Чтобы правильно тест 4, необходимо усвоить следующие
разделы курса английского языка по рекомендованному учебнику:
1. Сложные формы инфинитива (Passive Infinitive, Perfect Infinitive). Обороты, равнозначные придаточным предложениям: объектный инфинитивный оборот, субъектный инфинитивный оборот.
2. Причастия (Participle 1, II). Независимый (самостоятельный) причастный оборот.
3. Условные предложения.
Отметьте формы глагола, перед которыми можно поставить "to":
Простые и сложные формы инфинитива.
Выберите правильную форму инфинитива:
11. We expect them... us this summer.
12. We were glad... the summer in the Crimea.
13. It seems ... outside, take your umbrella.
14. I heard him... to somebody loudly.
15. They seem ... still.
16. Newspapers are expected ... twice every day.
17. Millions of Russian people are known … during the Great Patriotic War.
18. We want the new car … by the next Monday.
Причастия (Participle 1, II).
Выберите правильную форму причастия:
19. She sat on the river bank... the sunset.
20. I put the journal aside … it through.
21. The vase... into pieces was carefully wrapped in paper.
22. It was so hot in the... bus.
23. She sat by the window looking at the boys ... in the yard.
24. The new equipment … last month, the plant could achieve better results.
25. ... my work I went out for a walk.
26. I returned the book to the library … it.
27. … this English text I found many new words.
Инфинитивные обороты: Complex object, Complex Subject.
Выберите правильный вариант перевода.
28. We wanted the letter to be posted immediately.
29. I want you to come.
30. My father wanted me to become a doctor.
31. Mary believed Ann to be a good friend.
32. The engineer expected the work to be done on time.
33. Socrates is known to be one of the greatest Greek philosophers and orators.
34. Ink is supposed to have been invented in Egypt.
35. Nobody heard him leave the house.
36. Road is expected to be repaired soon.
37. Marie Curie is known to have worked with radioactive elements.
38. The experts restoring the monument are provided with modern equipment.
39. He stopped to smoke.
Независимый (самостоятельный) причастный оборот.
Отметьте правильный вариант перевода:
40. Tom’s family lived poorly his father being unemployed.
41. All the questions having been discussed, the meeting was closed.
42. Having been shown the way we could find his house easily.
43. His car having been damaged in a traffic accident, he went to work by taxi.
44. Я не люблю читать вслух.
45. Видели, как она с ним разговаривала.
46. Меня заставили передумать.
47. Ее попросили перезвонить.
Вставьте вместо пропусков глагол в нужной форме.
48. If you … for long, you will get sun burnt.
49. If you … much ice cream, you will get sick.
50. If you … flowers, they will die.
51. If you … umbrella on this rainy day, you will get wet.
52. It’s too early. If I went to bed now, I … .
53. If I invited my friend Mike to the party, I … his wife Ann too.
54. If I … a millionaire, I would buy a yacht and go traveling.
55. If that book was not so expensive, I … it.
56. If the driver in front … so suddenly, the accident wouldn’t have happened.
57. If the weather had been fine yesterday we … to the park.
58. If you me … beforehand, I would have met you.
59. We … in time for the lecture, if we hadn’t got into the traffic block.
60. Пронумеруйте предложения 1-8 так, чтобы получился связный текст
seal “cull” – тюлений детёныш
A This is called seal “cull”.
B Baby seal have soft white fir and big, sad-looking eyes.
C Though many seals are being killed, the species is not in danger as some others.
D It is probably because of this animal’s appearance.
E In many parts of the world a large number of baby seals are killed for their white fir.
F Perhaps if more animals in danger looked as pretty as the seal, there would be more protests about them.
G However, these protests show the strange feelings people often have about te animals.
H There have been probably more protests about the seal culls than about any other animals in danger.
I So why has there been so much protest about the seal?
61. If not so many seals were being killed they would be in danger.
A – true
B – false
C – no information
62. If seals were not so pretty there would not be so much protest about them.
A – true
B – false
C – no information
63. Выполните письменный перевод текста со словарем.
Surprising as it may seem, the United States — a relatively new, nation — has the world's oldest organized trade union movement. There have been unions in the United States since the end of the 18th century. European labor movements were struggling to get their voting power when American workers had already achieved it. The philosophical basis of the American labor movement is different from that of other countries. The U.S. labor movement puts great emphasis on workers' collective ownership of job opportunity, something considered to be a logical extension of traditional property rights, which is itself a conservative doctrine. American unions have concentrated on job issues in order to obtain benefits within the existing free enterprise system. The earliest U.S. unions In the United States had very specific goals: among them were improving wages, hours and working conditions, and obtaining free elementary school education. Ever since Franklin Roosevelt's presidency, the United States has been a land with a relative tolerance for workers' organizations. It was not always so. Prior to 1933, unionism faced strong and sometimes violent opposition from employers, except in wartime.
