Учебно-методическое пособие для студентов гуманитарных специальностей вузов Втрех частях icon

Учебно-методическое пособие для студентов гуманитарных специальностей вузов Втрех частях

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Sequence of Tenses and REPORTED SPEECH


Unit 1

1. Open the brackets using the correct tense form.

  1. We were not sure that Linda would find Mary. We were afraid she (not, know) her address.

  2. I didn’t introduce Paul to Katherine. I was sure they (know) each other.

  3. Galileo proved that the Earth (move) round the Sun.

  4. The Campbells were away. We learnt that they (travel) about Wales.

  5. My friend called on me yesterday. He boasted he (get) two tickets for the match.

  6. They’ve just announced that the exam in Economics (be put off) till the end of the next term.

  7. The advertisement read that the performance (be) free, but when we got there, we found we had to pay.

  8. I hoped that she (mature) as the years went by.

  9. We decided that we (travel) to Venice by sea rather than go by air.

  10. Mrs White was sure that she (be still working up) for that company the whole next year.

Unit 3

^ 2. Turn the following statements into Reported Speech.

  1. “There is too much violence on TV,” said Tessa.

  2. “If the taxi-driver arrives late you will miss your flight,” he said to her.

  3. “I would travel abroad if I had enough money,” said Sam.

  4. “I’ve been shopping. I bought you a nice pair of shoes,” Mrs Brown said to her husband.

  5. “I have eaten nothing for two days, I’m dying of hunger,” he said to her.

  6. “The Earth is a planet,” she said.

  7. “I’ve been training hard recently,” he told the reporters.

  8. “While the workers were repairing the roof, they broke the bathroom window,” she complained.

  9. “I think I failed the Intelligence Test,” Jim said.

  10. “You never listen to me, Sarah,” he complained.

  11. “Those are the boys who chased me,” Olivia said.

  12. “She has been waiting for a long time,” she said.

  13. “We came by car,” they said.

  14. “I’ve finished the letters you asked me to write,” Margaret said.

  15. “My money had run out,” she said to her husband.

  16. “I have been waiting for you in the hall,” he said to her.

  17. I’m going to Lancaster in May,” he said to me today.

  18. “I went to a bullfight during my stay in Spain,” she said to him.

  19. “I try to avoid working overtime,” he said.

  20. “The baby will probably be walking and talking by the next time you come,” she said to him.

  21. “I’m going to tell the whole story to the police,” she said to him.

  22. “I’ve bought a present for you,” he said.

  23. “My friend collects unusual ashtrays,” he said.

  24. “We will get on well together,” she said to me.

  25. “That was a wonderful party,” said Martin.

Unit 4

^ 3. Report the following questions.

  1. “Have you ever been to Europe?” he inquired.

  2. “How long are you planning to stay in Britain?” he asked her.

  3. “How much money have you brought for your stay?” he asked.

  4. “Who paid the bill?” she asked me.

  5. “Have you heard the news on the radio?” she inquired.

  6. “Which countries will John be visiting?” she asked him.

  7. “Where does John’s sister work?” she asked him.

  8. “Will you be coming to the concert or not?” she wanted to know.

  9. “Why are those old men singing?” he asked her.

  10. “What made her smile?” he requested.

  11. “What was she holding in her left hand?” he asked.

  12. “What’s your husband interested in?” she asked her.

  13. “Do you like the boy that is talking to Julia ?” he asked.

  14. “Has Bill shown the kitchen plans to you yet?” she asked him.

  15. “What are you doing these days?” he asked me.

  16. “How long have you both been living here?” he asked.

  17. “Who left the bag here?” he asked him.

  18. “What will you be doing this time tomorrow?” he asked her.

  19. “When will we know the exam results,” she asked the teacher.

  20. “Where do you get your daily paper?” he asked.

  21. “What makes a noise like that?” he wondered.

  22. “Did you have a long argument on this point?” he asked.

  23. “Which newspaper carried the article?” she asks.

  24. “Did the boys look smart in their school uniforms?” she asked him.

  25. “You don’t like Chinese food, do you?” he asked.

Unit 5

^ 4. Report the following commands, requests, and suggestions. Change an introductory verb, if necessary.

