НА УРОКАХ АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА.
ПРОЕКТ «МОЯ МОСКВА»
Работа по созданию проекта «Моя Москва» заняла более трех месяцев и была разделена на несколько этапов.
Ознакомительный этап - постановка задачи, которую мы сформулировали совместно с учениками, составление плана работы и изучение проектной методики. В один из выходных дней для группы восьмиклассников, изъявивших желание работать над проектом, провели трехчасовую экскурсию по Москве на английском языке.
Формирование трех мини-групп (по желанию учеников). Выбор каждой группой того участка маршрута и тех музеев, которые наиболее заинтересовали ребят во время экскурсии.
Знакомство с новыми лексическими единицами и именами собственными, которые могут встретиться учащимся в процессе работы. Отработка произношения.
Выбор формы презентации проекта каждой мини-группой. Первая группа решила представлять Красную площадь и Храм Василия Блаженного в виде журнала и аудиозаписей интервью с иностранными туристами. Вторая группа выбрала Театральную площадь и театры центра Москвы и настроилась посетить один из театров, а затем предоставить в виде серии стенгазет материалы об истории театров, их репертуарах, актерах. Третья группа решила посетить Храм Христа Спасителя, его музеи, ознакомиться с историей воссоздания Храма и снять видеофильм о нем.
Самостоятельная работа учащихся. Посещение музеев, театров, храмов. Сбор информации, запись интервью с иностранными туристами, запись видеосюжетов, съемка фоторепортажей. Чтение литературы.
Обработка собранной информации, обсуждение результатов самостоятельной работы, комплектование материала для выбранной формы презентацию. Данный этап занимает большой промежуток времени и предполагает активную помощь педагога учащимся.
Оформление собранных материалов, распределение ролей в мини-группах для презентации и подготовка проекта к защите.
Урок-экскурсия «Моя Москва»
Защита проекта проходила в течение двух уроков. Класс был украшен флагами России и Москвы, видами столицы, макетами московских соборов и храмов. На классной доске, стенах кабинета, на столах - стенгазеты, журналы. На одном из столов - импровизированный магазин "Sоu-vеnirs", на другом - "Вох-оffiсе".
В работе участвовали две группы восьмиклассников: одна группа - учащиеся, которые создавали проект ("guides"), вторая - остальные ученики класса, представлявшие на данном уроке иностранных туристов, которых наши «гиды» повели по Москве.
Teacher (T): Good morning, everybody. In several minutes we are going to go on a sightseeing tour around Moscow. Our guides will tell you about the most interesting places in the center of Moscow. Foreign tourists may ask questions and the guides will try to answer them and help you during the excursion. I would like to draw your attention to our box-office, where you can book or buy theatre tickets, and to our souvenirs shop if you want to buy some souvenirs, books or video about Moscow.
Let's remember the names of some famous sights in Moscow.
На доске – виды Москвы и отдельно представлены подписи к ним
^ Try to match the photos with the names of the monuments and buildings; say the name and tell us where it is located.
T: You remember quite a lot about Moscow, but the best way to know the city is to buy a map and follow the recommended sightseeing tours with a guide. Let's start our excursion. Guide (G1):
Lies Moscow with its stones of white,
I ancient domes and spires streaming
With golden crosses, ember-bright.
Ah, friends, I too have been delighted
When all at once far-off I've sighted
That splendid view of distant domes.
Of churches, belfries, stately homes!
How oft... forlorn and separated! –
When wayward fate has made me stray –
I've dreamt of Moscow far away!
Ah, Moscow! How that sound is freighted
With meaning for our Russian hearts!
How many echoes it imparts!
Moscow's origins have long been shrouded in the mystery of time, but there are many stories linked with it. One legend has it that Moscow was founded by Noah's grandson, Tsar Mosokh, on the site of a little hill now known as Vshivaya Gorka. He founded 'Gradets Maly' (little town) and settled there. Mosokh's wife was named Kva, and they had a son and daughter named Ya and Vuza. These names were combined into the words Moskva and Yauza, the latter being the name of Moscow's second largest river.
