Министерство образования и науки РФ
Государственное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
РОСТОВСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ
МЕТОДИЧЕСКОЕ ПОСОБИЕ ПО ПРАКТИКЕ УСТНОЙ И ПИСЬМЕННОЙ РЕЧИ АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА
ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТОВ III-IV КУРСОВ
ОТДЕЛЕНИЯ РОМАНО-ГЕРМАНСКОЙ ФИЛОЛОГИИ
ФАКУЛЬТЕТА ФИЛОЛОГИИ И ЖУРНАЛИСТИКИ
Методическое пособие обсуждено и утверждено на заседании кафедры английской филологии факультета филологии и журналистики Ростовского государственного университета
Протокол № 1 от 31 августа 2006 г.
кандидат филологических наук М. В. Окс
кандидат филологических наук И. М. Полякова
доктор филологических наук С. Г. Николаев
Данное методическое пособие предназначено для изучения на старших курсах студентами отделения английской филологии. Настоящее пособие, посвященное теме «Музыка», является второй частью комплекса по теме «Искусство», наряду с двумя другими частями, посвященными темам «Живопись» и «Литература». Пособие нацелено на совершенствование навыков устной и письменной речи и расширение словарного запаса по предложенной теме. Основной целью настоящего пособия является развитие и совершенствование неподготовленной, спонтанной речи, способности аргументировано излагать свою точку зрения, принимать участие в дискуссии. Также важное место в пособии отводится развитию навыков перевода текстов с русского языка на английский.
Настоящее методическое пособие отражает принцип взаимосвязанного, комплексного обучения различным видам деятельности: чтению, говорению, аудированию, письму и переводу.
Пособие открывается структурированным лексическим списком по теме «Музыка». В список включена общая лексика и специальная терминология. Разнообразные лексические упражнения способствуют усвоению и закреплению нового материала.
Тексты и следующие за ними задания позволяют закрепить изученную лексику, расширить и углубить специальные знания по теме и готовят студентов к участию в дискуссии по проблеме.
Важное место в пособии отводится заданиям на восприятие речи носителей языка на слух. Разнообразные задания, представленные в этом разделе, не только развивают навыки аудирования и расширяют вокабуляр, но и способствуют расширению кругозора студентов.
Письменные переводы и сочинения-рассуждения помогают развить навыки аргументировано излагать свои мысли на письме, а также орфографически и пунктуационно правильно оформлять письменную речь.
Данное методическое пособие может представлять интерес для студентов, аспирантов, а также все тех, кто углубленно изучает английский язык.
Vocabulary exercises …………………………………………………………………………………….7
Reading. Text 1 ……………………………………………………………………………………………..14
Reading. Text 2. ………………………………………………………………………………………………15
Speaking and Listening ………………………………………………………………………………….20
concert — концерт
concert-goer — меломан
jazz-concert — концерт джазовой музыки
pop-concert — концерт поп музыки
promenade — концерт, во время которого публика может свободно гулять по залу
recital —сольный концерт
work — произведение
item — номер
piece — музыкальное произведение
background music — музыкальное coпровождение
chamЬег music — камерная музыка
classical music — классическая музыка
dance music — танцевальная музыка
film music — музыка для кино
folk music — народная музыка
instrumental music — инструментальная музыка
jazz (traditional jazz) — джаз (традиционный джаз)
light classical music — легкая классическая музыка
light music — легкая музыка
modern classical music — современная классическая музыка
orchestral music — оркестровая музыка pop music — поп музыка
serious music — серьезная музыка
vocal music — вокальная музыка
overture — увертюра
sonata — соната
suite — сюита
symphony (in 4 movements) — симфония (в четырех частях)
aria — ария
madrigal — мадригал
song — песня
cantata — кантата
oratorio — оратория
requiem — реквием
band — оркестр
brass band – духовой оркестр
