Методические материалы к учебнику america icon

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ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНСТВО ПО ОБРАЗОВАНИЮ

ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ

ВЫСШЕГО ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ

«МОСКОВСКАЯ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННАЯ ЮРИДИЧЕСКАЯ АКАДЕМИЯ»

НОУ ВПО «ПЕРВЫЙ МОСКОВСКИЙ ЮРИДИЧЕСКИЙ ИНСТИТУТ»


КАФЕДРА АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА №1


МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ МАТЕРИАЛЫ К УЧЕБНИКУ


AMERICA IN CLOSE UP

by E. Fielder, R. Jansen, M. Norman-Rick


для студентов 2 курса института МЧП


МОСКВА 2008


Коллектив авторов


Unit 1 ст. преподаватель Калиновская В.В.

Unit 2 доц. Кожанова А.Г.

Unit 6 доц. Пикалова В.В.

Unit 9 доц. Милицына Л.Ф.

Unit 11 доц. Яшина О.В.

Unit 15 ст. преподаватель Назоева В.А.


Ответственный редактор:

зав. кафедрой Английского языка №1

профессор Ермоленко Г.Н.


Рецензент:

член Методического совета

доцент Влахова А.С.


Методическая разработка утверждена

на заседании кафедры Английского языка №1.

Протокол № 2 от 6.11.2008г.


Content


Unit 1 The Making of a Nation p.5


Unit 2 American Beliefs and Values p.9


Unit 6 Law, Crime, and Justice p.14


Unit 9 The Political System p.18


Unit 11 Education p.22


Unit 15 The Media p.26

Введение


Методические материалы предназначены для студентов 2 курса института МЧП Московской государственной юридической академии.

Данная разработка является приложением к учебнику America In Close-up, которое может быть использовано в курсе «Страноведение», так как направлено на более глубокое понимание культурной, политической жизни и социальных институтов США.

^ Цель методических материалов – развитие и закрепление навыков и умений в иноязычной речевой деятельности.

Методические материалы включают введение и шесть разделов.

Каждый раздел рассчитан на 4 часа аудиторной работы и состоит из различного рода упражнений, создающих условия для речевой практики.

Известно, что упражнения служат для развития и закрепления практических навыков и позволяют судить о степени усвоения материала. Данные методические материалы содержат следующие группы упражнений:

  • упражнения на завершение высказывания (completion);

  • упражнения на расширение (expansion) заданного речевого материала, которые способствуют развитию как монологической, так и диалогической речи, готовят к участию в учебных дискуссиях и т.д.;

  • упражнения на заполнение пропусков (gap-filling), которые могут использоваться для развития антиципации и языковой догадки, для совершенствования рецептивных лексико-грамматических навыков;

  • упражнения на соотнесение единиц языка (matching);

  • учебный перефраз (rephrasing), формирующий умение передать смысл речевой единицы другими словами и выражать мысли ограниченными языковыми средствами;

  • «верные-неверные утверждения» (true-false statements), стимулирующие речевую реакцию обучаемых и аргументированное обоснование выбранного ответа;

  • устное выступление (presentation);

  • вопросы на проверку понимания прочитанного текста на основе припоминания (comprehension questions) и многие другие.

Учебный материал рассчитан на два семестра: Unit 1, Unit 2, Unit 6 – зимний семестр; Unit 9, Unit 11, Unit 15 – весенний семестр; в среднем на 30-40 часов.

Нумерация разделов в представленных материалах соответствует нумерации разделов в учебном пособии America In Close-up.


Пикалова В.В.

^ Unit 1


The Making of a Nation


Part A (pp.13-17)


Exercise 1. Suggest English equivalents of the following expressions and reproduce the situations in which they are used.


иммигранты поневоле (p.13)

охотиться на дичь (p.14)

столкновение культур (p.14)

наплыв, приток (p.14)

голод (p.14)

набиваться, нахлынуть (p.15)

рожденные за рубежом (p.15)

наблюдать с опасением (p.15)

рубеж веков (p.15)

восстановить (вновь обрести) национальное самосознание(p.15)

сильное желание (p.15)

покинуть страну (p.16)


чужак (p.16)

наказывать (p.16)

проводить политику (p.16)

снизить уровень роста (p.16)

социальные и экономические беды (несчастья) (p.16)

жить по правилам большинства (p.17)

неоднородность, разнохарактерность (p.17)

предположение (p.17)

подходящая метафора (p.17)

своеобразие, отличительная характеристика (p.17)




^ Exercise 2. Suggest Russian equivalents of the following expressions and reproduce the situations in which they are used.


to colonize on a large scale (p.13)

overriding influence (p.13)

treaty (p.14)

trespasser (p.14)

warfare (p.14)

overwhelming majority (p.14)

Teutonic (p.15)

flood of immigration (p.15)

at an astonishing rate (p.15)

old stock Americans (p.15)

be willing to do sth (p.15)


halt (p.15)

practice ethnic traditions (p.15)

refugee (p.15)

upheaval (p.15)

show a drive to do sth (p.15)

eviction (p.16)

stamp out the incentive (p.16)

nativist sentiment (p.16)

melting pot (p.17)

convey (p.17)



^ Exercise 3. Guess the concept of the following definitions.