According to another ancient legend, a Kievan knight named Bukol, lived as a hermit in a secluded little monastery on Borovitsky Hill, where the Kremlin stands today. One day he was vouchsafed in a dream that the city of Moscow would arise at that very place. The city would undergo many trials from assaults of her enemies and fires, but it would be famed throughout the land. The hermit travelled to the village of Kosino and told the local priest of his vision. Standing in the church they began to pray for Moscow's future, and Virgin Mary herself appeared unto them. The church gradually began to disappear into the ground, and in its place water appeared and formed into a lake. It seems as if the prayers of these two elders are heard for holy Moscow from within the earth to this day.
Another story attributes the foundation of Moscow to the Suzdal Prince Yury Dolgoruky, who was the son of the Kievan Prince Vladimir Monomakh. At that time, the area where Moscow stands was one of the extensive possessions of the boyar Stepan Kuchka. Yury, who was Stepan's guest, became angry with him, and in his wrath ordered him to be killed. He later founded Moscow on the site of Kuchka's former possessions. The date of Moscow's founding is generally accepted as 4 April 1147, when Yury Dolgoruky received his brother, Prince Svyatoslav Olgovich of Novgorod Seversky. This is the first record of Moscow in Russian chronicles.
Now we are witnesses to Moscow's renaissance. It is becoming an impressive, modern capital city in the European sense while preserving its unique national character and its unforgettable historical appearance.
Moscow, the capital of Russia, is one of the largest cities in the world. It stands on the bank of the Moskva River. The territory of Moscow is about one thousand square kilometres. On the map it looks like an ellipse: from North to South it is 40 kilometres and is approximately 30 kilometres from East to West. About ten million people live in the city. Moscow is famous for its historical and architectural monuments built by outstanding architects and sculptors: Kazakov, Bazhenov, Bove, Mikhailov, Manos, Opekushin and others.
Moscow is adorned with some skyscrapers, including Moscow State University where young people from different parts of our country and abroad go to study.
Moscow is a scientific and cultural center with lots of institutes, universities, libraries. museums, technical schools, colleges and secondary schools. The city boasts a varied cultural life. It has a lot of cinemas, clubs, concert halls, more than 40 drama and musica-theatres, including the Bolshoy Theatre with its world-famous ballet and opera, the An Theatre, the Maly Theatre, the Vakhtangof Theatre and others.
Muscovites are proud of their museums: the Tretyakov Gallery, the A.S. Pushkinn Museum of Fine Arts, the Kuskovo Museum and Ostankino Museum of Serf Art, Kolomenskoye Estate, literary museums anв art galleries.
The best starting point for the tour is Red Square - the central and the most beautiful square in Moscow.
Первая группа «гидов» ведет «туристов» по Красной площади к храму Василия Блаженного, рассказывая их историю и иллюстрируя свой рассказ фотографиями, рисунками, репродукциями, описаниями.
G2: Hundreds of years ago there «was a square under the east wall of the Kremlin that was alive with the bustle of street traders. In the 16th century, it was called - Troitskaya (Trinity) Square after holy Trinity Church which stood where St. Basil's Cathedral is now seen. There were often raging fires here in the middle ages, so it had an alternative name - Fire Square. It became known as Krasnaya (Red) Square beginning in the mid-17th century; in old Russian this simply meant'beautiful'.
Red Square has always been the main square in Moscow. It was here that the town criers would run with the Tsar's decrees, telling of the Sovereign's will to the crowds who gathered. Occasionally, the Sovereign himself would make appeals to his Moscow citizens from Lobnoye Mesto. On days of great church festivals there would be a religious procession from the Kremlin to Red Square, and on such days the whole square would fill with people, giving it the appearance of an open-air church. It was here that the magnificent cathedrals were built and consecrated to the Mother of God, Protector of Moscow and All Russia.
After the revolution, Red Square maintained its significance, becoming the main square in the life of the new state.
Standing in Red Square we should admire the ancient walls and towers of the Kremlin. They were built by the Italian craftsmen Antonio Fryazin and Pietro Antonio Solari between 1485 and 1495. The Kremlin battlements resemble a swallow's tail, which protected the marksmen who would defend the Kremlin from enemy attacks. The pointed from the towers were erected in the 17th century by Russian craftsmen, giving due regard to the national architectural style.