group (folk, pop group) — группа (фольклорная, поп)
orchestra — оркестр
chamber orchestra — камерный оркестр
jazz orchestra — джаз-оркестр
philarmonic orchestra – филармонический оркестр
string orchestra — струнный оркестр
symphony orchestra — симфонический оркестр
variety orchestra — эстрадный оркестр
conductor — дирижер
leader (first violin) — концертмейстер
strings — струнные
woodwinds - деревянные духовые
brass – медные духовые
percussion – ударные
bass - бас
guitar - гитара
balalaika - балалайка
mandolin(e) - мандолина
cellist — виолончелист
cello — виолончель
double-bass (player) — контрабас, контрабасист
violinist — скрипач
viola — альт
viola-player — альтист
violin — скрипка
bassoon — фагот
bassoon player — фаготист
bass clarinet – бас-кларнет
clarinet — кларнет
clarinettist — кларнетист
contrabassoon - контрфагот
flutist — флейтист
flute — флейта
oboe — гобой
oboist — гобоист
French-horn — валторна
French-horn player — валторнист
trombone — тромбон
trombonist — тромбонист
trumpet — труба
trumpeter — трубач
tuba – туба
сastanets - кастанеты
drums — барабаны
cymbals — тарелки
gong - гонг
choir — 1) хор, хоровой ансамбль; капелла 2) инструментальная группа, инструментальный ансамбль (состоящий из инструментов одного класса) 3) ансамбль, группа, коллектив;
chorus — 1) хор (группа вокалистов, исполняющая хоровую партию в опере, оратории), 2) хор (песня, стихи, исполняемые совместно несколькими людьми; любые другие звуки, напр., смех, вой и т. п., издаваемые совместно людьми или животными), 3) музыкальное произведение для хора
mixed chorus – смешанный хор
youth’s choir – юношеский хор
children’s choir – детский хор
mass singing – массовое пение
sing in parts — петь по партиям
sing out of tune — петь фальшиво
sing in unison — петь в унисон
baton – дирижерская палочка
dumb note – клавиша западает
melody — мелодия
musical notation – нотное письмо
note — нота
sheet music — музыкальное произведение, изданное без переплета
to have an ear for music — иметь музыкальный слух
to play by heart / from memory – играть наизусть
to read music — читать ноты
to read music at sight – читать ноты с листа
tune — мелодия, мотив
tuning fork – камертон
solo – соло
duet – дуэт
trio – трио
quartet – квартет
quintet - квинтет
sextet - секстет
septet - септет
bass - бас
baritone - баритон
tenor - тенор
contralto – контральто
alto - альт
mezzo-soprano – меццо-сопрано
soprano — сопрано
chest — грудной
hoarse — хриплый
low — низкий
round — бархатистый
sweet — благозвучный
C – до
D – ре
E – ми
F – фа
G - соль
A - ля
B - си
sharp - диез
double-sharp – дубль диез
flat - бемоль
double-flat – дубль-бемоль
natural - бекар
tuneful - мелодичная
appealing - трогательная
richly coloured – богата оттенками
sweet – мелодичная
deep – глубокая по содержанию
to go to the heart – волновать, брать за сердце
monument of genius – творение гения
to astonish by originality and depth – поражать своей оригинальностью и глубиной
light and superficial – поверхностная и надуманная
stark and cold – безжизненная и холодная
scrappy – бессвязная
to bore everybody to distraction – надоедать
to resort to noise and claptrap – прибегать к шуму и трескотне
to grate (rasp) upon the nerves – раздражать
to wring the heart – волновать
to fade – устареть
to suffer neglect – бать забытым
violent in the extreme – чрезвычайно стремительная
undeservedly neglected – незаслуженно забытый
to bring smb everlasting fame and a place among the immortals of his art - принести кому-либо вечную славу и поставить в ряд бессмертных гениев, творивших в этой области искусства
to be a charlatan in music – быть шарлатаном в музыке
all-embracing mastery – всеобъемлющее мастерство
Basses Tenors Tenors Basses
1st Violins 2nd Violins Violas Double basses
Ex. 1. Answer the clues.
Ex. 2. Divide the following instruments into the four groups:
1) string instruments
2) brass instruments
3) wood-wind instruments
4) percussion instruments
Ex. 3.Which is the odd man out?
