Учебно-методическое пособие для студентов гуманитарных специальностей вузов Втрех частях icon

Учебно-методическое пособие для студентов гуманитарных специальностей вузов Втрех частях


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E x e r c i s e s



1. Turn the following statements into Reported Speech. Mind the changes of place and time.

Model: Rachel: I’m taking my driving test tomorrow.

You: When I saw Rachel, she said she was taking her driving test the next day.

  1. Emma: I’ve only had this new computer since yesterday.

You: Emma said…

  1. Matthew: I’m meeting a friend at the station later today.

You: Matthew said…

  1. Mark: I’ll see you in the office tomorrow.

You: Mark said to me today…

  1. Sarah: The conference was last week.

You: Sarah told me…

  1. Tom: I’m having a party in my office tomorrow.

You: Tom told me…

  1. Vicky: I’m leaving for Manchester in three days.

You: Vicky said…

  1. Nick: I gave up smoking a week ago.

You: I saw Nick last week. He said…

  1. Alice: I’ll be very busy this month.

You: Alice told me…

  1. Rita: I passed the first exam a week ago!

You: Rita told me today …

  1. Helen: Tom invited me to come for a drive tomorrow.

You: Helen said…


2. Put in is or was. Sometimes both are possible.

  1. I heard today that the house … for sale. I wonder who will buy it.

  2. I saw David yesterday. He said he … on his way to visit his sister.

  3. This wallet is made of plastic not leather. Why did you tell me it … leather?

  4. We had to hurry yesterday morning. Just as we arrived at the station, we heard an announcement that the train … about to leave.

  5. I saw Susan just now. She said her tooth … still aching.

  6. I’m surprised Mario lost. I thought he … much better in tennis than John.

  7. When we spoke to reporters yesterday, Mr Campbell said that the company … now in a much better financial position.


3. Change the following sentences into Reported Speech.

  1. Jack told his father, “I have lost my notebook”.

  2. Henry said to me, “I didn’t throw stones at your dog”.

  3. Bob said to Tom, “Henry doesn’t sit next to me in class”.

  4. Nick said to her, “Jack always tells lies”.

  5. Ann said seriously, “ There isn’t much sense in what you suggest”.

  6. I told the policeman, “ I saw the thief in the garden”.

  7. He said, “I have eaten nothing for two days”.

  8. Jack’s father said to him, “You haven’t cleaned your shoes”.

  9. Mary said, “ I don’t want to wear my old dress”.

  10. My mother said to me, “ I feel very tired and I have a headache”.

  11. My friend told me, “We have plenty of time to do our work”.

  12. I said to my sister with joy, “George has written me a long letter”.

  13. He said to me today, “This trip costs a lot of money”.

  14. He said to me, “ I was arrested and tried for murder some years ago”.

  15. She said thoughtfully, “Health is better than wealth”.

  16. “I’ve never seen anything like this before”, the professor said.

  17. “I’m telephoning from the US”, Peter said.

  18. “I can’t live on my basic salary,” he said.

  19. “The ice will soon be hard enough to skate on it,” she exclaimed.

  20. “The puppy can sleep on our doormat,” said my aunt.


^ 4. Change the following sentences into Direct Speech.

