Учебно-методическое пособие для студентов гуманитарных специальностей вузов Втрех частях icon

Учебно-методическое пособие для студентов гуманитарных специальностей вузов Втрех частях


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NUMERALS




^
Entry test

1.

  1. seven hundred thousand

  2. one thousand five hundred and two, or fifteen hundred and two

  3. five hundred thousand and ninety-seven

  4. two hundred and three thousand six hundred and ten

  5. four thousand five hundred million seven hundred thousand


2.

  1. eleven hundred

  2. nineteen ninety-nine

  3. nineteen [ou] five

  4. three thousand B. C. ; (or thirty hundred B. C.)

  5. two thousand and ten


3.

1) second 2) fouth 3) fifth 4) eighth 5) ninth 6) eighteenth 7) nineteenth 8) twentieth 9) twenty-first 10) thirtieth


4.

  1. three hundred and twenty five (in US: three hundred twenty five)

  2. seven hundred and nineteen (US: seven hundred nineteen)

  3. three thousand and seventy seven (US: three thousand seventy-seven)

  4. one/a hundred and one passengers

  5. six hundred men

  6. seven o five o; nine o

  7. thirty – love

  8. an eighth (or one eighth)

  9. three eighths

  10. one and four ninths

  11. two-thirds of the population

  12. two hundred and twenty over four hundred and eight

  13. seven tenths of a mile.

  14. nought point five, or point five (US: zero point five)

  15. three point three seven five (or three point three hundred and seventy-five)

  16. sixteen hundred B. C., or one thousand six hundred B. C.


5.

      1. Three thousand and forty-two voters selected Ross. (A number that starts a sentence should always be spelled out, even if is over 100.)

      2. forty-five. (Numbers under 100 are usually spelled out.)

      3. ninety-nine percent. (Numbers under 100 are usually spelled out.)

      4. One/A hundred and thirty-five men. (A number that starts a sentence should always be spelled out, even if is over 100.)

      5. A third. (It is better to write out ordinal numbers unless they are used in special texts.)

      6. No change is necessary.

      7. Please, refer to page 184 in chapter 6 of your history book. (Whenever mentioning parts of a book (page numbers, sections, chapters, exercises), use figures.)

      8. At eight the gong sounded for supper. (A number that starts a sentence should always be spelled out, even if is over 100.)

      9. The show was visited by 1,525 people. (In writing, commas (but not full stops) are used to separate thousands.)

      10. Three thousand pounds. (A definite number of the word 'thousand' is not made plural and is never followed by of.)

      11. Eleven thousand one hundred. (When other numbers are used before hundred, thousand, etc., one, not a, is more usual.)

      12. Correct. (In special or technical texts cardinals and ordinals should always be indicated by figures.)

      13. A sample schedule appears on page 5. (Whenever mentioning parts of a book (page numbers, sections, chapters, exercises), figures are used.)

      14. Private property worth $2,500,000. (In writing, commas (but not full stops) are used to separate thousands.)

6.

  1. Millions of people die every year from starvation.

  2. I’ve told him so hundreds of times.

  3. He paid several million dollars.

  4. Is it tram 5?

  5. Read Lesson 5 again.

  6. You owe me two hundred and eighty-one dollars.

  7. Seven is a lucky number.

  8. He lives in Flat 5.

  9. Four hundred of people are participating in the Congress.

  10. Forty-two dollars and twenty-five cents covered all his expenses.

  11. Thirteen were from California.

  12. You’ll need a dozen eggs to make the cake.

  13. He was the hundred and first customer.

  14. I usually go to my work by bus 10.

  15. There are more than 250 houses in this street.

  16. In 358 A. D. they conquered the island.

  17. Eighteen is a wonderful age.

  18. The book was published in the seventies/in the ’70s/in the 1970s.

  19. They stayed (for) a quarter of an hour.

  20. A tenth of the population is illiterate.


Exercise 5

  1. third. (Ordinal numbers are usually spelled out.)

  2. ten, twenty-two. (Numbers under 100 are spelled out.)

  3. $2 million, first. (Large numbers are spelled out. Ordinal numbers are spelled out.)

  4. nineteenth. (Ordinal numbers are spelled out.)

  5. One thousand one hundred and thirty nine. (Numbers that begin a sentence are spelled out.)

  6. four, 8. (Numbers under 100 are spelled out but parts of a book are referred to by figures.)

  7. Correct. (It is usually clearer to use figures when writing a fraction.)

  8. Two hundred and twenty-five people. (A number that starts a sentence should always be spelled out, even if is over 100.)

  9. twelwe chairs. Numbers under 100 are usually spelled out.

  10. three soldiers. (Numbers under 100 are usually spelled out.)

  11. One/A hundred and thirty-five men. (A number that starts a sentence should always be spelled out, even if is over 100.)