1. Which is not a string instrument?
a) cello b) flute c) lute d) mandolin
2. Which is not a brass instrument?
a) bassoon b) cornet c) trombone d) trumpet
3. Which is not a wood-wind instrument?
a) bassoon b) oboe c) piccolo d) triangle
4. The next………….. on the programme will be a sonata by Beethoven.
a) bit b) item c) part d) piece
5. His performance was ……………….: the audience was delighted.
a) faultless b) imperfect c) unmarked d) worthless
6. In the orchestra the oboe and the bassoon are two of the ………….. instruments.
a) breath b) lip c) mouth d) wind
7. When the artist opened his violin case, he found that someone had stolen his ……………. .
a) arc b) bow c) rod d) stick
8. Which ………………. do you propose to play this piece in?
a) chord b) key c) notes d) score
9. The piano is badly out of ……………, I'm afraid.
a) melody b) practice c) tune d) use
10. As a pianist his ………………. is brilliant, but I don't care much for his interpretation.
a) exhibitionism b) mastery c) technique d) technology
11. In this sonata, the first violin ………………..a nightingale.
a) reflects b) represents c) reproduces d) resembles
12. He never ……………… his early promise as a musician.
a) carried out b) discharged c) fulfilled d) performed
13. The choir stood in four rows according to their ………………… heights.
a) respectable b) respectful c) respective d) respected
Ex. 4. Match the names with the right number in the picture
Ex. 5. Give the Russian translation of the following terms.
staff (or stave)
Ex. 6. Complete with the words below.
album beat disc-jockey hit juke-box LP lyric single sleeves tempo tune
Ex. 7. Choose the right answer.
1. They have ……………….music at the disco.
a) actual b) live c) living d) real
2. Shall we dance? They are playing our favourite ……………….. .
a) aria b) line c) music d) tune
3. Of course, I'll play the piano at the party but I'm a little out of ………………. .
a) practice b) reach c) tune d) use
4. This is the ………………. guitar on which Lennon created some of his greatest hits.
a) actual b) contemporary c) genuine d) original
5. Is he really ……………………. to judge a brass band contest?
a) capable b) competent c) efficient d) skilful
6. Some LPs have very imaginative designs on their …………….. .
a) arms b) coats c) envelopes d) sleeves
7. The pop ………………. is emptier following the death of John Lennon.
a) life b) kingdom c) music d) scene
8. I don't think I know that song, but if you ………………. the tune I may be able to recognize it.
a) call b) chant c) hum d) sing
9. The Manhattan Transfer ……………….is an example of well-balanced singing by four artists.
a) duet b) lyric c) quartet d) tune
10. At the pop festival you will be able to hear music ……………….. over a system of loudspeakers.
a) propelled b) realised c) relayed d) reproduced
11. The record-player needle ………………….. the record badly.
a) broke b) scraped c) scratched d) tore
12. The acoustics in the concert hall were very poor, and it was necessary to …………… voices
of the performers.
a) amplify b) exaggerate c) extend d) increase
13. Italian TV has…………………. a young composer to write an opera for the TV's thirtieth anniversary.
a) appointed b) commissioned c) consulted d) ordered
14. Pop stars have to get used to people trying to get their …………………. .
a) autographs b) names c) signatures d) sings
15. Tonight is a special ………………. night for our percussionist who has injured his hand and won't be
able to play again.
a) benefit b) charity c) merit d) welfare
Ex. 8. Choose the most suitable word for each space.
Arts and Entertainment
Until the early part of this century there was certainly a distinction between popular music, the songs and dance (1)……. of the masses, and what we have come to call (2) ……. music. Up to that point, however, there were at least some points of contact (3) ……. the two, and perhaps general recognition of what made a good voice, or a good song. With the development of (4) ……. entertainment, popular music split away and and has gradually (5) ……. a stronger life of its (6) ……. , to the point where it has become incompatible with (7) ……. classics. In some respects, it is now dominated by the (8) ……. of youth culture, so that a concert by Elton John is just as much a fashion (9) ……. , and other artists may be promoting dance styles, or social (10) ……. For this reason, it is impossible to talk about popular music as if it were a unified art. The kind of music you like may (11) …….on what kind of person you are. Curiously, there are now classical musicians and operatic singers who have (12) ……. the status of rock stars, and have been marketed in the same way. This seems to suggest that many young people enjoy classical music but do not wish to be associated with the (13) ……. of those who are traditionally supposed to enjoy it. Or it may simply be that recording companies have discovered that there is an insatiable (14) ……. for 'sounds', and that classical music is beginning to sound exciting to a generation (15) ……. on rock
but now settling into affluent middle-age.
Ex. 9. In this short quiz, answer each of the questions.
1 Which of these is not normally religious?
a) a hymn b) а рsalm с) a carol d) ballad
2 Which of these would normally make the least noise?
a) a round b) a lullaby с) an anthem d) the refrain of a madrigal
3 Which of these is the odd one out?
a) a duet b) а triplet c) a quartet d) a quintet
4 Which order should these be in, starting from the top,
a) baritone b) bass с) tenor d) contralto (alto) e) soprano (treble)
Ex. 10. In what order, chronologically, did these names become popular?