  1. The farmer said that he hadn’t grown any wheat since 1975.

  2. The teacher told his students that he was going to give them a test.

  3. I told him that I hadn’t seen his brother for a long time.

  4. The professor told the students that he hoped they understood the rules.

  5. She told the grocer that she didn’t want any sugar.

  6. I told the taxi-driver that he was driving too fast.

  7. My sister said that she hadn’t got a watch.

  8. He explained that he had never smoked.

  9. Jim was sure that he had seen her somewhere before.

  10. She said that there was no evidence that watching TV strained the eyes.

  11. She noticed with regret that she had never been to Italy.

  12. He said that he hardly knew the people he was going to meet.

  13. She said that she couldn’t excuse me unless I told her what the problem was.

  14. The judge added that everyone had to answer for his actions.

  15. Jim said that he had been unemployed since he had left college.

  16. He said that he couldn’t make up his mind what to do next.

  17. Marry said that she was really interested in studying economics.

  18. Jane said that her mother was worried because she hadn’t heard from her sister for a month.

  19. After a minute he added that Edna was a very interesting person to talk with.

  20. He saved his skin by telling the police he had spent the evening with her.


5. Choose the most suitable word in cursive.

  1. Laura accepted/expected that she had made a mistake and apologized.

  2. Frank and Susan reported/announced that they were going to get married.

  3. Mario answered/replied them with a detailed description of the district.

  4. Jane explained/warned me not to leave the air-conditioner on all night.

  5. The manager mentioned/reminded us that we were short of time.

  6. The professor advised/suggested me to spend more time in the library.

  7. Peter insisted/persuaded me to sell my car.

  8. The government spokesperson denied/refused that there was an economic crisis.

  9. The travel agent confirmed/reassured that our room had been reserved.

  10. Jane said/told me she would never speak to him again.

  11. Tim refused/denied to take part in the conference.


^ 6. Report what these people are saying with the reporting verbs provided.

    1. “She is going to England for six months”. They say …… .

    2. “They went to Rhodes last month.” Peter told me …… .

    3. “I’ll look at your work in a minute.” She said …… .

    4. “I’ve already typed those letters.” She noticed …… .

    5. “We’ll analyze this case once again.” The inspector said …… .

    6. “The last meeting did no one any good.” The writer of the article said …… .

    7. “I’m good at singing.” She always told people …… .

    8. “I’ve lost my bank card. I don’t know where it is.” She said …….

    9. “I don’t have any information.” He admitted …….

    10. “This train doesn’t stop at our station.” She told them …….

    11. “I haven’t seen the new Disney film.” She complained to me …… .

    12. “We will bake the bread soon.” She said to him …… .

    13. “A policeman has been murdered by terrorists.” The press said …….

    14. “The dog has bitten several people.” He told me …….

    15. “Using the computer is very simple.” He said …….


^ 7. Turn each direct-speech statement into Reported Speech with tense changes.

  1. “I have something to tell you,” he said to her.

  2. “I’m going away this week, mother,” he said.

  3. “It’s a pity you didn’t bring your camera with you,” she said.

  4. “I’ll try to remember everyone’s name,” she said.

  5. “We have brought some food with us,” they said.

  6. “I can’t remember the accident very clearly,” he told the policeman.

  7. “Natasha is a good violinist,” he admitted.

  8. “I’ve got hardly any money left,” he told us.

  9. “I’m getting quite hungry,” he complained to us.

  10. “ I think Egypt is a fascinating country,” she said.

  11. “Trevor gave up playing football years ago,” she said.

  12. “The United Nations was established to settle conflicts peacefully,” he said.

  13. “I’m trying to calculate how much money I’ve spent,” he said to me.

  14. “Our lawyers will draw up a new contract,” he told me.

  15. “What I really need is a long holiday,” she said.


^ 8. Yesterday you met a friend of yours, Martha. Here are some of the things Martha said to you:

  1. I’m living in London now.

  2. My father isn’t very well.

  3. Sharon and Paul are getting married next month.

  4. Margaret has had a baby.

  5. I don’t know what Fred is doing.

  6. I saw Helen at the party in June and she seemed fine.

  7. I haven’t seen Diana recently.

  8. I’m not enjoying my job very much.

  9. You can come and stay at my flat if you are ever in London.

  10. My car was stolen a few weeks ago.

  11. I want to go on holidays but I can’t afford it.

  12. I’ll tell Ann I saw you.


Later that day you tell another friend what Martha said. Use Reported Speech.

  1. Martha said that she was living in London now.

  2. She said that …… .

  3. She …… .

  4. …… .


9. Somebody says something to you which is opposite of what they said before. Write a suitable answer beginning with I thought you said… .

  1. A: That restaurant is expensive.

B: Is it? I thought you said it was cheap.

  1. A: Ann is coming to the party tonight.

B: Is she? I thought you said she …… .

  1. A: Ann likes Paul.

B: Does she? I thought …… .

  1. A: I know lots of people.

B: Do you? I thought you said …… .

  1. A: I’ll be here next week.

B: Will you? …… .

  1. A: I’m going out this evening.

B: Are you? …… .

  1. A: I can speak a little French.

B: Can you? …… .

  1. A: I haven’t been to the cinema for ages.

B: Haven’t you? …… .

  1. A: John has given up his job.

B: Has he? …… .

  1. A: I want to go to New York next year.

B: Do you? …… .

  1. A: Peter and Judy are planning to get married.

B: Are they? …… .

  1. A: My salary is very low.

B: Is it? …… .

  1. A: I go to work by tube.

B: Do you? …… .

