Московский государственный институт международных отношений (Университет)
Министерства иностранных дел Российской Федерации
Л.П. Вишневская, М.В.Тимченко
Пособие по общему английскому языку для студентов
IV курса МЭО
From College to Employment
Методическая записка ……………………………………….6
Section 1 ………………………………………………………10
Section 2 ………………………………………………………24
Section 3 ………………………………………………………43
Section 4 ………………………………………………………58
Section 5 ………………………………………………………75
Section 6 ………………………………………………………87
Section 7 ………………………………………...……………101
Section 8 ………………………………………...……………121
Учебное пособие “From College to Employment” адресовано студентам IV курса факультета МЭО (I семестр), изучающих английский язык как основной иностранный (уровень С1) по следующим направлениям подготовки:
Международные финансы и кредит
Пособие соответствует Программе подготовки бакалавров по дисциплине «Иностранный язык» (Раздел 4.2.4). Применяется на занятиях по общему языку в сочетании с «Учебным пособием для студентов IV курса МЭО по развитию навыков дискуссии» (автор М.Л. Тарновская).
В пособии раскрываются следующие лексико-семантические темы:
Раздел 1. Необходимость и преимущества высшего образования в США и России.
Раздел 2. Чем обусловлен выбор университета в США и России.
Раздел 3. Особенности высшего образования в США и России.
Раздел 4. Профессиональное образование экономиста в США и России.
Раздел 5. Потребности общества в бакалаврах и магистрах с экономическим образованием.
Раздел 6. Влияние развития экономики на структуру высшего образования в США.
Раздел 7. Подготовка к профессиональной трудовой деятельности.
Раздел 8. Окончание университета и начало профессиональной трудовой деятельности экономиста.
При написании пособия использовались следующие источники языкового материала:
В соответствии с Законом Российской Федерации от 9 июля 1993 года № 5351-1 авторы данного пособия использовали в своей работе с обязательным указанием имени автора, произведение которого используется, и источника заимствования правомерно обнародованные произведения и отрывки из них в качестве иллюстраций (в широком смысле) в объеме, оправданном поставленной целью и методикой.
Учебное пособие “From College to Employment” предназначено для студентов IV курса факультета МЭО, изучающих английский язык как основной иностранный (уровень С1).
Цель пособия является комплексной и включает как практическую профессионально значимую, так и образовательную, воспитательную и развивающую цели.
Пособие способствует формированию у студентов МЭО профессионально значимых компетенций, определяемых Государственным образовательным стандартом высшего профессионального образования и квалификационной характеристикой выпускника факультета МЭО:
Особое внимание уделяется развитию коммуникативной компетенции, необходимой для аналитико-синтетической обработки публицистических текстов различного объема, а также умений и навыков ведения дискуссии в экономической сфере, в области культуры, образования и общественной деятельности.
На четвертом году обучения в университете происходит расширение и углубление речевых компетенций в учебно-профессиональной и социально-культурной сферах. Этому способствует
^ реализуются параллельно с коммуникативной. Реализация воспитательно-образовательных целей заключается в формировании у студентов представления о современной системе ценностей, моральных и социальных приоритетах, расширении кругозора студентов, обогащении их сведениями о социокультурных особенностях США. Образовательная и воспитательная цели достигаются отбором учебного материала и соответствующим лингвострановедческим комментарием.
Достижение развивающих целей проявляется в формировании таких качеств личности как совершенствование логики и аналитической способности мышления, языковой догадки, умений и навыков самостоятельной работы, что находит отражение в инструкциях к различным видам упражнений.
С точки зрения структуры пособие состоит из 8 разделов и организовано в соответствии с современными стандартами, предъявляемыми к учебным материалам, как в нашей стране, так и за рубежом. Каждый раздел включает в себя:
Каждый раздел предназначен для изучения в течение двух академических часов, при этом самостоятельная работа студентов не должна выходить за рамки аудиторного времени, отводимого для работы над каждым разделом. С учетом текущего и итогового контроля работа над пособием составляет 18 аудиторных часов.
Система упражнений и лингвострановедческий комментарий позволяют студентам
Работа над пособием позволяет обеспечить постепенное накопление студентами информации, предлагая пути активизации речевых навыков на её основе наряду с развитием коммуникативной компетенции и компетенции ценностно-смысловой ориентации в мире;
При подготовке к обсуждению каждого из разделов пособия, а также при подготовке к заключительной дискуссии рекомендуется использовать как материалы раздела, так и другие доступные материалы, в том числе – ресурсы сети Интернет. При наличии технических возможностей целесообразно использовать мультимедийную поддержку в виде презентации в формате Power Point.