1) a small town far away from other towns, usually where trading takes place or a military camp that is far away from the army; (p.13)

2) the process of forcing something out of its position or space, the process of taking the place of someone or something; (p.14)

3) a serious disease affecting plants, something that damages or spoils something else; (p.14)

4) very noticeable or easy to see, especially because of being unusual or different; (p.15)

5) a relative of a person who lived in the past; (p.15)

6) the right or ability to go into a place; (p.16)

7) a belief about what something is like; the time when someone creates a new idea or thing; the moment when a woman becomes pregnant after sex; (p.16)


^ Exercise 4. Give definitions of the following words and word combinations.


1) set up (p.13);

2 )wipe out (p.14);

3) set apart (p.15);

4) quota (p.15);


5) fit in (p.16);

6) point out (p.16);

7) shun (p.16);




Exercise 5. Translate from English into Russian.


1. The British, who were the first to colonize on a large scale, came for profit and also for religious freedom.


2. They seized Indian lands through war, threats, and treaties, and they hunted game, cut forests, and built big cities. To the Indians they were unwanted trespassers.


3. Between 1845 and 1860, a serious blight on the potato crop in Ireland sent hundreds of thousands of Irish people to the US to escape starvation.


4. The new immigrants were Latin, Slavic, and Jewish peoples from southern and eastern Europe. Among these new arrivals were Italians, Hungarians, Poles, Russians, Rumanians, and Greek, all people whose languages, customs, and appearance set them apart conspicuously from the earlier immigrants of Celtic or Teutonic origin.


5. Many illegal aliens supply cheap labour as farm workers at harvest time or work at mental tasks which Americans shun.


6. On the other hand, many Americans optimistically emphasize the cultural wealth and diversity which immigrants have been bringing to the nation since its conception.


7. The mass immigration at the turn of the century brought a new heterogeneity to American society which challenged WASPs to acknowledge that Americans could be Catholic or Jewish, almond-eyed or olive-skinned.


^ Exercise 6. Fill in the gaps with words and phrases from the list. Change the form if required.


quota crowd into refugee curb assumption overwhelming majority

conspicuous

be willing treaty flee wipe out starvation halt point out shun



1. We want … world hunger by the year 2010.

2. She might have felt less … if there had been other women there too.

3. The UK fishing fleet is likely to reach its annual … after only six months.

4. They … all forms of luxury.

5. Your argument is based on a completely false ….

6. Thousands of … have entered the camps along the borders in recent days.

7. Police caught up with one of the gang, but the other three ….

8. He … the best beaches on the map.

9. Increased interest rates should … inflation.

10. I … to accept every item on the list.

11. We … the kitchen with the others.

12. … voted against his proposal.

13. A serious blight on the potato crop sent hundreds of thousands of Irish people to the US to escape ….

14. He had no difficulty in persuading parliament to approve the ….

15. The search … overnight, then resumed early Thursday morning.


Exercise7. Paraphrase the following sentences.


1. These results will enable us at least to communicate a sense of progress.

2. Intermarrige between ethnic groups usually worked against any strong feeling towards reestablishing the ethnic identity.

3. Maya has been going through a period of a sudden and violent emotional change.

4. He didn’t belong to her plans, so she left him.

5. It is our duty to end any abuses of political power.

6. They have continued to follow a policy of repression.

7. Stories of the New World’s gold attracted the first Spanish explorers, who established remote small towns in what is now Florida.

8. During this period the United States received the greatest number of immigrants ever.

9. Many old stock Americans noticed with alarm that the ethnic composition of the country was changing.

10. Officials have been refused the right to go to the two camps.


Exercise 8. Answer the following questions.


1. How do we identify the society of the USA? Why?

2. What attracted the first immigrants? Where were they from?

3. How were those immigrants distributed throughout the country?

4. Who were unwilling immigrants? What was their social position?

5. What culture had the overriding influence? What does WASP mean?

6. What did the immigrants of other nationalities do not to feel separate?

7. What were the consequences for the Native American Indians?

8. What is called the “old immigration”? Why? Give your reasons.

9. What nationalities comprised the new wave of immigration which began in the late 1800s?

What set them apart conspicuously from the earlier immigrants?

10. What helped immigrants to preserve their culture?

11. What was the source of conflict between old stock Americans and the new immigration? Why? What was the government’s respond?

12. What were the obstacles to assimilation?

13. Characterize the recent immigration.

14. What policy does the government of the United States pursue concerning refugees?

15. What people are called illegal aliens? What problems do they face? What opportunities do they have?

16. What are the arguments for restricting immigration? What are the counter-arguments?

17. Do Americans still consider themselves WASPs? Give your reasons. How has the ethnic composition changed since 1960s?

18. What are Americans aware of today? What is the picture of the American society today?

Unit 2


American Beliefs and Values


Part A (pp.25-29)


Exercise 1. Suggest English equivalents of the following expressions and reproduce the situations in which they are used.