Pietro Antonio Solari built the famous Soasskaya (Saviour) Tower with its chimes in 1491. Since then, it has become a symbol of the Kremlin. Up to the mid-17th century, the tower was known as the Frolovskaya Tower, but after the Icon of the Saviour (The Verrnicle) was placed above its gates, it acquired the name 'Saviour.' It was the main gateway into the Kremlin; the Tsars and Emperors used to walk through these gates. In 1625, the Spasskaya Tower was crowned with a stone spire for the main clock in Russia, a chiming clock. The Englishman Christopher Galloway and the Russian craftsmen Zhdan and Shumilo installed a new clock in the Saviour Tower in 1624. It hat a massive pale blue face, symbolizing the sky, with images of silver stars, the full moonand a crescent moon. Foreign visitors to Moscow called this clock 'a wonder of the world'. The clock broke down at the end of the 17th century and in accordance with a decree of Peter I, it was replaced by a new clock from Holland with musical chimes. The watchmaking Butenop brothers set up 24 bells for the chimes in the mid-19th century, having taken them from the Troitskaya and Borovitskaya Towers.
To the left of St. Basil's Cathedral, one can see Lobnoye Mesto - a raised area made out of white stone with a cast iron railing. It was built in the first half of the 16th century and served as a platform from which the Tsar's edicts and the sentences for convicted criminals were read out. Lobnoye Mesto is located at the top of a steep slope - vzlobie, which is what gives it its name. In Orthodox Moscow, it symbolized the hill on which Christ was crucified in Jerusalem, Golgotha. Lobnoye Mesto was also a place where holy relics were displayed so that all the people could honour them.
There is a wide-spread opinion that Lobnoye Mesto was the site of executions, but this is false. Memorial to Minin and Pozharsky is located in front of you.
Minin and Pozharsky were the leaders of the second group of Russian militia soldiers in 1612, and the memorial was erected in 1818 according to the design by sculptor I. Martos. One of the bas-reliefs depicts how the citizens of Nizhny Novgorod on the Volga responded to Minin's summons by leading their sons to be armed, while the other shows the flight of the Poles from the Kremlin and the Russian troops chasing after them. The inscription reads: 'To Citizen Minin and Prince Pozharsky, from Grateful Russia'.
The wooden Mausoleum was built to preserve Lenin's body in January 1924. The name comes from the grand tomb of King Mausoleums of Caria, which was built in Halicarnassus in the fourth century BC. In 1930, Shchusev proposed that the new version of the Mausoleum should be built out of granite, and it was completed in that form.
Red Square keeps the memory of many events of Russian history. The city was besieged by the Germans in November 1941, and Red Square was the scene for a famous parade of Soviet forces, after which they went straight to the front. In June 1945, columns of troops marched in the Victory parade and 200 German banners were thrown at the foot of the Mausoleum.
gj: The real gem of Russian architecture and the symbol of Russia is Saint Basil's Cathedral. Its official name is the Cathedral of the Intercession of the Mother of God at the Moat. It was built in the mid-16th century by decree of Ivan the Terrible in honour of the capture of the Kazan Khanate, part of the former Golden Horde. The successful attack on Kazan had begun on 1 October 1552, the day of the festival of the Intercession of the Mother of God. The cathedral was built between 1555 and 1561 by the architects Barma and Postnik Yakovlev. There is a story to the effect that after seeing the cathedral for the first time, Ivan The Terrible had the men blinded so that they could never build anything to surpass the wonder of this new building. The small church of Saint Basil, which was built later on the grave of a Holy Fool very respected in Moscow, gave the whole cathedral its second, more widely known name of St. Basil's Cathedral.
The cathedral actually comprises nine individual churches each crowned by a unique tower. The spire of the central church, which has an altar dedicated to the Intercession, unites the other eight churches with their onion domes as if binding them to itself. This symbolizes the supremacy and protection of the Mother of God over all the Orthodox Church and over the Russian lands. In Russian church architecture, the spire symbolizes the canopy which was put up over a holy place from ancient times as a sign of God's protection and holiness.
