, why you (not sell) it? If I (have) a house, I couldn't use, I (sell) it at once.

12. Tell him to bring his bicycle inside. If he (leave) it outside, someone (steal) it.

13. Why do people always wear dark clothes at night? If pedestrians (wear) light coloured clothes, drivers (see) them much more easily.

14. She must have loved him very much because she waited for him for fifteen years. If she (not love) him, she (not wait) so long.

15. He looked so small and weak that nobody asked him to do anything. If he (look) strong, he (be) expected to dig all day like everyone else.

16. The government is talking of pulling the village down to make room for an airport. If they (start) doing it the village, people (resist)?

17. If you are catching an early train tomorrow, you (like) to have breakfast at 7.00?

18. We'll hays to break the ice on the pond; otherwise the ducks (not be able) to swim. And if they (not be able) to swim, they (not be able) to get food.

19. When he left school he became a fisherman. His family didn't like it at all. They (be) much happier if he (become) a greengrocer like his father.

20. They still say that if he (go) into the greengrocery business when he left school, he (be) comfortably off now instead of being poor.

21. But he says that if he (have) his life again, he (make) the same choice.

22. So many parcels and no baskets! If I (know) that we were going to buy so much, I (bring) a basket.

23. No one bathes here. The water is heavily polluted. If you (bathe) in it, you (be) ill for a fortnight.

24. I can hear the speaker all right but I wish I could see him too. if he (stand) on a barrel, we all (see) him and that (be) much better.


В. Дополните данные предложения.

1. If he had taken my advice ...

2. If you ate less ...

3. We'll send for the doctor if ...

4. If she practiced more ...

5. If there isn't enough wine in that bottle ...

6. If you had checked the petrol before we started ...

7. This clock wouldn't have run down if ...

8. Try on the blue one if...


XIX. Раскройте скобки.

A.

1. I wish I (go) to the cinema tonight.

2. I wish you (come back) later.

3. Nick wishes he (be) an artist.

4. I wish you (do) the work properly.

5. I wish I (have) a day off.

6. I wish I (have) yesterday off.

7. I wish you (write) you exercise in pencil.

8. I wish you (not write) your composition in pencil.

9. I wish I (be) in London now.

10. I wish you (help) me with my problems.

11. I wish you (live) not far from us.

12. I wish I (can) help you.

13. I wish I (study) English instead of German.

14. Nancy wishes she (can) drive.

15. I wish it (be) possible to join you.

16. I wish the weather (be) warm so we could go climbing.

17. They said they wished they (never see) her.

18. Don't you wish you (come) earlier?

19. I wish he (not be) so rude to his daughter yesterday.

20. I wish they (wait) a few minutes.


B.

1. My aunt wished she (not punish) her children so often.

2. Jack wished Ann (stay) in his house.

3. I wish I (know) he was your friend.

4. She wished Tom (speak) only to her.

5. I wish I (can explain) it to you.

6. Tom wished he (not take) me to the island.

7. Eliza wished Mr. Higgins (not take) her out of the gutter.

8. I wish you (can marry) her.

9. I wish the boys (can see) us now.

10. It's too hot. I wish I (can swim).

11. I wish I (tell) you this at once.

12. We wish we (can go) there tomorrow.

13. I wish I (not disturb) them as such an early hour.

14. She wished she (find) her friend at home.

15. We wish you (not leave) us so soon.

16. We wish we (send) for him last night.

17. We wished we (can read) this book in English.

18. I wished she (not come) to see me.

19. The boys wished they (be) pirates.

20. My uncle wished he (not become) a rich man.


С. Переведите на английский язык.

1. Жаль, что я сегодня не иду в кино.

2. Хотелось бы, чтобы ты пришел позже.

3. Ник хотел бы быть художником.

4. Жаль, что сегодня у меня не выходной день.

5. Жаль, что вчера у меня был не выходной день.

6. Жаль, что я сейчас не в Лондоне.

7. Жаль, что ты живешь далеко от нас.

8. Жаль, что я учил немецкий язык, а не английский.

9. Джек хотел, чтобы Энн осталась в его доме.

10. Жаль, я не знал, что он твой друг.

11. Жаль, что я не могу это тебе объяснить.

12. Жаль, что ты не можешь на ней жениться.

13. Жаль, что я не умею плавать.

14. Жаль, что она тогда не нашла своего друга.

15. Жаль, что мы не можем прочитать эту книгу по-английски.




Скачать 232,54 Kb.
оставить комментарий
Дата17.09.2011
Размер232,54 Kb.
ТипДокументы, Образовательные материалы
Добавить документ в свой блог или на сайт

средне
  1
отлично
  3
Ваша оценка:
Разместите кнопку на своём сайте или блоге:
rudocs.exdat.com

Загрузка...
База данных защищена авторским правом ©exdat 2000-2017
При копировании материала укажите ссылку
обратиться к администрации
Анализ
Справочники
Сценарии
Рефераты
Курсовые работы
Авторефераты
Программы
Методички
Документы
Понятия

опубликовать
Документы

наверх