"The more you learn, the more you earn," Americans often say. In the U.S.A., almost all jobs that pay well require some education or technical training beyond high school. In this high-tech society, college graduates out earn those without a college education,
and people with advanced degrees are likely to earn even more. Though some college degrees are worth more than others in the job market, in general, education pays off.
A college education is not just preparation for a career, however. In addition to taking courses in their major field of study, students enroll in elective courses. They may take classes that help them understand more about people, nature, government, or the
arts. Well-rounded people are likely to be better citizens, better parents, and more interesting and interested individuals.
Although two-thirds of American high school graduates enroll in college, recent high school graduates no longer dominate the college campuses. Adults of all ages return
to the classroom, either for new vocational skills or for personal growth. In 1996, for example, almost 20% of American college students were over age 35. Some 500,000 college students are over 50.
American faith in the value of education is exemplified by the rising number of Americans who have at least a bachelor's degree. Almost one-quarter of Americans over age 25 are college graduates. College attendance is not reserved for the wealthy and the academically talented. It is available to anyone who wants to go. Right now, about 15 million students are taking advantage of the opportunity. For those not academically prepared to handle college-level work, about 80% of undergraduate schools offer remedial (sometimes called developmental) classes in reading, writing, and math.
III. a) Read the text “Welcome to the Wharton School. Part I” and give the Russian for:
b) Which of the above phrases would you use to describe your university experience?
NACE – National Association of Colleges and Employers. Established in 1956, NACE is the leading source of information on the employment of the college educated. NACE forecasts trends in the job market; tracks legal issues in employment, the job search, and hiring practices; and provides college and employer professionals with benchmarks for their work.
GPA – Grade Point Average is calculated by dividing the total amount of grade points earned by the total amounts of credit hours attempted. One’s grade point average may range from 0.0 to a 4.0. (A = 4 grade points; B = 3 grade points; C = 2 grade points; D = 1 grade point; WF/F = 0 grade points)
"Come on in! There's room." University of Pennsylvania career counselor Peggy Curchack is cheerfully ushering students into the Amado Recital Room in Irvine Auditorium, handing each a flyer as they pass by. With her salt-and-pepper hair, persistent smile and warm demeanor, Peggy emits more of a friendly, aunt-like air than that of a woman organizing a university-wide event in the midst of one of the most hectic times on Penn's campus. The latecomers to today's "Interviewing from the Corporate Employer's Perspective" workshop stake out places on the floor, many of them turning off cell phones as they unload their book-laden backpacks and take a seat. The students have come to hear the candid insights of recruiters, in hopes of learning what impresses and irks them the most before embarking on job interviews in the days and weeks ahead.
It's early October, the thick of the fall recruiting season for the Class of 2004, and recruiters – many of them hailing from Wall Street – have been migrating to Penn's campus for close to a month now to hunt for a new crop of young talent. Students enrolled in the university's business school – the Wharton School – are especially feeling the heat. Unlike many of their counterparts at Penn's other undergraduate schools, they have already been involved in recruiting since early September. They have "dropped" their resumes with investment banks, consulting firms, and some of the world's biggest corporations and are now waiting to hear back about whether or not they have been chosen for an interview. The seniors, who comprise about two-thirds of the eighty or so students in the room, are particularly anxious. They are facing the prospect of fewer job opportunities than the seniors who graduated just four years earlier (as they were being accepted to the school). The rest of the attending students are juniors and a smattering of sophomores looking to get a leg up on internship recruiting in the coming spring.
Slated to give presentations at today's workshop are a recruiter from General Mills, one of the world's largest food makers, and a banker from Goldman Sachs, arguably the most prestigious of Wall Street's investment banks. Goldman is regarded highly-even revered-by many students at Penn, especially by those enrolled in Wharton. Getting a job there is considered by many Whartonites to be a crowning achievement and a perfect complement to their business degree. The competition to get a foot in the door at the bank is intense. It is no wonder the room is packed.
Joining Peggy at the front of the room is Misty, the recruiting manager from General Mills. With her mahogany hair tied back in a buoyant ponytail, Misty appears equally as wholesome and cheery in her red knitted crewneck sweater with the stark white-collar tips of her shirt folded neatly at the neck. The two women are ready to begin the workshop, but there is one major piece missing-the Goldman representative is nowhere to be found, causing several students to glance toward the door as if trying to summon her entrance.