  12. A third. (It is better to write out ordinal numbers unless they are used in special texts.

  13. No change is necessary.


Exercise 8

  1. Fifty one books.

  2. A (one) hundred people.

  3. Three hundred and seventy-one/seventy-one applications.

  4. Six hundred people.

  5. A (one) million (1,000,000) red roses.

  6. Hundreds of people come here annually.

  7. Four hundred and twenty-seven thousand five hundred and twenty.

  8. Two thousand shoppers/clients/purchases.

  9. Twenty-one days.

  10. Twenty-three thousand.

  11. One thousand two hundred and fifty.

  12. One thousand and first tourist.

  13. England won 4:0 (four nil/ (to) nothing).

  14. Fifty kilograms

  15. Three hundred cars

  16. Sixty-one grams

  17. Two million two hundred thousand and one tons.

  18. Hundreds of cases.

  19. Three thousand and one roubles.

  20. Three of my friends.



Progress Test

1.

  1. five hundred and three

  2. six thousand and fifteen, or sixty hundred and fifteen

  3. seven thousand one hundred and forty, or seventy-one hundred and forty

  4. one thousands nine hundred and ten, or nineteen hundred and ten.

  5. two thousand one hundred and six, or twenty one hundred and six.


2.

  1. nineteen hundred

  2. nineteen eighty-four

  3. sixteen o ([ou]) one

  4. two thousand

  5. two thousand and three


3.

1) first 2) third 3) fifth 4) ninth 5) twelfth 6) nineteenth 7) fortieth 8) one hundredth 9) one hundred and first 10) four hundredth


4.

  1. There are two million books in the library.

  2. Millions of people will watch the Olympic games in Greece.

  3. ‘One/a million red roses’ is her favourite song.

  4. I’ll go by bus 10.

  5. Open the book at page 57.

  6. A thousand and one nights.

  7. John has a third and I have two thirds of the shares.

  8. Chapter 7 is the most interesting.

  9. Five thousand two hundred and forty-five votes were enough for him to win the elections.

  10. The work is nine-tenths finished.

  11. Two hundred and ten guests arrived from different parts of the country.

  12. Dozens of apples were under the tree.

  13. Eleven thousand people make up the population of this town.

  14. He was only fifty-four but he looked very old.

  15. I have already read more than 450 pages.

  16. It happened in 309 B. C.

  17. He earns over a million a year.

  18. She is in her forties.

  19. They stayed (for) a half hour/ half an hour.

  20. Two thirds of the population voted for him.


Bibliography



  1. Каушанская В.Л., Ковнер Р.Л., Кожевникова О.Н. и др. Грамматика английского языка (на англ. яз.). – Ленинград: Просвещение, 1973.

  2. Каушанская В.Л., Ковнер Р.Л., Кожевникова О.Н. и др. Сборник упражнений по грамматике английского языка. – Ленинград: Просвещение, 1973.

  3. Alexander, L.G. Longman English Grammar. – Longman, 1997.

  4. Azar, Betty Schramper. Fundamentals of English Grammar. – New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc., 1985.

  5. Carter, R., Hughes, R. and McCarthy, M. Exploring Grammar in Context. – Cambridge: CUP, 2000.

  6. Carter, R., Hughes, R. and McCarthy, M. Grammar Reference and Practice. – Cambridge: CUP, 2000.

  7. Carton-Sprenger, J., Greenhall, S. Flying Colours. – Heineman, 1992.

  8. Collins Cobuild Student's Grammar. Practice Material by Dave Willis. Self-study edition with answer keys. – Birmingham: The University of Birmingham, 1993.

  9. Collins Cobuild English Grammar. – Birmingham: Harper Collins Publishers, 1994.

  10. Craig, Ruth Parle. 1001 Pitfalls in English Grammar. – New York: Barron’s Educational Series, Inc., 1986.

  11. Evans, V. FCE use of English. – Express Publishing, 2000.

  12. Huddleston, Rodney and Pullum, Geoffrey K. The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. – Cambridge: CUP, 2002.

  13. Leech, Geoffrey and Svartvik, Jan. A Communicative Grammar of English. – Moscow: Prosveshcheniye, 1983.

  14. Murphy, Raymond. Essential Grammar In Use. A self-study reference and practice book for elementary students of English. – Cambridge: CUP, 1997.

  15. Murphy, Raymond. English Grammar In Use. A self-study reference and practice book for intermediate students. – Cambridge: CUP, 1994.

  16. Super Review of English Language. New Jersey: Research and Educational Association, 2000.

  17. Swan, Michael. Practical English Usage. – Oxford: OUP, 1986.

  18. Thomson, A.S., Martinet, A.V. A Practical English Grammar. – Oxford: OUP, 1986.

  19. Thomson, A.S. and Martinet, A.V. A Practical English Grammar. Exercises. – Oxford: OUP, 1990.

  20. Vince, M. Advanced Language Practice. – Heinemann, 1994.

  21. Vince, M. Intermediate Language Practice. – Heinemann, 1998.

Dictionaries





  1. Fowler, H.W. A Dictionary of Modern English Usage. – Greenwich House, 1983.

  2. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. – Longman Group Limited, 1978.