  1. A: He prefers Mary.

B: Does he? …… .


^ 10. Convert into Reported Speech.

  1. The general said: “I want to consult you, Lionel. It’s about my boy, Hubert.”

  2. The old man said, “I had to go in the cave, son.”

  3. “My father is a preacher,” Isaak said, “so I have read my Bible.”

  4. “Hans,” said Miller, “I will give you my wheel-barrow.”

  5. “Well,” cried Pinch, “you are the strangest young man, Martin, I ever knew in my life.”

  6. “Very well, then,” said my friend’s wife, rising, “all I have to say is, that I shall take the children and go to a hotel, until these cheeses are eaten. I decline to live any longer in the same house with them.”

  7. “Maurice,” she said, “I’ve just telephoned to the doctor.”

  8. “I will ring when I need you,” she said to the maid.

    1. “Boy,” the lieutenant said, “if you aren’t careful you’ll be ordered off this mountain.”

    2. “A clever accountant like me, and a man who is honest and industrious, can always get work,” Jean said.


11. Look at the extract from the interview 1 and the following report of it. Then write your own report of the next interviews.

Interview 1


“…It’s not what people think it is. I mean, you would, all you do is, you do all the dirty jobs, you have to clean people’s boots, you have to pick up their kit, wash out the bathrooms, scrub the floors, it’s – things like that. Paint walls. We were doing that sort of thing…”

Report


He said that life for a young professional football player wasn’t what people thought it was. All they did was the dirty jobs: they had to clean people’s boots, pick up their kit, wash out the bathrooms, scrub the floors, paint walls and things like that…

Interview 2


“… Some of the travelling isn’t too-too good. I mean, going up on a Friday night and staying in a hotel. It’s all right, but it’s not – you know, I mean, it takes you away from your family and your kids a little bit. Sometimes travelling can be very monotonous. I mean, that’s a thing you have to put up with, but I think certain things you have to do in travelling are very boring…”

Report…. ^ She said that…

Interview 3


“…Actually imprisonment doesn’t do any good, it doesn’t deter crime, it doesn’t stop crime, doesn’t deter people from committing a crime, and it costs society a lot of money to keep them there, between three and four hundred pounds a week… What deters people from committing crimes is the thought that they are actually going to get caught. Only about 15% of crimes are cleared in Britain. That means 85% of the crimes that are committed are not cleared up. So people think they are not going to get caught…”
^

Report… He said that…




Interview 4


“…I think that although some lip-service is paid to prison being rehabilitative, that actually it is a straight punishment. By and large in prison you sit and mark time, you have lost your job, you may well lose your family, you may well lose your accommodation while you are there, and you quite frequently come out knowing a lot more about how to break the law, and with a lot less reason not to do it again, because you’ve lost all the other things in the community that keep you from doing it in the first place, so I actually have a fairly negative view overall of what prison does…”
^

Report… He said that…



12. Translate from Russian into English.

  1. Она сказала, что вам эти сведения были направлены в прошлом месяце.

  2. Он сказал, что уже слышал эти печальные новости.

  3. Джейн сказала, что они простояли в очереди за билетами полчаса.

  4. Он пообещал, что с ней ничего не случится.

  5. Она предупредила нас о том, что скоро будет дождь.

  6. Он сказал, что не может решиться сделать ей предложение.

  7. Спустя некоторое время он все-таки согласился нам помочь.

  8. Он обвинил меня в том, что я взяла его деньги.

  9. Она отрицала, что когда-либо встречалась с этим человеком.

  10. С восторгом она сказала, что едет на отдых в солнечную Италию.

  11. Он сказал, что Виктория самая добрая, самая милая, самая замечательная женщина в мире.

  12. Директор сообщил нам, что решение было принято и ничего нельзя было сделать, чтобы помочь ему.

  13. Полли сказала, что она поедет в Лондон, чтобы навестить одного из своих друзей.

  14. Он заявил, что ждет их уже полтора часа и не будут ждать ни минуты больше.

  15. Моя сестра сказала, что купит новую стиральную машину. Она будет лучше, но гораздо дороже.

  16. Она заявила, что не хочет идти с нами.

  17. Она нас уверяла, что никогда не разговаривала с Михаилом.

  18. Она отрицала, что говорила с Ниной.

  19. Она признала, что ошиблась.

  20. Он нам сообщил, что достал билеты.



