1. Bhadra, R., Spanggord, R. J., Wayment, D., Hughes, J. and Shanks, J. V., “Oxidative Metabolism of 2, 4, 6-Trinitrotoluene in Aquatic Phytoremediation Systems of ^ ,” Wetlands Remediation Int. Conf., 127-132 (2000).
2. Gujarathi N.P., Haney B.J., Linden J.C. Phytoremediation potential of Myriophyllum aquaticum and Pistia stratiotes to modify antibiotic growth promoters, tetracycline, and oxytetracycline, in aqueous wastewater systems. Int. J. Phytoremediation. 2005; 7(2): 99-112.
3. Ostroumov S.A., S.C.McCutcheon, V.A.Nzengung, D.D.Yifru, E.A. Manchenko. Bridging ecology and phytotechnology: phytoremediation potential of some aquatic and terrestrial plants. Presentation at the 3rd International Phytotechnologies Conference (invited), April 20-22, 2005, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
RESULTS OF EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF INTERACTIONS BETWEEN CHEMICAL POLLUTANTS AND ORGANISMS: NEW PRIORITIES AND THEORY OF BIOMACHINERY FOR WATER SELF-PURIFICATION p27-29.
Department of Hydrobiology, Faculty of Biology, Moscow State University, Moscow 119992
The goal of this publication is to give a summary of our experimental research and some conclusions.
1. Using autotrophic and heterotrophic aquatic organisms (hydrobionts) and other organisms as test objects, we established and characterized some important biological effects caused by the impact of synthetic surfactants. Thus, in studies of the effects of synthetic surfactants on autotrophic organisms, we established inhibition of growth of diatoms Thalassiosira pseudonana (Hustedt) Hasle et Heimdal and euglenas; disturbance of growth and development of angiosperm plants, including inhibition of elongation of plant seedlings (Sinapis alba L., Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, Lepidium sativum L., Oryza sativa L., and others), and growth of aquatic macrophytes (Pistia stratiotes L.). Disturbance of morphogenetic processes in the rhyzoderm leading to the formation of root hairs was found. The impact of synthetic surfactants on heterotrophic organisms was established to inhibit growth of marine bacteria (prosthecobacteria Hyphomonas sp.) and filtration activity of marine and freshwater mollusks (Mytilus edulis L., M. galloprovincialis Lamarck, Crassostrea gigas Thunberg, Unio tumidus Philipsson, U. pictorum L.); and to change the behavior of annelids Hirudo medicinalis L., and others.
2. As a result of action of synthetic surfactants (including anionic, nonionogenic and cationic) and surfactant-containing mixed preparations (laundry detergents, dish detergents, shampoos etc) on water filtration by mollusks, the biological effects of these classes of substances, including inhibition of the removal of suspended particles and cells of unicellular organisms (algae, cyanobacteria, and Escherichia coli, and others) from water, can pose a potential ecological hazard to hydrobionts.
3. We established the order of organisms in the sequence of their increasing tolerance to a representative of nonionogenic surfactants, TX100. Under experimental conditions used, by their tolerance to the impact of TX100, the organisms are in the following order: Thalassiosira pseudonana < Mytilus edulis < Hyphomonas sp., Synechococcus sp. < Fagopyrum esculentum.
4. Using vascular plants for assessing the biological activities of chemicals, we established the order of the representatives of various classes of synthetic surfactants in the sequence of their increasing biological activity. Thus, by the increase of the extent of inhibitory action on F. esculentum, under the experimental conditions used, the synthetic surfactants are in the following sequence: polymeric surfactant CHMA < anionic surfactant SDS, foam detergent Vilva < nonionogenic surfactant Triton X-100 < cationic surfactant TDTMA.
5. Several heavy metals (Hg, Pb, Cu, Cd) and oil hydrocarbons also inhibited water filtration by bivalves M. galloprovincialis.
6. New mechanisms were discovered of how pellets of bivalves M. galloprovincialis are involved in water de-contamination.
7. To assess the potential ecological hazards of synthetic surfactants and other substances for hydrobionts, we suggest a conceptual approach based on a structured system of analysis of the potential hazard of substances, which includes the assessment of disturbances of the aquatic biota at four levels: (1) at the level of individual and population changes, (2) at the level of aggregated parameters, (3) at the level of the integrity and stability of an ecosystem, and (4) at the level of the contribution of an ecosystem to the biospheric processes.
8. It is proposed to complement the system of priority test species and parameters for biotesting (to include the filtration activity of bivalve mollusks and other organisms) and improve the system of ranking of pollutants (to ascribe a higher priority to synthetic surfactants).
9. For assessing the biological activity of chemical substances, it is proposed to use an improved variant of the biotesting method by considering the new proposed and approbated morphogenetic index. The index integrates information on the germi-nation of seeds and the rate of elongation of seedlings (an integral morphogenetic index – an apparent average length of seedlings, AAL). A new method of biotesting was developed, based on the first observed effect of inhibition of the formation of root hairs.