The American economy is a dynamic, free-market system that is constantly evolving out of the choices and decisions made by millions of citizens who play multiple roles as consumers, producers, investors and voters. The United States is generally described as a mixed economy. Though the great majority of productive resources are privately owned the federal government plays an important part in the marketplace. One is the continuing debate over the proper role for government in what is basically a marketplace economy. An economy based on free enterprise is generally characterized by private ownership and initiative with a relative absence of government involvement. However, government intervention has been found necessary from time to time to ensure that economic opportunities are fair and accessible to the people, to prevent flagrant abuses, to dampen inflation and to stimulate growth. By any standard, the American economy that has evolved over than 250 years has been very successful. With less than 5 percent of the world's population, the United States produces about 25 percent of the world's output. The U.S. economy is more than twice as large as the next largest economy, that of Japan. By conventional measures, U.S. productivity and standard of living remain among the highest in the industrial world although other nations have experienced higher rates of growth in recent decades.
One is the continuing debate over the proper role for government in what is basically a marketplace economy. Ever since colonial times, the USA government has been involved, to some extent, in economic decision-making. The federal government, for example, has made huge investments in infrastructure — from canals and post roads in the 19th century, to interstate highways and orbiting Earth satellites in the 20th century. The government has provided social welfare programs that the private sector was unable or unwilling to provide. In many ways and over many decades, it has supported and promoted the development of agriculture. Moreover, the government began to provide workers with a measure of economic security in their old age. The Social Security program, enacted in 1935, still ensures that retired people have a regular income each month, and has been expanded to help them meet their medical costs. But in the 1970s and 1980s, with taxes steadily rising and the U.S. economy stagnating, new national leaders cut government spending and levels of taxation, in other ways reduced government influence over the private sector. Their goal was to stimulate the private-sector initiative and investment which is the engine that drives free-market economies.
Another theme of a continuous debate is the international trade policy and, thus, the degree of integration of the United States into the world economy. Trade was in many ways the linchpin of the colonial system; the export of American commodities made possible the import of capital and machines for expansion. Although the nation's policy has remained generally pro-free trade, by the 1970s and 1980s many U.S. manufacturing industries felt increasingly beleaguered by powerful new competition from abroad. Practical events show fundamental characteristics of the American economy. First, the economy is changing continuously, as citizens freely express their economic preferences directly in the marketplace and indirectly in the voting booth. In any event, Americans have often been described as pragmatists. The pragmatic test is that in addition to everything else, an acceptable theory must actually work. Clear evidence of the American people's pragmatism is demonstrated by their actions: to establish and maintain an economy soundly based on the principles of free enterprise. At the same time, Americans accept an important role for government to help create an environment with the widest possible opportunities for individual opportunity, and economic growth and progress.
The earliest form of air transport was balloons, which is sometimes called "free balloons". Having no engines they are to drift by the wind flow. This fact alone makes balloons not reliable enough for carrying people. If they were safer, they would be used more for transportation, but at present the scientists use balloons mostly for obtaining information about the upper atmosphere, its density, and other scientific subjects. Weather balloons are particularly used by meteorologists. They carry instruments whose readings are automatically sent back to the ground by the radio, the position of the balloon is obtained by radar. Small balloons released from air-fields are observed to obtain the direction and strength of the wind which is very important for airplanes. The first free flight was held in France in 1783 on September 19 when the two Montgolfier brothers Atienne and Joseph constructed the balloon, filled it with smoke and let it into the air. The first air travelers were a sheep, a cock and a duck. The flight was a success. The balloon came down safely with the animals. Since that time many people have enjoyed traveling by air on free balloons.
Helicopters are very useful in places where there is no room for long, flat runways. Modem turbo-jet airliners need a run of nearly two miles long to take oft, but helicopters can use small fields, platforms mounted on ships and flat tops of buildings Helicopters were first introduced for regular airline service in 1947. Later, helicopters were used for carrying passengers and mail on short routes, and for taking airline passengers between the centers of cities and the main airports. While helicopters gain in needing very little space for taking-off and landing, they lose because the speed at which they move forward is quite low. So the problem was to develop an aircraft combining the advantages of the helicopter with the high speed of an ordinary aircraft. If the designers could develop such a machine the problem would be solved. So for this purpose the hovercraft (машина на воздушной подушке) was designed. Hovercrafts are likely to be useful for ferry services - for example, in ferrying motor cars across the English Channel. They may also be useful for transporting goods in roadless countries. Helicopters may carry whole buses loaded with passengers from one point to another above city traffic. "Flying crane" helicopters soon may help solve the complicated problem of getting passengers from the centre to the airport and back again.