UNIT 4 ^ REPORTED QUESTIONS




1. In Reported questions affirmative word order is used and the question mark is omitted.


2. To report a question one can use:

a) ask + wh-word (who, what, etc.) when the direct question begins with such a word,

b) ask + if / whether when the direct question begins with an auxiliary verb (do, has, can, etc).


3. Pronouns, possessive adjectives, tenses, time expressions etc. change as in statements.

Direct Speech:

Reported Speech:




He said, “Where did he stay?”

He asked where he had stayed.







He said, “Did you have a nice time?”

He asked if/whether I had had a nice time.





^ NOTE: Tense changes: Present becomes Past and Past becomes Past Perfect”:

Are you ready?”– He asked (me) if/whether I was ready

But if you are reporting a question that has just been asked, you can say:

Are you ready?”-“What did John ask you?”– He asked (me) if/whether I’m ready.


E x e r c i s e s


^ 1. Rewrite each of these questions in Reported Speech. Start with the words given, and make any additions you need.

  1. “Is this workbook yours?”

She inquired ..... .

  1. “Who are the victims of this crime?”

She wanted to know ..... .

  1. “Will you go to the meeting if he does?”

He inquired ..... .

  1. “Did the company get any profit this year?”

He asked ..... .

  1. “For how many years was he sent to prison?”

She questioned ..... .

  1. “Why did he never make the smallest effort to reach my father?”

Mary asked her friend ..... .

  1. “Can I come and see you sometimes?”

She wanted to know ..... .

  1. “Do you ever hear from your sister?”

Jack asked Megan .....

  1. “How do they get rid of rats and mice?”

She questioned .....

  1. “What’s wrong with Davis?”

He rang for Tracy and asked .....

  1. “Do you agree with him about this?”

Tim asked seriously .....

  1. “Have you been to New York?”

The boy inquired .....

  1. “Can I have some more pocket money?”

The boy asked ..... .

  1. “Where were you born?”

She asked him ..... .

  1. “How far is the stadium?”

He wanted to know ..... .

  1. “Are you still living in London?”

She asked ..... .

  1. “Do you work in the central branch or in the provinces?”

She asked him ..... .

  1. “Are you going to give me the money or not?”

She wanted to know ..... .

  1. “Did he bring the book back?”

He wondered ..... .

  1. “Where did you get such a lovely pullover?”

She asked her sister ..... .


^ 2. Turn the questions into Reported Speech.

  1. “Are you going to let me tell this?” she questioned.

  2. “Do you really mean that, sweet?” she said looking at him curiously.

  3. “What happened to you?” he asked when we got home.

  4. “Have you got any paper handkerchiefs?” she asked.

  5. “Can you open this tin for me?” she asked.

  6. “Can you lend me five pounds till Monday?” Gerry asked Marta.

  7. “How much does a tube of toothpaste cost?” a customer asked the salesman.

  8. “What kind of pictures does she sell?” he questioned.

  9. “When did you start working on this project?” she asked.

  10. “Would you like anything more to eat or drink?” he asked.

  11. “Could I borrow your car this afternoon?” he asked very cautiously.

  12. “Have you got anything to eat? I’m getting hungry,” she said.

  13. “Italians drink more wine than English people, don’t they?” he questioned.

  14. He saw a cloud of smoke and asked, “What is burning?”

  15. The policeman asked me, “Where did you lose your wallet?”

  16. “Who has been using my typewriter?” said my father.

  17. “How much do you think it will cost?” he asked.

  18. “Have you been here long?” the other students asked him.

  19. “What are you going to do with your old car?” I asked him.

  20. “Did any of you actually see the accident happen?” said the policeman.

^ 3. This is a part of a conversation between a policeman and a young woman. Turn their dialogue into Reported Speech. You can start like this: A policeman asked a young lady what time she …….

Policeman: What time did you stop work yesterday?

Woman: I don’t know. Probably, at half past five.

P: And where did you go after that?

W: I went straight home.

P: I see. How did you travel home? By bus?

W: Yes.

P: What bus did you take?

W: I don’t remember.

^ P: All right. What time did you arrive home?

W: Oh, around six, I suppose.

P: Did you see anybody you knew on the way?

W: I don’t think so. I don’t remember.

^ P: What did you do when you got home?

W: Made a cup of tea and put the TV on.

P: Oh, yes. What program did you watch?

W: ‘Front page’.