10. On the basis of the new experimental data, a method of inhibitory analysis was proposed and developed to study interactions in trophic chains.
11. The basic elements of a new theory of the biotic mechanism for water self-purification and upgrading water quality were formulated and published. We consider this theory as a contribution to a broader ecological theory that we propose to name the theory of biomachinery of ecosystems.
12. Based on the revelation and comparison of the tolerance of organisms of various taxa, it is proposed to use angiosperm plants for phytoremediation of the environment polluted with surfactants and other chemical contaminants. As a result of joint research with other colleagues, new data were found on interaction of aquatic macrophytes with SDS and perchlorate.
13. The potential ecological significance of the effects caused by synthetic surfactants and surfactant-containing mixed preparations on hydrobionts was analyzed. It was discovered that these effects pose hazards to the processes important for water self-purification. Protection of the self-purification potential of water bodies and streams is impossible without additional efforts to decrease the damage to hydrobionts and ecosystems due to the pollution of water with synthetic surfactants and surfactant-containing mixed preparations.
14. We propose to take the abovementioned conclusions into account when formulating the hydrobiological priorities for sustainable development, environmental assessments, preservation of biodiversity, and use of bioresources. We developed a policy brief that was placed in Internet to make it available to the agencies and organizations involved in water resources, biodiversity, and environmental protection both nationally and internationally.
More detail see in (Ostroumov, 2001, 2004, 2005a,b).
Some parts of the research were supported by McArthur Foundation, Open Society Institute, and IREX (Contemporatry Issues Program).
Ostroumov, S.A. Biological Effects of Surfactants on Organisms. MAX Press, Moscow. 2001. 334 p.
Idem. Biotic mechanism of self-purification of freshwater and marine water. (Ecological Studies, Hazards, Solutions, vol.9) Мoscow: МAX Press. 2004. 96 p.
Idem. Pollution, self-purification and restoration of aquatic ecosystems. Мoscow: МAX Press. 2005a. 100 p.
Idem. Some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders // Hydrobiologia. 2005b. Vol. 542, No. 1. Pages: 275 – 286. [Table 1. Examples of the impact of filter-feeders on the water column: clearance time. Table 2. Examples of diversity of taxons of benthic organisms involved in removing seston from water, and filtration rates. Table 3. Effect of the increase in concentration of algae on the filtration rate and the amount consumed by rotifers. Table 4. The ratio F:P in some groups of organisms (examples of "ecological taxation"). Table 5. The ratio F: (P+R) in some filter feeders. Table 6. Results of the ecological tax: biosediment formation in 6 ecosystems. Table 7. Contribution of various aquatic organisms to oxidation of organic matter in the ecosystem of the Sea of Okhotsk. Table 8. Some chemicals that inhibit the filtering activity of the filter-feeders (new data of the author). Table 9. Some features of water-filtering biomachinery: 6 fundamental principles. Table 10. The level-block approach to the analysis of ecological hazards of anthropogenic effects on the biota (the new conceptualization proposed by the author)].
LEAF DECOMPOSITION TO ASSESS ECOLOGICAL STREAM CONDITION p.30.
Markus Schindler1, Scott D. Tiegs1, Björn Malmqvist2,
Brendan McKie2, Mark O. Gessner1
1Department of Limnology, Eawag, 6047 Kastanienbaum, Switzerland; 2Department of Ecology & Environmental Science, Umeå University, SE90187 Umeå, Sweden
Understanding the factors controlling rates of critical ecosystem processes is important to assess the ecological integrity of ecosystems and devise measures to counterbalance anthropogenic impacts. Therefore, comprehensive data sets are needed to evaluate the potential of the process as a routine measure to assess perturbation of stream functioning. such as litter decomposition. The pan-European project RivFunction aims to develop a functional stream assessment tool based on leaf decomposition. It is motivated by the lack of available process-based stream assessment tools, the outstanding importance of leaf material in stream ecosystems and the ease of implementation of leaf litter decomposition studies. We compared leaf breakdown rates of alder, a fast-decomposing leaf species, and oak, a slowly decomposing species, to determine whether litter breakdown can reliably indicate effects of nutrient enrichment and modifications of riparian vegetation. Experiments were carried out at sites matched pair-wise in a total of 200 streams across Europe, from northern Sweden to Portugal. Strictly standardized methodology was used. First analyses suggest that leaf decomposition can respond sensitively to riparian vegetation clearing and eutrophication, suggesting that leaf breakdown could be useful as a process-based means of stream assessment. However, effects were not clear-cut in all situations and variability across streams was considerable even when accounting for temperature differences among streams. Consequently, a priority in developing breakdown assays must be to standardise procedures and carefully consider environmental context in the interpretation of results.
DOES ORGANIC-MATTER STANDING STOCK INFLUENCE IN-STREAM DECOMPOSITION RATES? p.30-31