  1. “We’ll pay for the damage,” they told us.

  2. “Don’t forget to do the washing-up,” Mum said to me.

  3. “We should send some money to David,” he proposed.

  4. “I’ll definitely finish the work by the end of the week,” he said.

  5. “Could I speak to the manager, please?” he said.

  6. “Don’t throw old wine away, you can always use it for cooking,” she said.

  7. “To make tea taste better, warm the tea-leaves before you use them,” she advised.

  8. “I think you had better phone the police,” she told him.

  9. “Come and see me after the lecture,” the professor said to the student.

  10. “I really must have a rest,” Laura said.

  11. “All right. I won’t talk about tennis,” Paul said to his friends.

  12. “Do have a drink,” Clara told us.

  13. “Shall I talk to him?” he asked.

  14. “Why don’t you come to the mountains with me next weekend?” he said to her.

  15. “Please, don’t tell mother,” she begged him.

  16. “You lied to me,” Frank said to Ann.

  17. “Don’t ever offer a cigar to Al,” he said to Jim.

  18. “I wonder if you could pass the spinach to me?” she said to him.

  19. “I’ll punish you if you behave badly,” Dad told the boy.

  20. “I’m sorry I forgot to call you,” Steve said.

  21. “I’m the best volleyball player in the school,” Martin told me.

  22. “Drive carefully,” she told him.

  23. “Yes, I took the documents,” she told him.

  24. “Shall I help you with the cooking?” she said.

  25. “Stand to attention!” he commanded the soldiers.

Unit 6

^ 5. Turn the following sentences with the modals into Reported Speech.

  1. “You should do as you are told,” she said.

  2. “How should I have answered?” he said.

  3. “We can meet next week,” she told him.

  4. “I may call you,” she said to them.

  5. “How shall I start the investigation?” he asked them.

  6. “Shall I carry the bag for you?” he said.

  7. “You must be back at ten sharp,” she told him.

  8. “He must be a liar,” she said.

  9. “You needn’t feed the dog. I’ve already done it,” he said.

  10. “You had better phone him,” she said.

  11. “I could run very fast when I was a boy,” he said.

  12. “You may leave early,” he told her.

  13. “One day I’ll be able to afford a car,” she said.

  14. “You ought to send them a letter of apology,” he said.

  15. “Did you have to walk all the way home?” he asked her.

Total: 100/_______


By the term sequence of tenses is meant the relationship of tense forms of verbs in a sentence.

The verb of a subordinate clause is made to agree with a principal verb according to the following rules:

1. Principal verbs in the present or the future tenses take subordinate verbs in any tense:

He says he has to go/ will go/ had to go.

He will understand that he has been in the wrong/was in the wrong.

2. Principal verbs in the past-time tenses should be followed by subordinate verbs that denote past time (Past Indefinite, Past Perfect, Past Continuous or Future-in-the-Past):

He said he had to go/ would go.

He said that he had won.

He had tried hard in order that he might win.

3. If the subordinate clause expresses a general truth – a fact that is true for all time – a past tense in a principal clause may be followed by a present tense in a subordinate clause:

John said that Minsk is the capital of Belarus.

The rules of Sequence of Tenses are not characteristic of Russian, and these differences in the language systems cause some problems in translation. Cf.:

He said (that) Mary translated Он сказал, что Мэри переводит

articles without a dictionary. статьи без словаря.

He said (that) Mary was translating Он сказал, что Мэри переводит

the article in her room. статью в своей комнате.

He said (that) Mary would give me Он сказал, что Мэри даст ему

the article when she translated it. статью, когда она ее


Он сказал, что пишет ей письма He said (that) he wrote to her daily.

каждый день.

Он сказал, что он сейчас ей пишет He said (that) he was writing a letter

письмо. to her.

Он сказал, что он написал ей He said (that) he had written to

об этом. her about it.

The rules of Sequence of Tenses are especially active in Reported Speech when speakers need to introduce grammatical changes to show the differences between their current situation and the situation they are reporting.

Besides the change of the tense forms there are some other special strategies in indirect speech: changing time and place references, personal pronouns and reporting verbs. The basic rules for forming indirect, or Reported Speech are presented below.

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