Misty begins the session without her. After warming up the crowd with a few lighthearted icebreakers, she directs their attention to the flyer that they were handed at the beginning of the session. It is a list of interviewing "dos and don'ts" whimsically illustrated with General Mills' brand mascots, including the Pills-bury Doughboy, the Trix Rabbit, and the Lucky Charms Leprechaun. Referring to the list, Misty recommends that the students become well-versed in a company's brands and services before heading into their interviews.
"You students at Penn, this is one of the things you guys are best at," she praises the group emphatically. Misty then launches into some physical pointers: "Make sure you have good posture, that your back is not touching the back of the chair," she counsels. "Lean forward. Make eye contact."
This isn't exactly the inside advice that the upperclassmen in the room had been hoping for. A few students grow visibly listless, shifting in their seats. They have heard these tips hundreds of times before from their career counselors, and some of them begin to wonder what they are going to get out of this whole presentation.
General Mills, like many other companies recruiting on campus, conducts situational interviews in which a student is asked for an example of a difficult problem that they have encountered, what they did to deal with it and what the outcome was, continues Misty. "Don't be afraid to share a negative answer," she encourages the group. "Just show how you learned from it or put a positive spin on it." As Misty's twenty-minute time limit comes to an end, she delivers yet one more pep talk to bolster the students' resolve before they embark on their job interviews.
"The interview process is not designed to be a scary process. I know it can be a scary process, but it's not meant to be," she says with a reassuring smile. "Force yourself to take deep breaths. Just know it will be fine. It will all work out."
As Misty delivers her final remarks, the representative for Goldman Sachs enters the room and promptly takes Misty's place at center stage. Linda is Asian, and her shiny black hair is perfectly smoothed back in a tight bun. Wearing a dark-colored suit with a patterned scarf wound tightly around her neck, Linda's look is more rigid and corporate than Misty's. Right off the bat, the students can tell that Linda is a no-nonsense kind of woman. She looks serious, and she means business. The mood of the students changes visibly as she begins to speak. Her words-her insight-are what they are here for.
A train delay had caused Linda to run late, she explains. "I apologize for being late. The way to have a good interview is not to be late like I was."
Linda has been working at Goldman Sachs for three years now. She was a chemistry major in college and took a job as an analyst at a consulting firm for a couple of years before going to a top law school and eventually joining Goldman. Hers is a resume worthy of an elite Goldman banker.
Looking around the room at the motley assortment of college students, Linda declares that dressing professionally for an interview is imperative. She recounts that early on in her career, she was told that there are only three appropriate colors for business attire: black, navy and gray. The only patterns: solids and pinstripes. "You want them to pay attention to you and what you've accomplished," she explains. "You don't want them to be paying attention to your tie."
Like Misty, Linda tells the crowd to research the company before interviewing with them. But she expands on the advice, telling the students not to rely solely on information from corporate .Web sites because every candidate worth their salt does that. To gain that crucial edge over other candidates, they must dig deeper, she explains. Penn, and more importantly Wharton, has an alumni network teeming with people working on Wall Street. Students should use some initiative and networking skills to take advantage of those connections and set up informational interviews with their Penn brethren at the Goldmans and Morgan Stanleys of the world before they face recruiters.
As Linda makes it clear to the group that there's nothing more annoying to recruiters than an applicant who comes unprepared to an interview, her tone intensifies. "It's a waste of their time. It's a waste of your time," she says in a manner that indicates that this has happened to her one too many times before.
Taking a pregnant pause to let the severity of what she has just said sink in, Linda continues. Next topic: the resume. Without exception, students must know their resumes "cold," because everything on it, including a potential hire's hobbies or interests, can become talking points for the interviewer.
"If you are interested in capital markets and you say you follow the markets, then me asking a question about the markets is fair game," Linda tells them. "Don't act like you're an expert if you're not."
Linda then brings up a common interviewing quandary, the "list-your-three-greatest-strengths-and-weaknesses" question. Figuring out the positive attributes to share about oneself shouldn't be that difficult, she says, but finding the appropriate negative things to say is something that students debate over time and again. To give the response that their faults include being a "workaholic" or a "perfectionist" is transparent and trite, she cautions; interviewers have heard these responses dozens of times before. Instead, they should think of something "not too negative" and explain how they are working on it.
All of this advice is good, but many of the students sitting in the room are wondering: But what does it take to get a job at Goldman? They re looking for some secret insight, something to make them a more viable candidate than the competition they are up against – many of whom are sitting in this very room, eagerly hanging onto Linda's every word just as they are.