определенное жизненное кредо (p. 25)

вызвать прилив национальной гордости (p. 25)

вера Отцов-Основателей (p. 25)

защищать основные неотъемлимые права каждого человека (p. 25)

соответствовать действительности (p. 25)

верить в себя (p. 26)

экономическая самодостаточность (p. 26)

превозносить как идеал (p. 26)

в духе индивидуализма (p. 26)

выживание в дикой местности (p. 26)

строительство землянок (p. 27)

группы добровольцев по сбору средств (p. 27)

помочь нуждающимся (p. 27)

разработать практическое решение (p. 27)

скудность (p. 27)

на безграничном Западе (p. 27)

вплоть до почти полного исчезновения (p. 28)

принимать новые ценности (p. 28)

общепринятая практика (p. 28)

улучшить жизнь (p. 28)

передавать эти ценности детям (p. 29)

мешать, запрещать меньшинствам пользоваться равными возможностями (p. 29)

добродетель бережливости (p. 29)






^ Exercise 2. Suggest Russian equivalents of the following expressions and reproduce the situations in which they are used.


ideals and values, rooted in the country’s history (p. 25)

give substance to the ideal of freedom (p. 25)

exercise free choice (p. 25)

enjoy the same rights and opportunities (p. 25)

argue for more individual self-reliance (p. 26)

revolt against routine and habitual paths of conduct (p. 26)

confront the hardships on one’s own (p. 26)

on the grounds that (p. 26)

what works is what counts (p. 26)

devise workable solutions (p. 27)

do-it-yourselfers (p. 27)

highly motivated workers (p. 27)

hold clothing drives (p. 27)

take for granted (p. 27)

an abundance of resources (p. 27)

be gradually depleted (p. 27)

be exhausted and abandoned (p. 27)

the least populated region (p. 28)

suffer from a severe water shortage (p. 28)

share the assumption (p. 28)

make a fresh start (p. 28)

a sign of aimlessness (p. 28)

an arduous journey (p. 28)

attachment to place (p. 28)

the sense of national identity (p. 28)

to this extent (p. 29)

elude precise definition (p. 29)

rags-to-riches stories (p. 29)

jolt the country (p. 29)

The 1980s saw a return to… (p. 29)



Exercise 3. Guess the concept of the following definitions.


  1. unlikeness; different kind; variety (p. 25);

  2. absolute sameness; individuality, personality; condition of being a specified person

(p. 25);

  1. harbor, port; (fig) refuge;

  2. intuitive recognition; action by which the mind refers its sensations to external object as cause (p. 25);

  3. made holy by religious association (p. 26);

  4. having rough uneven surface; unsoftened; unpolished; involving hardship (p. 26);

  5. come up out of a liquid; come into view; come out; become known as result of inquiry or trial (p. 26);

  6. gain the mastery, be victorious; be more prominent, predominate (p. 27);

  7. confine, bound, limit (p. 28);

  8. keep, follow, adhere to, perform duly; perceive, mark, watch, take notice of, become conscious of; say, esp. by way of comment; make remark(s) (p. 29);



Exercise 4. Give definitions of the following words and word-combinations.


long (v) (p.25)

flood (v) (p.25)

continuity (n) (p.25)

discourage (v) (p.26)

robust(adj) (p.26)

fertile(adj) (p.27)

alluring(adj) (p.27)

reluctantly(adv) (p.28)

ancestor(n) (p.29)

mainstream(adj) (p.29)



Exercise 5. Translate the following sentences from English into Russian.


  1. Having a particular race or creed of lifestyle doesn’t identify one as American.

  2. They are proud to point out that even today America’s immigration offices are flooded with hopeful applicants who expect the chance for a better life.

  3. The inconsistency of black slavery in a society supposedly dedicated to freedom and equality plagued the nation from the very beginning and was not resolved until the Civil War.

  4. They encouraged individuals to trust in themselves and their own consciences and to revolt against routine and habitual paths of conduct.

  5. The idealization of the self-reliant individual translated itself in the industrial age into the celebration of the small businessman who became a financial success on his own.

  6. “Right to work” laws, which discourage union activity, are defended on the grounds that they protect the independence of the individual worker.

  7. Volunteerism means people helping people through privately-initiated, rather than government-sponsored, agencies.

  8. When a high school football team requires money for uniforms, parents and students form an athletic association which organizes car washes and bake sale to raise money for uniforms.

  9. Some tobacco lands began to be exhausted and abandoned before the end of the eighteenth century, and cotton lands were also abandoned when their fertility was used up.

  10. A further consequence of American’s mobility is that they develop relatively little attachment to place.

  11. It teaches Americans to believe that contentment can be reached through the virtues of thrift, hard work, family loyalty, and faith in the free enterprise system.



Exercise 6. Answer the following questions using the key words in brackets.