P: ‘Front page’ wasn’t on last night.

^ W: I’ve got it recorded on video.

P: I see. Did you make any phone calls?

W: Pardon?

P: Did you telephone anybody?

W: I might have done. I don’t remember.


^ 4. Put the following into Reported Speech.

  1. “What happened to their friendship?” said one of the men.

  2. “Which of his children inherited the property?” asked Ann.

  3. “Who is going to negotiate?” asked the manager.

  4. “Where is the nearest pub here?” asked a stranger.

  5. “What shall I do with my heavy luggage?” she said to him.

  6. “How much does a day return to Plymouth cost?” Mrs Smith asked.

  7. “Would you like me to go there with you?” she asked.

  8. “Have you done this sort of work before?” asked the personnel manager.

  9. “Did they understand what you were trying to tell them?” he asked me.

  10. “Will you go on strike when the others do?” the shopkeeper asked him.

  11. “Who left the banana skin at the doorway?” said my mother.

  12. “What else did you see?” the policeman asked the witness.

  13. “Are you sorry for your betrayal?” Alex asked me.

  14. “Have you spent all the money on betting?” he asked me.

  15. “Are you in San Francisco for business or pleasure?” he asked her.

  16. “What’s the matter with your hand?” he inquired.

  17. “Did you ask to see his membership card?” the manager asked.

  18. “ Do you want me to hold the keys just in case?” he asked.

  19. “How much cash do you have?” asked the banker.

  20. “Why do you think it may be dangerous?” he asked her.


5. Read the following text carefully. Some of the lines are correct but in the others there is a word which should not be there. If the sentence is correct, tick (\/) it. If there is an incorrect word in the sentence, write it at the end in the space provided. The first two are given as examples.


A job interview

I think the interview went well. He wanted to know whether a ...whether...

number of things about me and what I had been doing ...\/ ………

      1. in the last few years. First he asked me if I have had had ………….

      2. a nice trip down from Manchester and how long it ………….

      3. had been taken me to get there. He also wanted to know ………….

      4. whether or it had been snowing in Manchester. The chitchat ………….

      5. over, he asked from me how old I was and where I was born ………….

      6. although I had sent him my CV by post. He then asked ………….

      7. how long I had lived in Manchester and I told him. His ………….

      8. next question was the whether I was married and whether I had ………

      9. a family or not. I explained him that I was separated and that ………….

      10. I had one daughter. He me asked how long did I had worked as an .…..

      11. editor and how much I was had been paid in my

present job. He asked ………….

      1. what was I liked most about my job and who had told me ………….

      2. about their company. The main questions he asked me

were about the ....……….

      1. qualities of a good manager. Finally, he asked how much have………….

      2. I expected to be paid. I think the interview went very well. ………….


6. You were looking for a job and went for an interview to some company last Friday. In conversation with a friend you talk about the interview and report the various questions that you were asked. The questions were the following:

  1. What is your full name?

  2. How old are you?

  3. Where were you born?

  4. What kind of education do you have?

  5. Did you have any professional experience?

  6. What is the reason for your applying for this post?

  7. Why have you quitted your previous job?

  8. Are you married or single?

  9. Do you have any children?

  10. Do you have any hobbies or leisure interests?

  11. What kind of person are you?

  12. Where do you live?

  13. Do you have any references?

  14. What languages do you speak, read or write?

  15. Have you ever been abroad?

  16. Have you ever been in charge of people?

  17. What are your good points?

  18. What do you not like doing and why?

  19. Why do you like this job?

  20. Have you attended any training courses?


^ 7. Put the following into Direct Speech.

  1. He inquired who I could turn to in time of crisis.

  2. Bob asked if it was lunch-time yet.

  3. She asked if he had been sent to jail for his political views.

  4. Mrs White asked Olaf how his neighbour was getting on.

  5. Frieda inquired how much Lucille’s new skirt had cost.

  6. Andrew wanted to know if Loran was going out shopping.

  7. She wanted to know if divorce was on the increase in Great Britain.

  8. The customer asked the butcher what the price of the beef was.

  9. An old man asked the station-master if he could catch the train from Victoria to get to Brighton.

  10. Michael requested if I liked the colour.

  11. He asked where we had stayed in London.

  12. He asked me were she had gone.

  13. The boy asked the tour guide where the main tourist office was.

  14. I wanted to know what he was doing there.

  15. She inquired what his address was.

  16. The director asked the managers whether or not they agreed with the business plan.

  17. She wanted to know if the boy was telling the truth.

  18. I asked the old woman if she was feeling tired.

  19. She asked me who I was writing a letter to.

  20. She wanted to know if we were more influenced by environment or heredity.


^ 8. Convert into Reported Speech.