  3. Longman Language Activation. – Longman Group UK Limited, 1995.



C O N T E N T S

Chapter 7. VERBS.

Modal verbs

3





Entry test

3

Unit 1. Meaning and use

8

Unit 2. Can/Could

10

§ 1. Can/could to express ability or capability

10

§ 2. Can/could to express possibility, choices and opportunities

11

§ 3. Can/could to express uncertainty, doubt, astonishment and improbability


12

§ 4. Can/could: to express permission, requests, and offers

13

§ 5. Can/could in set phrases

13

Unit 3. May/Might

18

§ 1. May/might to express permission

19

§ 2. May/might to express possibility

19

§ 3. May/might to express wishes, persuasive requests, and criticism


20

§ 4. May/might in set phrases

20

§ 5. Compare may and can for permission and possibility

21

Unit 4. Must

24

§ 1. Must to express obligation and prohibition

25

§ 2. Must to express a command and an emphatic request

25

§ 3. Must to express supposition

26

§ 4. Compare must and may for supposition and prohibition

26

Unit 5. Need

29

Unit 6. To have (got) + Infinitive

32

Unit 7. To be + Infinitive

34

Unit 8. Must, to have to, and to be to in comparison

37

Unit 9. Should and ought to

41

§ 1. Should and ought to in comparison

41

§ 2. Must, should, and ought to in comparison

42

§ 3. Emotional should: in subordinate clauses, emphatic constructions


43

Unit 10. Shall

46

Unit 11. Will and would

48

§ 1. Will and would for characteristic habit, criticizing, natural tendency, and requests


48

§ 2. Will and would for intention, insistence, certainty or supposition



50

^ REVIEW EXERCISES

53

PROGRESS TEST

57


MOOD. CONDITIONAL SENTENCES


62

Entry test

62

Unit 1. The Indicative, Imperative and Subjunctive Moods

§ 1. Mood. General Information

§ 2. The Subjunctive Mood

66

66

67

Unit 2. Three Types of Conditional Sentences

68

Unit 3. Type I Conditionals with Real Condition

69

Unit 4. Type II Conditionals with an Unreal Condition
in the Present



75

Unit 5. Type III Conditionals with an Unreal Condition
in the Past



81

Unit 6. Mixed Conditionals

87

Unit 7. "If only","I wish"

90

^ REVIEW EXERCISES

95

PROGRESS TEST

102

Sequence of Tenses and REPORTED SPEECH


106

Entry test

106

Unit 1. Sequence of Tenses

109

Unit 2. Reported Speech. Meaning and use

112

Unit 3. Reported statements

115


Unit 4. Reported questions

124

Unit 5. Reported commands, requests, suggestions

131

Unit 6. Modals in Reported Speech

138


^ REVIEW EXERCISES

141

PROGRESS TEST

154

CHAPTER 8. VERBALS (NONFINITE FORMS
OF THE VERB)



157

Entry test

157

Unit 1. General Information

160

Unit 2. The Infinitive

161

§ 1. General Information

161

§ 2. The Use of Particle to with the Infinitive

162

§ 3. Forms of the Infinitive

166

§ 4. The Functions of the Infinitive

167

§ 5. The Infinitive Constructions

178

5.1. Complex Object with the Infinitive

178

5.2. Complex Subject
(The Subjective Infinitive Construction)


183

5.3. The For-to-Infinitive Construction

186

Unit 3. The Gerund

189


§ 1. General Information

189

§ 2. The Forms of the Gerund

189

§ 3. The Functions of the Gerund

190

§ 4. The Use of the Gerund

190

Unit 4. The Participles (Participle I and Participle II)

204

§ 1. General Information

204

§ 2. The Forms of the Participles

204

§ 3. The Functions of the Participles

205

§ 4. Participial Constructions

215

4.1. Complex Object

215

4.2. Absolute Participial Construction

217

§ 5. Parenthesis

219

^ REVIEW EXERCISES

220

PROGRESS TEST

229






^ CHAPTER 9. NUMERALS

234


Entry test

234

Unit 1. Numerals. Meaning and Use

236

^ PROGRESS TEST

246







KEYS

248

BIBLIOGRAPHY

278















Учебное издание


^ Система открытого образования


Бахтадзе Екатерина Александровна

Симанович Оксана Станиславовна

Лещева Людмила Модестовна

и др.220,65


^ Практическая грамматика английского языка

для среднего и продвинутого уровней обучения


Учебно-методическое пособие
для студентов гуманитарных специальностей вузов


В трех частях


Часть 3


Под общ. ред. д-ра филол. наук, проф. Л.М. Лещевой

В авторской редакции

Ответственный за выпуск Л.М. Лещева

Технический редактор Т.В. Жибуль

Художник обложки О.А. Стасевич

Компьютерная верстка Н.Н. Котовой


Подписано в печать 12.05.2006.

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