  1. Why does the news of smb’s defection to the US arouse a rush of national pride? (give substance to the ideal of freedom)

  2. What is American’s understanding of freedom shaped by? (the Founding Fathers’ belief; protect each person’s basic inalienable rights)

  3. What did the success of American farmers depend on in the early days? (confront the hardships of land and climate on their own)

  4. What is the attitude towards individual proprietorship in the American society? (be extolled as the ideal)

  5. Can you explain what the “can-do” spirit means? (do-it-yourselfers, time-saving, “how-to” books, self-service opportunities)

  6. Who are volunteers? (highly motivated workers, solve a problem, pervasive)

  7. Name the functions of volunteer fund-raising groups (help the needy, hold clothing drives, money-rising dinners)

  8. What does volunteerism reflect? (work out practical solutions)

  9. What is the result of the psychology of abundance? (take for granted, alluring, be gradually depleted, be exhausted and abandoned, fertility, be hunted to near extinction)

  10. Why is the problem of America’s Mountain West so urgent? (the least populated region, be tapped, suffer from a severe water shortage)

  11. Explain the meaning of the expression “make a fresh start” (mobility, share the assumption, practical solution to a problem, a sign of aimlessness, make the arduous journey, attachment to place)

  12. How do you understand the sense of national identity? (observe, the prevalence of patriotic symbols, sporting event, to this extent)

  13. How is progress personally measured in America? (succeeding generation, ancestors, suffer poverty and alienation, make sacrifices, pass the values to their children)

  14. Why does the term American Dream elude precise definition? (rags-to-riches stories, the virtues of thrift, hard work, family loyalty)

  15. Why has there been increasing disparity of opinion about Americans’ values and national goals? (jolt the country, the mainstream values, hold society together, collapse, see a return to smth, a renewal of national pride)



^ Exercise 7. Fill in the gaps with the words and phrases from the list. Change the form if

required.


correspond to reality

exercise free choice

in the spirit of individualism

devise workable solutions

survival in the wilderness

long (v)

sod house construction

diversity

in the limitless West

sacred

adopt new values

rugged

better (v) their lives

argue for more individual self-reliance

bar minorities from equal opportunities







  1. Americans like to think of their country as a welcoming haven for those, … for freedom and opportunity.

  2. A free individual’s identity should be held … .

  3. In American history the concept of “… individualism” is commonly identified with frontier heroes.

  4. What among all of its regional and cultural … gives America its national character?

  5. Segregation and discrimination are effective tools which have … minorities from equal opportunities in all spheres.

  6. They realize that America must … to cope with a shrinking world.

  7. America is populated by immigrants, who … in coming to the New World for a better life.

  8. Most pioneers who went west had not trained themselves in … .

  9. Yet this ideal has not always … .

  10. Government regulation is often resisted … .

  11. They trusted they would be able to … to the daily problems and dangers they faced.

  12. … was best achieved by robust individualists.

  13. There were still inexhaustible acres … .

  14. Americans hate to feel that buying a house might immobilize them forever, thereby inhibiting their chances of … .

  15. Transcendentalist philosophers … .



Exercise 8. Translate from Russian into English.


  1. Из-за религиозной, расовой дискриминации, дискриминации по признаку пола и возраста некоторые американцы не пользовались такими же правами и возможностями, что и другие люди.

  2. Индивидуализм, понимаемый не только как уверенность в собственных силах, но и как экономическая самодостаточность, всегда был центральной темой в американской истории.

  3. Первые колонисты Нового Света писали письма домой, противопоставляя богатства Америки скудности тех мест, откуда они приехали.

  4. В то время когда некоторые американцы все еще верят в неистощимость ресурсов нации, другие неохотно признают, что эра дешевых и богатых ресурсов закончилась.

  5. Переезд с места на место является такой общепринятой практикой, что большинство американцев воспринимают как должное тот факт, что они могут проживать в четырех или пяти городах на протяжении своей жизни.

  6. Следовательно, когда американцы начинают поиски дома, их главной заботой обычно является то, насколько выгодно они смогут перепродать дом.

  7. Иностранцы в Америке быстро замечают широкое распространение патриотических символов.

  8. Восьмидесятые годы стали свидетелем возврата к консервативным семейным ценностям и морали, а также возрождения национальной гордости.



Exercise 9. Topics for general discussion.


  1. Speak about freedom and its importance for Americans.

  2. What is the main idea of individualism?

  3. What does volunteerism mean for the American community?

  4. Has the psychology of abundance changed lately? Why?

  5. Do you think mobility is an inalienable feature of the American lifestyle? Give your reasons.

  6. Why do you think Americans are great patriots?

  7. What is the concept of progress, according to Americans’ views?

  8. Can you illustrate the nature of the American Dream?

Unit 6


Law, Crime, and Justice


Part A (pp.97-102)


Exercise 1. Suggest English equivalents of the following expressions and reproduce the situations in which they are used.


вопросы преступления и наказания; (p.97)

беспристрастный суд присяжных; (p.97)

подать иск в суд; (p.97)

назначаться пожизненно; (p.99)

легализовать аборты; (p.99)

в постоянном страхе чего-либо; (p.99)


положения конституции; (p.97)

казнь на электрическом стуле; (p.101)

камера смерти; (p.101)

сдерживать преступность; (p.102)

ослабить ограничения на…; (p.102)

судимость; (p.102)




^ Exercise 2. Suggest Russian equivalents of the following expressions and reproduce the situations in which they are used.


the right to assemble in public; (p.97)

the purchase of alcohol; (p.97)

to handle a case; (p.99)

to have no obligations; (p.99)

to accommodate the number of inmates; (p.101)


to gain by unlawful search and seizure; (p.100)

to execute by shooting; (p.101)

to loosen restrictions on firearms; (p.102)

a criminal record; rapid-fire combat weapon; (p.102)




^ Exercise 3. Give definitions of the following words and word-combinations.


legislative power

executive power

to nullify

bail


parole

a constitution

the Supreme Court




Exercise 4. Guess the concept of the following definitions.