  1. “Davis, Davis,” she called, “what’s the time? My watch has stopped.”

  2. “Jebb,” he said, “have you been in many caves?”

  3. “When will Mr Dodson be back, sir?” inquired Mr Pickwick.

  4. “And have you anything else you want to explain to me, Denry?” said Mr Maybold.

  5. The first question on Marianne’s side was, “How long has this been known to you, Elinor? Has he written to you?”

  6. “Who’s that fellow?” said Lord Saxended.

  7. “What are you doing humped that way on the ground? Do you think that is ladylike?” Mrs Bingham said to her daughter.

  8. “Is there anything else on your mind, Erik?” Haviland asked.

  9. “Tom,” she said timidly when they were out of doors, “how much money did you give for your rabbits?”

  10. Arrived at Shropshire house Sir Lawrence said: “can we see the Marquess Pommett?”


^ 9. Rita is moving to a new flat. Bill has come to see the flat and help her move in. Convert their dialogue into Reported Speech.

Bill: What number is that building?

Rita: Forty-for.

B: I didn’t realize there were only three floors. Which floor is your flat on?

R: The first floor.

B: It's a very nice flat. Which room will be your living-room?

R: This one here, I thought.

B: What colour are you going to paint it?

R: Oh, I don’t know yet.

B: What time is your furniture arriving?

R: Three o’clock, they said.

B: I’ll need some petrol. Where is the nearest petrol station?

R: Turn left at the end of the street.


^ 10. Translate from Russian into English.

  1. Он поинтересовался, работала ли я когда-нибудь с компьютером.

  2. Нел спрашивает, понимаешь ли ты ее сейчас.

  3. Они спросили меня, когда начинается мой рабочий день.

  4. Она хотела узнать, когда я был на выставке последний раз.

  5. Мы его спросили, где он купил словарь.

  6. Он поинтересовался, читала ли я Теккерея в оригинале или в переводе.

  7. Она меня спросила, где я живу.

  8. Я спросила сестру, почему она не хочет идти со мной в театр.

  9. Он спросил меня, видел ли я когда-нибудь его брата.

  10. Она хотела узнать, где я работаю.

  11. Он спросил, почему я отклонила это предложение.

  12. Она спросила, когда приходила Кэт.

  13. Он спросил, люблю ли я драму.

  14. Он хотел узнать, как часто я навещаю родителей.

  15. Он хотел узнать, как долго я занимаюсь волейболом.



^ UNIT 5 REPORTED COMMANDS, REQUESTS,

SUGGESTIONS, ETC.





1. To report commands, requests, suggestions a reporting verb (advise, ask, suggest, beg, offer, order, tell, etc) followed by a to-Infinitive or a Gerund is used (see Unit 2).


Direct Speech Reported Speech

He said to me, “Come with me.” He told me to go with him.

He said, “Let’s go out.” He suggested going out.


The negative is tell/ask someone not to do something.

“Don’t wear those boots in the house!” I asked you not to wear those

boots in the house.


2.To report exclamations which begin with “What a/an…” or “How…” the verbs exclaim/say that are used.

What an unusual design!” he said. He exclaimed/said that it

was an unusual design.


But with exclamations such as “Splendid!”, “Great!”, “Good!”, “Excellent!”, “Oh!”, “Oh dear!” etc. the expression give an exclamation of delight/disgust/relief/surprise, etc. is used:

^ Wow!” he said as he saw her. He gave an exclamation of

delight as he saw her.


3. Study the following examples:

They said, “Thank you.” They thanked us.

Happy Birthday!” we said We wished him a happy

to him. birthday.

Congratulations!” they said They congratulated us.

to us.

You fool!” she said. She called him a fool.


4. Yes/No short answers are expressed in Reported Speech with subject + appropriate auxiliary verb/introductory verb:

“Will you help me?” she asked him. “Yes,” he said.

She asked him to help her and he said he would agree/he agreed.


5. Question tags are omitted in Reported Speech. An appropriate introductory verb is used to convey the same meaning:

“You won’t tell anyone, will you?” she asked him.

She asked him not to tell anyone.






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