St. Basil's Cathedral is unique among Moscow's churches. It is not simply a place where people came to pray, it is itself an icon in stone. It is in fact an architectural representation of the New Jerusalem - the Heavenly Kingdom described in the Book of Revelation of St. John the Divine. The idea of the cathedral is based on deep religious symbolism. There are eight onion dome-topped towers positioned around a central, ninth spire; this forms an eight-pointed star visible on the building plans. The number eight denotes the day of Christ's Resurrection, which in the ancient Jewish calendar was the "Eighth Day", and also the coming Heavenly Kingdom, the kingdom of the eighth century, hich will begin after the second coming of Christ. The star itself symbolizes the entire Christian Church as a guiding star showing mankind the way to the Heavenly Jerusalem. The eight-pointed star is also a symbol of the Virgin, Queen of Heaven: in Orthodox iconography she is depicted with a maforia (a veil) with three eight-pointed stars on her shoulders and her brow. They indicate her eternal maidenhood before and after the birth of Christ.
The eight-pointed star is made out of two superimposed squares. The square symbolizes the stability of faith, the four corners of the earth, the four Evangelists and the four equal-sided walls of the Heavenly City. The two crossed squares symbolize the preaching of the Evangelists in the four corners of the earth, that is, throughout the world. The cathedral's internal gallery has a mural of the Garden of Eden.
With all the majesty of its external appearance, the cathedral is quite small within. During services it could not accommodate many worshippers. When services were held in Red Square on special feast days, it was filled with great crowds, and the clergy stood on Lobnoye Mesto, where a lectern was placed, and St. Basil's Cathedral served as an altar of a huge church open to the heavens.
We are now ready to answer your questions.
«Tуристы» задают интересующие их вопросы, а «гиды» отвечают на них.
G4: Visiting Red Square and Saint Basil's Cathedral, we interviewed 12 foreign tourists. They were Italians, British, Spanish, Greeks, Japanese and Americans. We would like you to listen to the most interesting of them (three of them)...
Now we want to know your opinions: Why does Moscow attract the attention of so many foreign tourists?
«Туристы» вступают в дискуссию с «гидами», высказывают свою точку зрения по этому поводу.
Под звуки музыки П.И.Чайковского ведущий «гид» предлагает туристам отправиться на Театральную площадь и на время «окунуться» в культурную жизнь Москвы. Вторая группа «гидов», ознакомившись с историей лучших московских театров, их репертуаром и побывав на одном из балетов в Большом театре, представила свои материалы в стенгазете с фотографиями (здание театра, портреты актеров), старыми новыми программками спектаклей.
G5: Now we are arriving at Teatralnaya Square. This square is an example of the first architectural ensembles in Moscow built after the fire in Moscow during the war with Napoleon.
Until to the 19th century it was known as Petrovskaya Square, since Petrovskaya Street intersected it. It was later known as Tsvetochnaya (Florist) Square for some time, because the flower sellers had a roaring trade there.
In the early 1820s, Petrovskaya Square was completely reconstructed in classical style following the design of the architect Osip Bove, the man in charge of restorating Moscow after the great fire of 1812. New buildings were put up here for the imperial Theatre which became the dominant feature of the square. The bases of the Bolshoy Theatre's new columns were made from stones taken from the banks of the Neglinka and the steps of Kuznetsky Bridge.
The theatre opened its doors on 6 January 1825 with the prologue ^ to music by A. Verstovsky and A. Alyabev, and the ballet Sandrilyona.
Fire broke out in the theatre in 1853, raging for several days and claiming a number of lives. Even the cast iron columns melted in the great heat. The building had to be almost completely reconstructed; this was done by the architect Kavos in 1856. The pediment of the new building was adorned with a sculpture by Klodt of Apollo, the god of arts, driving four horses. The magnificent interior could be compared only with imperial palaces - it is one of the most sumptuous theatres in the world. World-famous stars of opera and ballet have graced the theatre with their presence, including Shalyapin, Sobinov, Nezhdanova, Kozlovsky, Lemeshev and Geltser.
The theatre has resounded with the music of many great Russian composers such as Musorgsky, Chaikovsky, Rimsky-Korsakov and Borodin. Glinka's opera A Life for the Tsar was premiered here on 7 September 1842, and it is to a melody from this opera that the words of Russia's national anthem are now sung. Richard Wagner gave concerts in this theatre in 1863.