  • to break;

  • to set up;

  • to make different;

  • when all else has failed;

  • well-known unfavourably;

  • a part of a city; a slum area occupied by a minority group;

  • to take a general view;

  • to understand, to perceive;

  • to take hold forcibly or suddenly

  • to advise professionally;

  • to remove from consideration;

  • compulsory;



Exercise 5. Translate from English into Russian.


  1. The sheer number of Americans employed in the legal profession is overwhelming.

  2. Among the guarantees are freedom of religion, freedom of the press, and freedom to assemble in public.

  3. At the head of the judicial branch is the Supreme Court, the final interpreter of the Constitution.

  4. Auto theft, muggings, robberies, and burglaries occur so frequently that many people live in constant fear of crime.

  5. Crime-stopping and crime prevention are formidable tasks for law enforcement officials, since the social problems which aggravate violence – poverty, unemployment, and unstable families – are likely to persist.

  6. Even sophisticated rapid-fire combat weapons are available.



Exercise 6. Fill in the gaps with appropriate prepositions.


  1. Americans are accustomed … bringing their claims… justice … the courts.

  2. Citizens have the right to be judged … a speedy and public trial … an impartial jury.

  3. The Constitution recognizes that the states have certain rights and authorities … the power …the federal government.

  4. … average, a president can expect to appoint two new Supreme Court justices … one term … office.

  5. Between 1970 and 1980, three prisoners were executed … the death penalty.



Exercise 7. Answer the following questions using the key words in brackets.


  1. How do Americans treat the law? (to hold attention, to be accustomed to, to treat)

  2. What do Americans’ claims for justice rest on? What are the basic rights and freedoms of Americans? (provisions, amendments, to assemble in public, to be judged in, speedy trial)

  3. What did the Constitution of 1787 establish? (a separate branch, final interpreter)

  4. What is the final interpreter of the Constitution?

  5. What is the Constitution of the USA? t (to frame, put into effect)

  6. What is the power of each state? What other courts are there in each state? Are state laws similar or quite different? to establish, county courts, minimum age, to vary)

  7. What cases do federal courts handle? (to arise under, to hear disputes)

  8. Where is a case which falls within federal jurisdiction heard first? Then? (an appeal, in the last resort)

  9. What is the Supreme Court?

  10. What cases does the Supreme Court hear? (to claim, a lower court ruling, to become legally binding)

  11. Does the Supreme Court have the power to make laws? (to examine actions)

  12. In what way does the Supreme Court influence the political, economical, and social life of the country?

  13. What were the examples of its influence in the past? (to nullify, to declare smth. unconstitutional)

  14. Is the judicial branch independent from other branches of government?

  15. Who appoints the nine Supreme Court justices? (to examine, to determine, to be qualified)

  16. What are the obligations of justices? (to uphold the laws)

  17. How many new Supreme Court justices can a president expect to appoint? Why? Give an example. (on average, term of office, to extend power through, to override precedents to legalize abortion)

  18. What is the extent of crime rate in the USA? (notorious, decline, muggings)

  19. What is the task of courts? (to strike a balance, needs of society)

  20. What are the guarantees of the Constitution? (equal justice, suspects, seizure, to testify, the right to counsel, excessive bail)

  21. What rules has the Supreme Court devised to ensure the protection of some rights? What do these rules derive from? (to ensure the protection, to be released from charges)

  22. How do people feel about protections of the criminal suspects? (to get tough with criminals)

  23. What do supporters of the death penalty claim in favour of the capital punishment? (a deterrent to murder, to sentence)

  24. What are the hopes of opponents? (to declare smth. unconstitutional, to apply to, to revise, threat of execution)

  25. What are formidable tasks for law enforcement officials? Why? (crime prevention, to aggravate smth., unstable families, accessibility of handguns, to complicate)

  26. What are the ways of relieving overcrowding of prisons? (to accommodate the number of inmates, parole, to expire)

  27. What is the result of getting tough with criminals in some states? (fill up facilities)

  28. How do lawmakers feel about gun control? (to curb, rapid-fire combat weapon,)

  29. How do citizens feel about gun control? (to require background checks on, a criminal record to ban sale, law-abiding citizens)

  30. What ways do Americans look for to protect their individual rights, to protect themselves from attacks and burglaries? Give examples. (to defend, to be victimized, to be acquitted of minor charge)



Exercise 8. Translate from Russian into English.


  1. Вопросы преступления и наказания всегда привлекали внимание американцев.

  2. Американцы относятся к закону как к части их повседневной жизни.

  3. Если человек понимает, что его юридические права нарушены, то он имеет право подать иск в суд.

  4. Минимальный возраст для вступления в брак и срок за убийство разнится по штатам.

  5. Федеральные судьи назначаются пожизненно.

  6. Решения Верховного Суда окончательны и обязательны.

  7. Бывали прецеденты, когда Верховный Суд аннулировал законы, изданные Конгрессом.

  8. Консерваторы надеялись, что Верховный Суд во главе с судьёй У. Ренквистом, не будет принимать во внимание прецедент о легализации абортов.