Ex. 11. Learn the types of music.
CLASSICAL MUSIC. There is a tendency to use classical music with particular reference to the music of the past, up to and including the 19th century. However, the term also includes music being written now, and we may speak of modem classical music. Classical here refers to genre, not period.
LIGHT CLASSICAL is used of short classical works which are easy to listen to, either because the composer's aim was simply to entertain.
SERIOUS MUSIC. It is sometimes used as a synonym of classical music. Serious music is a wider concept than classical music. It includes classical music, folk music and jazz.
LIGHT MUSIC. It includes light classical music, popular tunes and songs from different sources, both traditional and new, dance music, film music and so on.
JAZZ. Popular music first played by Negro groups in the Southern USA in the early 20th century characterized by improvisation and strong rhythms, called traditional jazz; similar music played by large bands for dancing, a later variation much influenced by the blues to produce an unhurried emotive style called modern jazz.
POP MUSIC is modern music of an uncomplicate character, played mainly on electric guitars and drums often with a singer.
DANCE MUSIC is music used for dancing including jazz and pop music.
BACKGROUND MUSIC is any music played softly as a background for conversation, etc. Some people put on records as background music when friends come to see them and such music is increasingly heard in public places in Britain: hotel foyers, airports, supermarkets, etc.
CHAMBER MUSIC is orchestral, written for a chamber orchestra, but the category also includes works for smaller groups of instrumentalists or vocalists or soloists.
^ pronunciation of the following names:
Ex. 1.Answer the questions. Use the topical vocabulary,
Ex. 2. List the instruments in the orchestra that you would most like to play well. Also note down any that you would never like to learn and why.
Ex. 3. Imagine that you are going to form your own supergroup, inviting famous pop stars and other musicians to join you. Choose the instrument that you would like to play from the list of instruments and types of singer below, in the line up for the recording session for this pop group or rock band. Then note down the instrument or vocals of your choice from each line and who you will invite to play them or to sing.
The arrangements, production, sound engineering and mixing are still to be organised. Think of the records that you have got at home. Choose a recording company or label that you would write to, in the hope that they will help you to find a studio and market your record.
Ex. 4. Now you’ve got your latest single release recorded, when are you going to go out on the road and do some live concerts? Note down the five venues that you would choose for a European tour.
Read through the text below and see how many of the musical terms contained in these reminiscences can be of use to you.
Try it again
I spent nearly six years studying and practising the piano at school; that's to say, four years playing scales and arpeggios, then eighteen months let loose on actual pieces of music.
My teacher, Mr Pearson, was the sort of person who thought that anyone who didn't have perfect pitch was educationally subnormal and as for pupils - like me - who had difficulty in reading music and never really began to master sight-reading, well, there was really no hope in life.
Looking back, I can see that he was not particularly modern or enlightened in his approach. There were weekly tests along the lines of: 'How many flats are there in the key of A flat major? '
'How were Bach's ideas on melody, harmony and counterpoint significant? '
'What was the opus number of Mozart’s Eine Kleine Nachtmusik?' and lots of unanswerable questions about bass clefs and treble clefs, etc.' Still, we persevered together for those six years, despite my numerous handicaps. For a start, my sense of rhythm - especially for anything syncopated – was virtually non-existent.
'How many beats in the bar, Haskins?'
'Then kindly stop trying to squeeze in five.'
Then, being so small, neither of my hands could span a full octave which meant that keys were rarely struck by the finger recommended and that, particularly on the black notes, the little finger fell short of expectations.
'Is there normally а В flat in а В major chord, Haskins?'
'Right, then spare us it, will you?'
It wasn't that I didn't try. On the contrary, I had visions of one day performing in concerts and recitals, if not as a soloist, at least accompanying guest singers and instrumentalists. Somehow, the visions became fainter and fainter.
'I think if Beethoven had wanted a minor chord just there, Haskins, he would have written one. Don't you?'
So the years went on, endless variations on a single theme, dozens of arrangements of one basic tune, which I swear he composed himself.
I must admit there were times when I thought of changing instruments - going back to the woodwind class, where I had bitten through three oboe reeds in one brass class, or the strings department, where I kept dropping the viola bow, or the percussion wing, where I had snapped two drumsticks inside ten minutes, or the brass class, where I had nearly swallowed a trumpet mouthpiece. But I didn’t. I stayed with Mr Pearson and his finger exercises, the wrong notes, the missed entrances, the 'Try it again's'. I suppose I was lucky that you can't play the piano out of tune. I'm sure if it was possible to play flat, I would have done. 'What's the difference between an F sharp and F natural, Haskins?'