What Linda says next only heightens their anxieties. She reiterates that the competition for jobs is so tough that they must watch their step. A student who doesn't know the answer to a technical or quantitative question or doesn't market himself to recruiters will likely lose all chances of getting a job offer, because there will always be another student who does know the answer, she explains. “In your head you should have five selling points that you want to get across no matter what?” she proclaims. "If you don't do this, you'll be at a disadvantage, because other students are doing this." As Linda continues to dole out her no-nonsense interview advice, the warm optimism instilled by Misty has all but dissipated into a cold new reality for the students in the room. If they weren't already hyperaware of the multitude of fierce competition waiting to take the most coveted spots at the investment banks, they were now. Linda closes with a dictum heard more often on a salesroom floor than on a college campus. "Always sell yourself," she tells them. "Throughout the whole process, even after you have gotten the offer, you should always be selling yourself"
As the workshop concludes, eager students scramble to the front of the room vying to get a word in with Linda. Others linger, waiting for the swarm to alleviate so they can have their turn to sell themselves to this woman from Goldman Sachs.
In the spring of 2004, an estimated 1.2 million students graduated from American colleges with a bachelor's degree. They entered a difficult job market that, in some cases, could hardly reconcile the average of $116,000 in tuition they had paid at private colleges and universities to attain their diplomas (the average four-year tuition was close to $40,000 at public colleges and universities).
Business school graduates, in particular, found themselves entering a job market with little promise no matter where their diplomas came from. During the economic downturn that began in 2000, financial services firms were some of the hardest hit. Hundreds and, at times, thousands of layoffs were announced weekly. Yet students continued to pursue business degrees in the belief that such practical curriculums were the starting point for successful careers. In the 2003-2004 academic year, U.S. colleges graduated 250,000 to 300,000 students with business degrees. According to a 2004 salary survey by the NACE, undergraduate students who majored in economics or finance were taking in an average starting salary of $40,630 (not including bonuses).
At the Wharton School the job outlook was definitely brighter than elsewhere. Wharton had long held the distinction of being the most prestigious undergraduate business program in the country and a fertile ground for Wall Street recruiters seeking out new hires who they could rely on.
No matter what the economic climate, recruiters from the most elite investment banks, consulting firms and corporations make pilgrimages to Penn's campus each year knowing that they will undoubtedly find the talent that they need at the Wharton School. Wharton is not only the sole undergrad business program in the storied Ivy League, but according to U.S. News & World Report, Wall Street recruiters and Wharton itself, it also reigns supreme over all of the others. Its undergraduate program, which awards students bachelor of economics degrees, has since its founding in 1881 produced many of the nation's most influential investment bankers and titans of industry, including Revlon Chairman Ronald Perelman; Jerome Fisher, the founder of Nine West Group; Brian Roberts, the Chairman and CEO of Comcast Corp.; and the CEOs of Estee Lauder and Tiffany & Co. Real estate moguls Donald Trump and William Mack also attended the school. And this is merely to name a few of the business-building, deal-making and boardroom-ruling alumni who call Wharton their alma mater.
Such was the school's track record that at Wharton, it wasn't about whether a graduate could find a job, but rather how many job offers they could acquire – and of what quality. As one prospective 2004 graduate would note, "There's no such thing as unemployment at Wharton."
That notion seemed proven by the fact that many major investment houses such as Citigroup, Goldman Sachs, JPMorgan Chase and Morgan Stanley were still flocking to the campus looking for new blood.
To gain entrance into Wharton is a feat unto itself It's an elite group of kids who are culled from applicants around the globe to comprise the school's next generation of students. Only fifteen to eighteen percent of applicants – roughly 700 students a year – are accepted into the Wharton undergraduate business program, and approximately 500 of those students matriculate.
As these elite incoming freshmen arrive at Penn's tree-lined campus in West Philadelphia, they are met with a demanding curriculum geared toward arming them with the skills to succeed in the business world-and they embark on this training just days after arriving at the school. Wharton's courses are geared toward practical skills rather than a spectrum of theoretical ones, and the class schedules look more like an MBA's course load than an undergraduate's – except that students must endure these classes for four years instead of two.