  9. У подозреваемого есть право не свидетельствовать против себя, право на юридическую консультацию и т.д.

  10. Доступность оружия – это одна из главных проблем по предотвращению преступности.

  11. Многие законодатели выступают за ужесточение закона о праве владения оружием.



Exercise 9. Topics for general discussion.


  1. Analyze the table (page 98). In what way are state laws similar or quite different?

  2. Capital punishment is unethical and should be banned.

  3. Gun control laws in America and in Russia. Why is the right for self-defense a fundamental one in America?

Unit 9


The Political System


Part A (pp.142-151)


Exercise 1. Suggest English equivalents of the following expressions and reproduce the situations in which they are used.


поклясться соблюдать конституцию

(стр. 142)

Густо= малонаселенные штаты (стр. 143)

проводить социальную политику

(стр. 143)

законы, имеющие обратную силу

(стр. 143)

при равном количестве голосов (стр. 144)

судебный запрет (стр. 145)

оказывать давление/ влияние (стр. 145)

незаконно захватывать власть (стр. 145)

склонить общественное мнение в свою сторону (стр. 146)

воспринимать позицию партии (стр. 149)

наполнить партию духом свободы

( стр. 149)

трудный процесс (стр. 152)

неистовый борец за гражданские права (стр. 152)

плюсы и минусы государственной службы (стр. 153)

злоупотреблять доверием общества

( стр.153)

незаконные доходы, взятки, подкуп

(стр. 153)

приводить нюансы, делали (стр.154)

взаимодействовать с кем-либо (стр. 155)

проверить характер человека (стр. 156)

образованные люди (стр. 159)



^ Exercise 2. Suggest Russian equivalents of the following expressions and reproduce the situations in which they are used.


system of checks and balances (p. 142)

areas of wide concern (p.142)

concurrent powers (p. 142)

to provide voter qualifications (p.143)

a “conference committee” (p. 144)

to entertain foreign leaders (p.144)

to overturn a law (p.144)

to have a negative connotation (p. 146)

political affiliation (p. 148)

vague party programs = rigors of political ideology (p. 149)

to undergo initiation (p. 150)

to pay membership dues (p. 150)

low voter turnout (p.150)

a strong advocate of smth (p.152)

to leave the tired old baggage of bigotry (p.155)

to hold high office (p. 154)

to enhance one’s life (p. 154)

crass mediocrity (p. 155)

it’s inherent in human nature (p. 156)

nuclear proliferation = a nuclear freeze

(p. 163)

vexing problems (p. 164)






Exercise 3. Guess the concept of the following definitions.


  1. a system of government in which several states form a unity but remain independent in internal affairs. (p.142)

  2. the process of making someone a legal citizen of a country that they were not born in (p. 143)

  3. issue-oriented groups with broad concerns (p.146)

  4. existing in three parts (p. 155)

  5. a person who changes from one opinion to an opposite one in a way which shows that they are not loyal to people who share the original opinion.



Exercise 4. Give definitions of the following words and word-combinations.


democracy (p. 142)

concurrent powers (p.142)

a “conference committee” (p. 144)

a lobbyist (p.146)

an ombudsman (p.155)

Medicare / Medicaid (p.160)

Social Security (p.160)






Exercise 5. Answer the following questions using the key words in brackets.


1. Name the form of government in the USA. What is a democracy? What does the nation’s

Constitution define? (vote for ; swear to abide by the Constitution).

2. What features were created to guard against the possibility of concentrating power in the hands of few? (principle of limited government; to guard against; separation of powers;

a system of checks and balances).

3. What is federalism? Name the powers that the federal government and the states possess.

(areas of wide concern; provide for; establish its own criminal justice system)

4. What are so called concurrent powers? Study the table on p. 143 (enforce laws, provide for the health & welfare; )

5. Describe the function of the legislative branch. What is Congress comprised of? ( are elected to serve; heavily, sparsely populated states; the term is; stands for election)

6. Who is engaged in making laws? Describe the procedure of creating a law. (initiate legislation; a bill is introduced; the bill is voted on; reject a bill; a ”conference committee” is made up of; is sent for his signature)

7. What is the executive branch responsible for? (administer the laws; preside over)

8. Describe the powers of the president. (appoint secretaries; entertain foreign leaders; make treaties; serve as; is elected to a 4-year term)

9. What two constitutional duties is the vice-president assigned? ( preside over; in the event of a tie; assume presidency). Name the unique feature of the American system.

10. What is the third branch of government? What is its important function? ( is headed by; to determine laws; violate the Constitution)

11. Why does no branch of government have superior power? Give examples of how the system of checks & balances works. ( limit the powers; veto laws; override a veto; overturn a law; usurp power )

12. How can groups & individuals exert pressure and try to influence government policy?

(elected officials; circulate petitions; exert influence).