'A semitone, sir.'
'Correct. Now, if you could remember that while you're playing, you might not make
such a pig's ear out of one of the most beautiful melodies Brahms ever composed.
Try it again.'
Describe your experience of learning to play a musical instrument or explain why you have never tried.
Answer the questions before you start reading the text:
Read the text and do the comprehension task on p. 20
Classical music is big in Britain. Every evening in London there is a huge choice of concerts to go to. There are many full-time professional orchestras, and hundreds of amateur ones including the National Youth Orchestra. Most secondary schools have their own orchestras. There are two dedicated classical radio stations - BBC Radio 3 and the much newer Classic FM. The sales of classical CDs are enormous, sometimes rivalling pop sales; the young violinist Nigel Kennedy's recording of Vivaldi's Four Seasons sold more than one million copies.
But in spite of all this, the history of British classical music is very uneven. It started well, and is thriving today, but in between it went through a long, unsuccessful period. Medieval churches had highly-trained choirs which were part of the European Catholic tradition, and after King Henry VIII broke away from Rome, lots of new choral music was written in English. Thomas Tallis, William Byrd and Orlando Gibbons are great names from this period. Henry VIII also sang, played the keyboard and composed; he is said to have written the very popular song Greensleeves, still played today by ice-cream vans and telephone waiting systems. Henry's daughter, Elizabeth I, also loved music, and so the royal palace encouraged a thriving musical culture. At the same time as the flowering of drama with Shakespeare and his contemporaries, there was a fabulous Golden Age of English keyboard and lute music and song. John Dowland, Thomas Morley and John Bull wrote exquisite material, which is not just of historical interest - it is really worth listening to. This wonderful period came to an end in the 1620s. However, the close of the same century produced the man generally considered to be Britain's greatest composer- Henry Purcell. He wrote choral and instrumental works, many of them for the church and for King Charles II, but one of his best-loved works was composed for Chelsea Girls' School - the first English opera, Dido and Aeneas.
Purcell died in 1695, only 36 years old, and so began a 200 year gap in British musical creativity. The next home-grown composer of international status was to be Edward Elgar, whose music flourished at the beginning of the 20th century. A 200 year gap is bad enough, but consider what was happening in the rest of Europe during that time: Britain managed to miss out on the whole of the high baroque, classical and romantic periods of Western music. No wonder his compatriots were so delighted with Elgar (1857-1934). He had absorbed the new harmonies of Liszt and Wagner, but in an indefinable way he succeeded in evoking his native landscape near the Welsh border and the rather nostalgic mood in England at the lime. Among his loveliest pieces the cello concerto, the violin concerto and the songs called Sea Pictures.
The musical scene in Britain, which had seemed so dead, now burst into life. Elgar had several notable younger contemporaries: Delius, Vaughan Williams and Hoist. They were followed by William Walton, who composed some great film music, and several important women composers - Elizabeth Lutyens, Elizabeth Maconchy and Thea Musgrave
There was a flowering of opera in the hands of Michael Tippett and the biggest British star of 20th century classical music, Benjamin Britten. Having missed the 19th century, when Italy and Germany were producing a great number of operas, Britain made quite a good attempt to catch up.
Of course, it is rather inappropriate to talk about classical music in nationalistic terms; more than perhaps any other art form, it is international. British musicians work all over the world, and the music scene in Britain is, and always has been, full of foreign talent. Handel has not so far been mentioned; he did not strictly fit the criteria, since he was German by birth. But he settled in England in 1712 at the age of 27, became a British subject, wrote a large number of works (such as Messiah) in English, and has been Britain's favourite composer ever since; the British long ago gave up writing his name in the correct way, Haendel, or pronouncing it accordingly. One of J. S. Bach's many sons, J.C. Bach came to live in London in 1762 and became known as the English Bach. The Italian Luigi Cherubini became court composer to King George III. In the 20th century, the Spanish composer Roberto Gerhard settled in England and is thought of as, British. Many great instrumental players and conductors have lived or worked in Britain: Vladimir Ashkenazy, Yehudi Menuhin, Mstislav Rostropovich, the Amadeus Quartet, Yo Yo Ma, Mitsuko Uchida, Otto Klemperer and Georg Solti.