The Bolshoy Theatre still remains the best opera and ballet theatre in Russia, and has witnessed the talents of artists such as Galina Ulanova, Maya Plisetskaya, Maries Liepa, Rudolf Nuryev, Yekaterina Maksimova and Vladimir Vasilyev in recent years.
The best way to become familiar with Moscow opera and ballet stars is to visit the Bolshoy Theatre. If you wish to see an opera or a ballet I can help you to book or to buy the tickets in the box-office. I advise you to see Swan Lake.
Один из столов в кабинете оборудован в виде театральной кассы Большого театра. «Туристы» вступая в диалог с «кассиром», покупают билеты на вечерний спектакль, а «гид» помогает им выбрать наиболее удачные места в зале.
G6: To the left of the Bolshoy Theatre you can see the Academic Youth Theatre, which stages special performances for young theatre-goers. There is one more building next to it for the Company of the Bolshoy Theatre. On the right side of the Bolshoy Theatre there is the Maly Theatre which was often called "the se-cond Moscow University" because of the hugely influential role it played in Russia's enlightenment. It was the stage for P. Mochalov, M. Shchepkin and M. Yer-molova.
The theatre was built in 1818 by the architects Elkinsky and Bovet for the merchant Vargin. He was enraptured by the theatre of the Palais-Royale in Paris, and he dreamed of having such a theatre in Moscow. So he commissioned a residence with a grand concert hall, and a few years later rented it to the state.
The first performance by the Imperial Theatre Group took place here on 14 October 1824. The Bolshoy Imperial Theatre was opened three years later, but it featured predominantly opera and ballet productions, while the Maly Theatre concentrated on dramas. The name Maly comes from the Russian for "small", since the auditorium is a lot smaller than that of the Bolshoy.
There was a fire in 1841, after which the building was rebuilt using the design of the architect Ton. The Maly Theatre has seen the premieres of several important works by Russian authors. Griboyedov's comedy ^ was first performed on 27 November 1831. The part of Chatsky was played by Mochalov, and Famusov by Shchepkin, who affirmed the need for realistic theatrical performance.
An event occurred in 1853 which played a decisive role in the theatre's development for many years. This was the staging of Ostrovsky's play ^ This was a great success, and the theatre came to be known as the House of Ostrovsky. Because of this a statue of Ostrovsky was put up in 1929, made by the sculptor N. Andreyev and his brother V. Andreyev.
The Maly Theatre is still praised today for its performances and its company includes some of the best Russian dramatic actors.
What else would you like to know about Moscow theatres?
«Tуристы» задают «гидам» вопросы, а «гиды» пытаются дать как можно более полные ответы и рассказывают о театральных постановках, которые они посетили.
G1: The туре point of our tour is the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour.
Под звуки музыки М.Мусоргского третья группа «гидов» вводит нас под своды Храма. Именно эти учащиеся сняли видеофильм о Храме Христа Спасителя. Просмотр фильма идет параллельно с комментариями экскурсоводов
Only a short time ago, it would have been difficult to imagine that on the site where steam from the Moscow open air baths had once swirled heavenwards, a five-domed giant would again rise up as the hope and aspiration of Russia. There were many opponents to this grandiose scheme, but now the majestic golden cupola of the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour towers above Moscow once again. The cathedral was originally built by decree of Alexander I in thanksgiving to God for saving Russia in the Patriotic War of 1812 and in commemoration of the Russian army's victory over Napoleon. It was built in Moscow for it was this city which had borne the greatest burden of the French army's attacks, and had become the fiery grave of Napoleon's ambition. Alexander I personally reviewed all the competing designs for the cathedral, and selected the project submitted by Karl Vitberg.
Work on building the foundations on Vorobyovy Hills began in October 1817. However, all work came to a standstill after Alexander's death because of lack of funds.