13. What are “interest groups” in the USA? What do they focus on? What do different types of interest groups have in common? ( issue-oriented; focus on; to sway public opinion; )

14. Who is a lobbyist? What are their duties& functions? Why do they play a significant role in American democracy? Study the picture on p.158 and comment on it. ( exert direct pressure; specialize in smth; possess an insider’s view; have a negative connotation; resent interference; turn to them for valuable data;)

15. Name the tree features characterizing the party system in the USA.

16. What two political groupings emerged when the nation was founded? Prove that the balance between the Democrats & the Republicans has shifted back & forth. (two –party system; alternate in power; dominate politics; retain support at local levels)

17. What are the main differences between Democrats & Republicans ? How do Americans perceive the stance of these parties? (embrace a wide range ; overall political & economic goals;

favor private enterprise; perceive the stance)

18. What are so called “third parties”? Why are they incapable of assuming power? (attract voters; win a seat; fade away)

19. What is the main reason of the lack of party unity within American parties?(disagreement is common; vote against the party line; contrast sharply with smth; parties are decentralized; clarify issues; undergo no initiation; pay no membership dues)

20. What are the factors that contribute to low voter turnout? (lose interest; elections are held on; voters’ choice is limited; the outcome of the election)


Exercise 6. Match the words and word combinations with their definitions and use them in the sentences of your own.


1. The act of obtaining money or advantage A. advocate

through the dishonest use of political power

and influence


2. difficult, tiring & needing a lot of effort B. graft


3. someone who publicly supports or suggests C. usurp

an idea, development or way of doing smth


4. a person who doesn’t have much skill or ability D. the nuts and bolts

at anything


5. to take control or a position of power, esp. Without E. arduous

having the right to


6. existing as a natural or basic part of smth F. inherent


7. the practical facts about a particular thing rather G. mediocrity

than theoretical ideas about it


Exercise 7. Complete the sentences with one of the following appropriate words:


rigours, turncoat, a tie, to imbue, usurp, injunction, exert, mettle, graft,

vexing, nuts& bolts, inherent, to sway, vague


1. The result of the election was .

2. Through the mist I could just make out a … figure.

3. The government has to deal with the …problems of how to reduce spending

4. His speech failed to … his colleagues into supporting the plan.

5. When it came to the … of running a business, he was clearly unable

to cope.

6. His poetry is … with deep religious feeling.

7. They survived the …of the winter.

8. The real test of her political …came in the May elections.

9. The court has issued an … to prevent the airline from increasing its prices.

10. Don’t believe him. He is a traitor and a ….

11. Some managers … considerable pressure on their staff to work extra hours

without being paid.

12. There are risks …in almost every sport.

13. The whole government was riddled with …, bribery & corruption.

14. The powers of local councils are being … by central government.


Exercise 8. Translate from Russian into English.


1. Система сдержек и противовесов не позволяет ни одной из ветвей власти узурпировать ее.

2. Низкая явка избирателей объяснялась расплывчатостью программы партии и невозможностью осветить вопросы общегосударственной важности.

3. Опрос общественного мнения показал, как Американцы воспринимают позицию той или иной партии по таким волнующим вопросам, как - нераспространение ядерного вооружения, война в Ираке, проблемы социальной политики.

4. Идеи демократии наполнили партию духом свободы, а внимание к вопросам личности и семьи помогли завоевать общественное мнение.

5. Этот трудный процесс проверил характер многих наших товарищей и не все прошли процедуру инициации.

6. Голосование закончилось равным количеством голосов и согласительная комиссия

должна урегулировать этот вопрос.

7. Мистер Браун, известный борец за гражданские права, подробно описал все нюансы, взлеты и падения этой нелегкой борьбы.

8. Как глава государства, президент принимает глав иностранных государств, выступает с обращениями к народу, назначает послов и министров, заключает договоры с другими странами.

9. Удивительно, что такой образованный человек родом из удаленного, малонаселенного штата, Я рад, что он займет высокий пост и сможет положить конец посредственности и незаконным доходам.

10. Новый уполномоченный по правам человека поклялся соблюдать закон, взаимодействовать со своими коллегами, отказаться от пресловутого фанатизма и не злоупотреблять доверием общественности.


Exercise 9. Topics for general discussion.


1. Compare the political system of the USA and Russia. What are the differences and similarities?

2. Comment on the following (p.150)

“ Political parties, interest groups, and elections are opportunities for citizens to participate in the democratic process”. How can Russian people be politically involved?

3. It’s common knowledge that Democrats & Republicans tend to be similar. Do you favour political homogeneity or political pluralism?

4. Speak about the doctrine of separation of powers, by who it was propounded. How it is

exercised and whether it has influenced government structures in the countries worldwide.

Unit 11


Education


Part A (pp.188-192)


Exercise 1. Suggest Russian equivalents of the following expressions and reproduce the situation in which they are used.



school attendance (p.188)

tuition (p. 188)

census Bureau (p. 189)

core curriculum course (p. 189)

rigorous standards (p. 189)

lax standards (p. 189)

degree factory (p. 190)

penmanship (p. 190)

to boast (p. 190)

to eliminate (p. 190)

desegregation (p. 191)

to speed up (p. 191)

education gap (p. 191)

handicapped children (p. 192)

illiterate (p. 192)

academic curricula (p. 192)

sacrifice(p. 192)



^ Exercise 2. Suggest English equivalents of the following expressions.