Attitudes to classical music are strangely contradictory. Many young people learn to play instruments like the piano, the violin or the flute at school. This is nearly always in a classical context; they learn to read music and play in the orchestra, with teachers who are essentially classical musicians. But the same 16-year-old boy who studies the cello every week, and practises Brahms for the school concert, comes home and listens to Oasis and Radiohead. With his friends he talks about guitar riffs and drum machines, and has strong ideas about the quality of the DJs in the local dance clubs.
He likes Puccini, but he does not buy ^ on CD; he buys Blur.
Pop and classical seem to exist in completely different worlds, with only occasional and rather embarrassed contact. You will never hear a classical piece played on a pop radio station, or vice versa. Hardly any musicians actually manage to sing or play in both styles. The divide is a subject of jokes: when Beatle Ringo Starr was asked what he thought of Beethoven, he said: "I love him, especially his poems.''
Actually there is one area of crossover, the musical: in the Andrew Lloyd Webber-type stage shows, such as ^ or The Lion King, easy-listening pop songs are accompanied by a classical orchestra. But it is interesting that both serious classical musicians and serious pop fans despise the musical: it is too anodyne, too middle-of-the-road.
As with so many aspects of life in Britain, social class comes into the question of musical tastes. If you mingle with the crowd coming out of the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, you will see (and hear, if you are sensitive to accents) that they are middle class. Pop musicians, on the other hand, are expected to be working-class heroes. Mick Jagger came from a middle-class background, but does not like to admit it; so he tries to speak with a cockney accent and sing with an American one.
Of course, talented musicians see past the class stereotypes, and are able to appreciate what is good, whether it is pop, classical, jazz or world music. It seems that the less musical you are, the more partisan you become. Tone-deaf middle-class people support classical as though it were a football team, and dismiss pop as rubbish and noise; unmusical working-class people treat classical as though it were purely an expression of snobbery.
In the 1950s, American popular music spread all over the world. Together with film, it was part of the USA cultural imperialism which had started earlier in the century and was now advancing on all fronts. Because of the shared language, it made more of an impact on Britain than on most other countries. People listened with pleasure to Bing Crosby, Frank Sinatra and Doris Day; then with shock, horror and delight to Chuck Berry, Buddy Holly and Elvis Presley. Whatever the Americans produced, Britain enjoyed.
Rock 'n' roll caught on in a very big way in Britain, and in fact some American rockets like Eddie Cochran had more fanatical fans here than at home. Although Elvis only set foot on British soil once (at a military airport, on his way to Germany), he was the King as much in Britain as anywhere. But the interest in rock 'n' roll extended beyond listening to it; the British began to imitate it, sometimes quite successfully. Amateurish skiffle groups gave way to classy rock 'n' roll acts. The Beatles had their first hit, Love Me Do, in 1962 and it was not long before they turned the tables on the Americans; they were the first British artists to break into the US market, and they were the vanguard of a real invasion. Soon there was international success for the Rolling Stones, the Animals, the Kinks, the Dave Clark Five, Herman's Hermits, Gerry and the Pacemakers, Freddie and the Dreamers, and others.
Since that time, pop music in Britain has been a mix of American and British. However, in more than any other aspect of the culture, pop seems to be xenophobic: foreign artists just cannot break into the market. Of course, there are exceptions, including a few from English-speaking countries: Australians Kylie Minogue and INXS, Canadians Bryan Adams and k.d. lang, Irish bands U2 and the Cranberries, and great reggae artists like Bob Marley from Jamaica. Occasionally north-European voices manage to get heard: A-Ha, Kraftwerk, Bjork, the ever-popular Abba, and recently the highly entertaining Aqua.
The pop music world moves very fast. By the end of the 1960s, rock 'n' roll seemed a fully mature art form, with a whole range of variants. From then through to the late 1970s, there was a wide variety of popular music styles from psychedelic, folk rock, glam rock and progressive rock to kink and reggae. By the late 70s, some people were beginning to tire of the smooth professional style of the rock industry. It had become a rich show-business phenomenon and had lost touch with its working-class roots. In Britain a few young musicians (with the help of some marketing experts) started the punk revolution. It was pure anti-establishment, and that included the rock 'n' roll establishment. The Sex Pistols,
Siouxsie and the Banshees, the Clash and the Buzzcocks hated or pretended to hate middle-class society and the pop super-stars. They also made rock music cheaper to produce, getting away from the expensive sounds of high-tech studio production. This inspired the creation of a lot of new bands by people without much 'money (or talent in some cases). But punk did not last long.