If you have traveled by plane (we also say "by air"), you will probably agree that traveling by plane is a very exciting experience. An airport is so different from a railway station or a bus stop, the people you meet and the things you see are very interesting and new. What is more, a big airport is like a town - with its own shops, restaurants, hotels, cinemas, banks and police. London airport is one of the most modern in the world and is a popular visiting place for both old and young. The airport covers over four square miles, and the road round it is 13 miles long. The airport has five main runways: the longest is 12,000 feet. The total number of people who work at the airport is nearly 36,000. London airport is one of the busiest in the world - more than 50 airlines operate from it every week. Every day of the week in the summer, over 800 planes land or take off. This great airport is famous for the efficiency of its service to passengers. At the airport all luggage (багаж) is mechanically handled. This is done by a system of conveyor belts. One of the big attractions at London airport is the Roof Gardens which are open to visitors who wish to see how a modern airport operates. From the garden one can see all the aircrafts landing and taking off. If you have your camera you can take a lot of exciting pictures. London airport is unique in its layout (планировка). All passenger and control buildings are in the centre of the airport. The only way for passengers to approach these buildings is by a tunnel which has been constructed under the main runways.
Of tremendous importance is the creation of new materials. Chemists engaged in polymer research have produced the world's best synthetic materials. Metallurgists studying a new class of aluminum alloys have produced a very durable alloy which is being used in aircraft and rocket engineering. If the details are made of this alloy the weight of apparatus will be reduced substantially thereby effecting a considerable saving of material and power resources. In our days, the speed of aircraft, even passenger planes, is approaching 3,000 kilometers per hour; loads may be as high as 600 kilograms per square meter of a wing. The turbine that drives such an aircraft is not only a miracle of design; it is also a miracle of materials strength. Its blades, for example, rotate at a tremendous speed and at the temperature greater than 1,000° Centigrade. The given examples are sufficient to indicate the complexity of materials studies today and the extent to which progress in the near or more distant future depends on them. Plastics are employed in a number of aircraft engine applications and have successfully displaced metals in jet turbine impellers where the high fatigue resistance of the material is of great importance. If suitable high temperature plastics were developed, it is quite possible that turbines would one day be all of plastic construction.
Moscow today is an enormous city whose infrastructure is traditional for every mega polis with first-rate hotels, restaurants, theatres, exhibition halls, shops and gigantic transport arteries. In recent years the population of Moscow reached 10 million and it is still growing. This resulted in large-scale migration of people. All that calls for further development and improvement of the city's transport services. Transport is a serious problem for all large cities of the world. The capitals of major states are often unable to solve it. Moscow also has a transport problem. If there were no Metro in Moscow it would be very difficult to move around the city. Besides the Metro there are buses, trolley-buses and trams. The total length of their routes is constantly increasing. But nevertheless there is permanent need for new and more comfortable means of transport. Roads constitute another aspect of the transport problem. Having reconstructed many of the existing streets and roads the city authorities started to build new ones.
The word smog comes from the words smoke and fog. Smog is a sort of fog with other substances mixed in it. Smog has existed on Earth for a long time. Billions of years ago, volcanoes sent millions of tons of ash and smoke into the air. Winds whipped up dust clouds. Animal and vegetable matter decayed, adding polluting gases. People began to produce their own kind of air pollution. Smoke from chimneys combined with moisture in the air produced dense layers of smog. If you look at the city from the airplane flying over, you will see how smog would blanket the city. The heat generated in large cities tends to circulate air within a dome-like shape. This holds smog over the city for days. Smog can be harmful, even deadly. It blurs vision, irritates eyes, throat and lungs. Smog can make people ill. Air pollution also has a harmful effect on the environment. Plants and animals suffer. It is obvious that we must do everything possible to reduce man-made atmospheric pollutants and smog. Smog, along with smoke, is the most visible evidence of atmospheric pollution. But some atmospheric pollution is not visible and may not become visible until it is mixed with moisture. Transport is the main offender. Lead compounds from leaded gasoline may pollute the air without being seen. If not controlled, the automobile can give off pollutants from four places. Pollutants can come from the fuel tank, the carburetor, the crank-case, and the tail pipe.