While the tuition and fees that members of the Class of 2004 paid over their four years at the school is a hefty $120,000, the price young Whartonites have to pay for the honor of earning close to six figures their first year out of school is even steeper in terms of dedication and workload-and one that most early twentysomethings would be reluctant to dole out. To embark on this intense journey often means sacrificing the normal accoutrements of the college experience, whether it's enjoying an active social life filled with road trips and parties, participating in Greek life, or playing sports. Instead, many Whartonites opt to spend their free time in business-oriented clubs and organizations that expand upon their experiences in the classroom and bolster their resumes in the hope of impressing recruiters come their junior and senior years.
If a student weren't already competitive before they came to the school, then Wharton's infamous "curve" – on which almost every class is graded-and the pressure engendered when a group of overachievers gather will most likely make them so. For Wharton's student body is a competitive group that will raise the bar of competition for its members to nosebleed heights. Staying up until all hours of the night to complete a group project or struggling with a corporate valuation for a finance class is a common occurrence for a Wharton student. As they navigate this arduous curriculum with their peers, a type of groupthink begins to take hold, aligning their experiences and their perspectives. They soon learn that as long as they can keep a competitively high GPA (above a 3.4 at the very least) and sharpen their interviewing skills – which the school provides plenty of opportunities for them to do – then they are almost guaranteed to land a high-paying job in the financial services or consulting industries. Throughout their years at Wharton, their minds will be filled with the prospects that Wall Street can offer them, their classes will teach them what they need to know to succeed there and the recruiters that flock to the campus to wine and dine them will make them feel like they belong there.
For most Wharton students, their first real taste of this world comes when they embark on internships during the summer after their junior year. This is a time when a large percentage of Wharton's students make a mass exodus from Penn's campus in Philadelphia to the high-rises of Manhattan, where they will learn the ropes of the world's financial engine and work ungodly hours to impress the higher-ups at investment banks and consulting firms. During their internships, many Wharton students try to prove that they can handle the pressure of multiple deadlines and little to no sleep. All of this is done in the name of impressing the right people so that they will be on the short list when the firm they work for begins doling out job offers to their strongest candidates at the end of the summer.
But perhaps the most important and stressful time in a Whartonite's college career occurs during the recruiting period in the fall semester of their senior year. It is at this point that Wharton's students test their educations, their stamina, and their desire in a ten-week-long marathon of events, interviews and trials. The recruiting season serves as the culmination point for everything they have devoted themselves to working so tirelessly for throughout their years of pricey academic training. It's in these weeks that they will discover if it was all worth it. Where they land a job could solidify their place in the upper echelons of the Wharton hierarchy.
Over the course of these weeks, representatives from banks such as Goldman, Morgan Stanley and Citigroup, and consulting firms such as McKinsey, Accenture and Monitor, will put Wharton students through draconian interviews, during which they are bombarded with analytical questions that require complex mental arithmetic, forced to endure personality assaults, and required to parry trick queries – their answers to which, no matter what they are, will most likely be wrong. Even as they embark on myriad interviews, these students still have to complete the one-hundred-page projects that often take until 4:00 A.M. to finish, the midterm exams, and challenging classes that are the hallmark of a Wharton education.
It's this competitive drive and desire to be a part of the best, most elite firms that incites Wharton's students to push themselves to the brink during recruitment season. The price of failure is high. Every Whartonite knows how swiftly one misstep can bring a fall from grace. Answer one question wrong on net present value, or fail to hit it off with the key managing director or senior vice president of a bank, and it could mean a lost opportunity.
Burn one recruiter bad enough by being late for an interview or reneging on a job offer, and it could mean an early end to recruitment season. There is always another qualified candidate to take their place, and that candidate is most likely the person sitting next to them in class, or maybe a team member they just carried through the last group project.
Wharton's Class of 2004 took on the ten-week recruitment period as if it were the final sprint in a four-year-long marathon that had been more arduous than anything that they had ever endured in their young lives. They continued to run on inhuman amounts of sleep, running themselves to the point of exhaustion. Yet they still managed to keep their wits about them, as though they had tapped into some well of superhuman ability. For some of these overachievers, it's an adrenaline rush. It's as though it's a rite of passage that only a chosen few are capable of, or are willing to make the obvious social and physical sacrifices for, that makes them so proud.
Just as hundreds of Spaniards and thrill-seeking tourists fill the narrow, cobblestone streets of Pamplona each July to test their physical limits in the annual "Running of the Bulls," so do these aspiring future business leaders as they undertake a race that tests their stamina and their wits at every turn, knowing that any false move or stumble would mean the end of the run. But if they have mastered the knowledge, if they have the drive and determination, then perhaps they too can run with the bulls of Wall Street, and join the ranks of the financial and corporate elite who move markets, who reap fortunes and who shape history.