The pop business is driven by the need for change and innovation; the economics of it simply do not work if the public listens to the same thing all the lime. The result of all this innovation is the massive variety of pop music today. Some styles, like punk, appear and then disappear. Some, like country music, stay and are added to the ever-growing pop menu. Others split into subgroups, as has happened to dance music. In the 70s, when the Bee Gees wrote the soundtrack for the film Saturday Night Fever, there was just disco. As it got heavier and funkier, it was known as house, or acid house. Out of house in the USA came techno and garage, and in Britain, jungle, which in turn gave birth to ragga jungle and drum 'n' bass. Then the earlier house music had a revival under the name old skool.
In spite of all the fashionable rebellion, mainstream pop is still doing extremely well. Actually, the term pop itself needs some explanation. So far, it has been used here to mean popular music in general, including rock, dance and rap. But young people use it more often in the more restricted sense of chart music: ordinary, middle-of-the-road tunes with a big audience -the sort of thing that is shown on TV in the early evening. In this sense, it is often a term of abuse. But in reality, not many people follow all the latest developments in drum a' bass; it is only accessible: to 15 to 25-year-olds who go dancing. Most of the population listens to pop music - to Boyzone-type boy bands and Spicegirl-type girl bands, to Robbie Williams and Celine Dion.
Pop and classical may dominate the market, but there are alternatives. The big folk revival of the 1960s seems a long time ago, and few people today sing Joan Baez songs or early Bob Dylan. But there is something of a craze for folk dancing. Instead of the more common mini-disco and strobe lights, big parties often have a guitar, a violin and a caller, who shouts instructions for square or barn dancing. There has also been an explosion of Irish music. It is not surprising that Irish is the most vigorous folk scene: English folk was a modern revival, but in Ireland the tradition of folk song and dance never really died out.
There has long been an interest in folk and classical music from around the world. People came back from various places around the old Empire with strange instruments, and later, recordings. There was a burst of popularity for Indian music after the Beatles went there and George Harrison learnt to play the sitar; in the early 70s the sitar virtuoso Ravi Shankar became a star in Britain.
Of course, the Asian communities keep music from their homelands alive and mixed styles have also emerged: in the 1980s and 90s Punjabi instruments were blended with pop and dance music to produce Bhangra. African drums and song, of course, keep returning to the music scene; the amazing beat and harmony of the big vocal group Ladysmith Black Mambazo have made an impact. Every year styles from all over the world are celebrated at a huge open-air festival called WOMAD (World of Music, Arts and Dance). All these .styles have now been given a marketing identity under the name world music somewhere between pop and classical and world music, there is a musical tradition whose importance is far greater than its low profile would suggest. Jazz came from America, but today it is thoroughly international and Britain has a small but powerful jazz scene. You can hear it in small venues - pubs and clubs - all over the country, and the brilliance of the musicianship is all the same exciting since you can get up close to it. Some great English jazz names are John McCloughlin (guitar), Django Bates (keyboards) and Geoff Simkins (saxophone). The future for jazz looks good as there is a generation of new talent now emerging, including, for the first time, some excellent young black players like Courtney Pine and Steve Williamson.
Decide whether the following statements are True or False. Correct the false ones.
BOOSTING BRAIN POWER THROUGH THE ARTS
Scientists have discovered that listening to classical music, particularly music composed by Mozart, improves our ability to perform certain tasks. What skills or abilities (for example, drawing pictures) may be helped by listening to such music? Compare your ideas.
Think back. Did you have music and art lessons in primary and secondary school? How often? How important were they in the overall school program? Did you like them? Why or why not?
Outside of school, what other music or art training have you had?
What role do music and art play in your life today?
VOCABULARY FOR COMPREHENSION
Match the words and expressions in the first column with a definition or synonym from the second column. Write the appropriate letter in the clank spaces in the first column. Compare your answers.
^ DOES MUSIC ENHANCE MATH SKILLS?
A. INTRODUCING THE TOPIC
You will hear an interview from the radio news program All Things Considered that airs on Ntional Public Radio in the United States. The interviewer, Michelle Trudeau, says, ‘Just how music enhances mathematical skills is unknown.’
Working with a partner, brainstorm some answers to this question: Why so you think music may enhance mathematical skills? Make a brief list. Then listen to a small segment of the interview to check your answers.