начальное образование (стр.188)

среднее образование (стр. 188)

высшее образование (стр.188)

работа над дипломом; (стр.188)

преддипломная работа (стр.188)

работа над диссертацией (стр.188)

быть зачисленным (стр.189)

комитет по вопросам образования (стр.190)

тест на проверку знаний (стр.190)

вклад (стр.190)

обязательные предметы (стр.190)

обязательное образование (стр.190)

посещать школу (стр.190)

чистописание (стр.190)

обязательная доставка учеников автобусом до школы и обратно (стр.191)



^ Exercise 3. Give the concept of the following definition.


1) the price of or payment for an institution;

2) to be engaged in formal studies after the graduation;

3) to be inserted, registered in a list, catalogue etc;

4) not tense, firm or rigid;

5) very strict;

6) a test to check the quality of being competent;

7) the course offered by an educational institution ;

8) a quality or style of handwriting ;


^ Exercise 4. Give definitions of the following words word-combinations.


to eliminate (p.190)

contribution (p.190)

to boast (p. 190)

desegregation (p. 191)

to speed up (p.191)

compulsory (p.191)

illiterate (p.192)

to sacrifice (p.192)



^ Exercise 5. Translate the following passage from English into Russian.


Educational opportunities in the United States are highly varied. High school students at the same grade level do not take the same courses. Students who do not plan to go to college may be enrolled in classes such as basic accounting, typing, or agricultural science, along with “core” curriculum courses such as mathematics, social studies and English. College-bound students may be enrolled in college-preparatory courses such as chemistry, political science, or advanced writing. Which courses a student takes depend on his or her abilities and future goals, but also on the particular course offerings of the school. Some elementary schools offer computer and foreign language courses.


Exercise 6. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English.


  1. Посещение школs обязательно для всех детей и они проводят в школе от пяти до семи часов каждый день.

  2. Государственное образование, начиная с детского сада и до 12 лет, осуществляется за счет налоговых выплат, плата за обучение не взимается.

  3. Помимо колледжей и университетов, которые предлагают степень в традиционной области познания, существует множество маленьких колледжей, которые предлагают сконцентрироваться на такой узкой области как, например, балет или режиссура.

  4. Стандарты, которым должны соответствовать студенты, чтобы получить степень, в некоторых школах очень высокие, а в некоторых слишком заниженные.

  5. Хотя не существует единой государственной программы обучения, определенные предметы преподаются во всех государственных школах страны.

  6. Одной из мер, которая ускорила процесс устранения расовой дискриминации в школах, стала доставка темнокожих детей в школу на автобусах.

  7. Традиционно идеал американского образования являет собой предоставление одинаковых возможностей для образования всем гражданам.

  8. Из-за того, что обычные школы слишком плохо оснащены и не подходят специальным требованиям, которым должна отвечать школа для детей инвалидов, такие дети вынуждены посещать дорогие частные школы.

  9. Идеал американского образования – одинаковые образовательные возможности всем гражданам.

  10. Если дети посещают разные школы одного уровня - это не значит, что программы в этих школах совпадают, совпадать может лишь базовый курс, курс основных предметов, таких как математика, история, и т.д.



^ Exercise 7. Fill in the gaps with words and phrases from the list. Change the form if required.


eliminate

board of education

penmanship

lax

rigorous

enroll

tuition compulsory


1. School attendance is … for all children.

2. Public education from kindergarten through grade 2 is tax-supported; no … is required.

3. Those who don’t plan to go to college may …in accounting classes, for example.

4. The standards which must be met to attain a high school diploma are different, they can be … in some schools and … in others.

5. In public schools the decisions about school …are made by ……

6. Almost every elementary school instructs children in …

7. …inequalities, the federal government has increased its share of school financing.


Exercise 8 Fill in the gaps with prepositions from the list.


in(2) at(2) by on

to from for up




  1. Most private schools are run … religious organizations.

  2. The education system in the US has made significant advances … educating an ever greater proportion of the population.

  3. High school students … the same grade level do not take the same course.

  4. Some students may be enrolled … classes such as basic accounting.

  5. Which courses a student takes depends … his or her abilities.

  6. There are small arts colleges which grand degrees … students who concentrate in specialized field.

  7. … the end of the spectrum are less desirable institutions, which accept any high school graduate.

  8. Public schools receive the bulk of their funds … local property taxes.

  9. the first major contribution of federal aid … education was in 1965.

  10. Another measure introduced to speed … integration was compulsory bussing.



Exercise 9. Answer the following questions.


  1. How many times do children have to attend school a week? (how many hours a day)

  2. What advances were made to American education system according to a 1985 Census Bureau Study?

  3. What are the educational opportunities in the United States?

  4. What optional subjects can be offered at elementary and high schools?

  5. What are the main reasons for such diversity in course offerings?

  6. What institutions referred to as “degree factories”? And why?

  7. Who decides the selection of textbooks?

  8. Where do the public schools receive their funds from?

  9. Is the education that each child receives equal?

  10. What are the reasons for such inequalities in education?

  11. What steps are made to sped up the process of desegregation?

  12. What can you tell about the handicapped children?

  13. What are the claims made by the national Commission on Excellence in Education?



Exercise 10. Topics for general discussion.


  1. Educational opportunities in the United States and in Russia.

  2. There is no national education system in the United States.

  3. The ways of financing education in the US and in Russia.







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