The new Emperor Nicholas I did not forget his brother's promise to build this cathedral in Moscow, but he preferred the idea of Konstantin Ton to build a mighty five-domed cathedral in Russo-Byzantine style, that is, in the tradition of old Russian architecture. In 1832 the Tsar approved this project and went to Moscow to choose an appropriate site for such a massive building himself. He liked the picturesque hill near Chertolye, where the Alekseyevsky Convent had stood since 1547. On 10 September 1839, Metropolitan Filaret (Drozdov) cried out the ceremonial laying of the foundation stone for the new cathedral of Christ the Saviour. It took 44 years for the building to be finished, since it was paid for by public subscription. The church was decorated by the very best artists - Semiradsky, Surikov, Bruni, Vereshchagin, Bryulov and Vasnetsov. The sculptor Loganovsky created a magnificent high relief on themes from the Old Testament and Russian history. The gallery contained 177 marble plaques with the names of the Knights of St. George and descriptions of the main battles in 1812, and the cathedral became a genuine museum of the Patriotic War, and not for nothing was it called 'The Guardian of Russian Glory'. The unique iconostasis was made in the form of an octagonal vaulted chapel with domes reminiscent of St. Basil's Cathedral. The huge internal space beneath dome seemed to symbolize Red Square, the center of Moscow and all Russia, guarded under the protection of Christ the Saviour.
The cathedral was consecrated in May 1883, and from that time onwards it was a symbol of Moscow.
The new masters in the communist Kremlin could not reconcile themselves to the golden-domed inheritance from the past. As early as 1924, there was a plan to demolish the cathedral in order to erect a statue to Lenin. It was sentenced to destruction in 1931 by personal order from Stalin so that 'the most important building in the country' could be put up there. This was to be the Palace of Soviets.
At midday on 5 December 1931, the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour was destroyed. The marble from the cathedral was used in the Kropotkinskaya and Okhotny Ryad metro stations, and the benches were taken to Novokuznetskaya metro. Some of the plaques with the heroes' names were crushed and scattered over the paths in Moscow's parks, and some of them were used in the decoration of other buildings.
The city was saved from the monstrous Palace of Soviets by the Great Patriotic War. On the site which contained a crater and the foundation stone marked 'for centuries', an open-air swimming baths was built in 1958. Beginning in 1989, the idea of restoring the old cathedral slowly grew from the depths of the national consciousness. The foundation stone of the new Cathedral of Christ the Saviour was laid on 7 January 1995, which is Russian Christmas Day. The fantastic dream was about to become reality.
Заканчивается фильм беседой наших ребят с «иностранными туристами» на ступенях Храма. Невольно в беседу, запечатленную в фильме, влились голоса туристов из нашей аудитории, которые продолжили главную мысль фильма: "Everubodu must create not destroy".
Большое количество вопросов появилось у «туристов» о Храме Христа Спасителя.
g1: Our excursion is coming to an end. We hope you have learnt quite a lot about our city. We are sure that before leaving Moscow, everybody would like to buy some souvenirs.
На одном из столов классной комнаты представлен магазин «Сувениры». Все «иностранные туристы» вместе с двумя экскурсоводами «заходят» в импровизированный магазин, рассматривают сувениры, игрушки, фильмы, книги о Москве и большинство из них, выстраивая свой диалог с продавцом, иногда советуясь с «гидом», покупают что-либо на память.
G1: Finishing our tour we would like to thank you for your attention, your interesting questions and, if you are not very tired, tell us please, what other places of interest which we have not visited today that you would like to see in Moscow.
«Туристы» называют некоторые достопримечательности. Ведущий «гид» отыскивает фотографии этих мест и дополняет ими тот маршрут, который был пройден в этот день.
«G1: Excellent! Thank you very much. These sights will be included in our new tour around Moscow. Goodbye!
Завершается это праздничное путешествие по Москве вручением призов всем участникам экскурсии. «Гиды» получают книги на английском языке, а «туристам» вручают путеводители и проспекты на английском языке по московским музеям.
Цель, которая была поставлена перед, началом работы над проектом, достигнута. Наши «гиды» значительно расширили свой кругозор, обогатили словарный запас и, что самое главное, они без боязни вступали как в импровизированные диалоги с реально встречавшимися иностранными туристами на Красной площади и у Храма Христа Спасителя, так и в дискуссии со своими сверстниками во время защиты проекта в классе, сумев использовать в своей речи весь изученный о Москве материал.
Готовить учащегося к участию в процессе иноязычного общения нужно в условиях иноязычного общения, созданных в классе. Работа над проектом «Моя Москва» помогла трансформировать модели, созданные в процессе обучения, в реальное общение детей с представителями англоговорящих стран.