Read the questions. Then listen to Part One of the interview and circle the correct answers to the questions. Do the same for Part Two. Compare your results with those of another student.
a) involved parents.
b) artistic talent.
c) no special talent.
6. Scientists have made some guesses as to how music may enhance mathematical skills. One factor not mentioned is that arts training
a) increases self-esteem.
b. relaxes nervous students.
c) teaches students how to learn new things.
Listen to the interview again. As you listen, fill in the chart with the information about the two experiments described. Some of it has already been done for you.
Work in a small group. Review the chart. Then listen to the taped excerpts about the two experiments. Based on these studies, make judgements as to how schools and parents might enhance children’s brain power. For each excerpt, rank the items below in order of importance. Use the number one as the most important and 5 as the least important. Then discuss your judgements with those of the other group.
If schools want to apply the research done in Rhode Island, they should
___ offer more music and art classes than math classes in the curriculum
___ offer intensive music and art classes in kindergarten (age five)
___ encourage parents to arrange for private music lessons
___ invite visiting artists and musicians to lecture to the children.
___ have students write reports about famous musicians.
If parents want to apply the results of Rauscher’s research, they should
___ have the pregnant mother listen frequently to Mozart’s music.
___ provide intensive music and art classes for children under five.
___ provide computer lessons along with music lessons.
___ sing with their children.
___ give at home tutorial math instruction.
Translate into English.
^ МУЗЫКА - МОЯ ПОВЕЛИТЕЛЬНИЦА
Экспрессивный язык джаза - язык особого рода. Его упоительная, чувственная, опьяняющая красота создает удивительное по богатству оттенков настроение, позволяющее слушателю проникнуть в мир души музыканта.
Джаз как искусство не скован расовыми или национальными рамками. Это свойство большого искусства и больших художников. Таким художником был Эдвард Кеннеди Эллингтон — один из величайших музыкантов мира, получивший прозвище – Дюк - герцог - за элегантность манер.
В 1920-е годы Эллингтон выступает в качестве руководителя джаз-оркестра и записывает ставшие сразу же шлягерами мелодии "Одиночество," "Черная красавица," "Я выпустил песнь из сердца своего."
Гастроли по Великобритании, прошедшие в 1933 году, положили начало международной славе оркестра. Затем были турне по другим странам. Весь мир рукоплескал его искусству. В январе 1943 года состоялось первое выступление Дюка Эллингтона в самом престижном концертном зале Нью-Йорка Карнеги-Холл. Исполнялась его сюита "Черный, коричневый, бежевый" - "история американских негров в цветовой гамме."
Музыка была его профессией и досугом, работой и счастьем, музыку в одном из стихотворений он назвал "своей повелительницей."
Дюк Эллингтон оставил после себя огромное наследие: сотни песен, десятки концертов, сюит, симфоний, опер и балетов.
Недаром выдающаяся американская певица Элла Фицджералд считает, что "Дюк Эллингтон - это энциклопедия музыки. У него можно научиться всему. Душа, чувственность, джаз, искусство и любовь - все это есть в гении Эллингтона, в его музыке."
Выдающийся американский композитор Джордж Гершвин не получил систематического образования. Он брал уроки музыки, в дальнейшем занимался самообразованием. К двадцати пяти годам он приобрел известность как автор эстрадных джазовых песен, оперетт, ревю, мюзиклов.
Гершвин - виднейший представитель симфонического джаза. Особенность его стиля - в сочетании традиций и импровизационного джаза, элементов афро-американского музыкального фольклора и легкого жанра с формами европейской музыкальной классики - оперной, симфонической, концертной.
Искусству Гершвина свойственны гуманизм, демократичность; его музыкальный язык отличается непосредственностью, красочностью, острым юмором, чертами гротеска. В духе гротеска написана им программная симфоническая сюита "Американец в Париже." Известность приобрели эстрадные лирические песни, особенно джазового типа.
В музыке для театра Гершвин стремился к освобождению от штампов, в частности от оперных канонов. Для оперы "Порги и Бесс," первой американской национальной оперы, характерны своеобразие формы, правдивость сценических ситуаций, динамичность развития сюжета. В ее мелодии чередуются напевы спиричуэлсов, лиричных блюзов и гротескных регтаймов. Опера получила мировое признание, как и другие произведения композитора, такие, как "Рапсодия в стиле блюз." "Пусть гремит оркестр," "О тебе я пою" и другие.
Are you for or against classical music. Study the following arguments and develop the ideas.