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ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНТСТВО ПО ОБРАЗОВАНИЮ



Нижегородский государственный университет им. Н.И. Лобачевского


МЕЖДУНАРОДНЫЕ ОРГАНИЗАЦИИ


Учебно-методическое пособие


Рекомендовано методической комиссией факультета международных отношений для студентов ННГУ, обучающихся по направлениям подготовки 030700 «Международные отношения», 032300 «Регионоведение» и специальностям 030701 «Международные отношения»,

032301 «Регионоведение»


Нижний Новгород

2009

УДК 42.8(07)

ББК 143.21я.73

Ж 60


Ж 60 МЕЖДУНАРОДНЫЕ ОРГАНИЗАЦИИ. Составители: Жерновая О.Р., Бузуева Ю.С., Глазунова Н.А.: Учебно-методическое пособие. – Нижний Новгород: Нижегородский госуниверситет, 2009. – 55 с.


Рецензент: д.полит.н., профессор М.И. Рыхтик


Данное учебно-методическое пособие предназначено для развития компетенции студентов в области международных организаций, развития навыков и умений работы с текстами общественно-политического содержания и может использоваться в качестве основного учебного материала для студентов 3 и 4 курсов факультета международных отношений, изучающий английский язык как основной на продвинутом этапе обучения.


УДК 42.8(07)

ББК 143.21я.73


© Нижегородский государственный

университет им. Н.И. Лобачевского, 2009

Введение


Учебно-методическое пособие предназначено для студентов 3-4 курсов факультета международных отношений отделений «международные отношения» и «регионоведение». Данное пособие рассчитано для продвинутого этапа обучения английскому языку и ставит следующие цели: углубление языковых знаний и понимания оригинального английского текста, расширение словарного запаса, совершенствование навыков устной речи, а также анализа аутентичных общественно-политических текстов. Особое внимание уделяется развитию профессиональных навыков ведения дискуссии по современным проблемам, связанным с деятельностью таких международных организаций как Организация Объединенных Наций (ООН), Организация Северо-Атлантического Договора (НАТО) и Европейский Союз (ЕС).

Пособие представляет собой сборник аутентичных текстов по актуальным аспектам и современным политическим вопросам, и ставит целью развитие навыка самостоятельной работы с англо-английскими толковыми словарями.

Подобранные тексты снабжены аппаратом упражнений, направленных на дальнейшее совершенствование языковой, речевой и профессиональной подготовки студентов, а также навыков перевода в сфере профессиональной коммуникации.


Contents


Unit I: THE UNITED NATIONS ORGANISATION (UN)

^ Part 1: How the UN works 6

Warm-up 6

Pronunciation 7

Reading 7

Scanning 8

Word Study 9

Talking Point 10

Part 2: UN structure 11

Warm-up 11

Pronunciation 11

Reading 11

Scanning 15

Word Study 16

Translation 17

Talking Point 18

^ Part 3: UNITED NATIONS ORGANIZATION REFORM 19

Rendering 19


Unit II: THE NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION (NATO)

Part 1: What is NATO 25

Warm-up 25

Pronunciation 25

Reading 26

Scanning 27

Word Study 28

Talking Point 30

Speaking 30

^ Part 2: NATO: Security Challenges and Risks 31

Warm-up 31

Pronunciation 31

Reading 31

Scanning 32

Word Study 33

Speaking 34

Part 3: NATO-Russia Relations 35

Warm-up 35

Pronunciation 35

Reading 35

Scanning 38

Speaking 39

Word Study 39

Talking Point 40

^ Unit III: THE EUROPEAN UNION

Part 1: The History and Enlargement of the European Union 41

Pronunciation 41

Warm-Up 42

Reading 43

Scanning 44

Word Study 45

Translation 47

Speaking 48

Talking Point 48

^ Part 2: The Structure and Objectives of the EU 49

Pronunciation 49

Warm-up 49

Reading 49

Scanning 51

Word Study 51

Speaking 53

Translation 53

Talking point 54


Unit I


^ THE UNITED NATIONS ORGANISATION (UN)


Part 1

How the UN works


Warm-up


Read the following text and answer the questions:

  1. What does the phrase “an international organization” mean in the conventional sense?

  2. What is a noninstitutional aspect to the phrase “an international organization”?

  3. In what ways can coordination of an international organization be performed? What do they involve?

  4. What criterion is considered to be the most important for the existence of an international organization?

  5. What does an international organization consist of?


International Organizations

The very term international organization is ambiguous. In the conventional sense, an international organization is an institution or structure similar to Congress or to a city council; it has a definite set of rules, members, agenda, places and times of meeting. A second meaning of the concept is implied as well. If organization is an arrangement of parts into a unified whole, then there is a noninstitutional aspect to the phrase international organization. The purpose of organization is conscious coordination of activity; the method of organization is to routinize coordination by such techniques as division of labour and task specialization. Coordination can be performed either formally or informally. When coordination is formal, it takes place within official structures and institutional machinery; this is the conventional significance of the term organization in international relations. Informal coordination involves an unwritten system of practices in which units of the system assume such roles as those of leader or nonleader. International organization in the second sense refers to informal role differentiation in the world polity. Often this second meeting has been called world organization.

In international relations, units that are most powerful take leadership roles; weak units are nonleaders. Thus, international organization in the first sense is a dependent variable of world organization, the second interpretation of the term. Informal organization is more basic than formal organization; characteristics of international structures are a function of the nature of the international arena. In the subsequent portion of this discussion the term international organization will be used to refer only to the meaning of the term in the conventional sense.

Not all organizations are international. Historically the types of units in the world political system have changed in form and in number. Traditionally, an international organization has been said to exist when many nation-states are linked together structurally. If this criterion were adopted, the study of international organization would date only from the year 1648, when the nation-state system was officially christened in the Peace of Westphalia. Previously there were other basic units – the empire, the city state, the free city, and the dynamic state. A loose definition of international organization would say that it consists of intergovernmental institutions, members of which perceive each other to be basic units of the world polity. Any world system may contain international organization.


Pronunciation


Watch the pronunciation of the following words and word combinations. If necessary consult a dictionary:

Charter

harmonizing

sovereign

affecting

a vast array

survival

alleviation

environmental

reluctant

fluctuated

prominence

the Hague

the Netherlands


Reading


Read the text and find the answers to the following questions:

  1. What is the UN?

  2. What country is the UN situated in?

  3. When was the UN established and for what purpose?

  4. What are the main organs of the UN?


The United Nations was established on 24 October 1945 by 51 countries committed to preserving peace through international cooperation and collective security. Today, nearly every nation in the world belongs to the UN: membership now totals nearly 200 countries.

When states become members of the United Nations, they agree to accept obligations of the UN Charter, an international treaty which sets out basic principles of international relations. According to the Charter, the UN has four purposes: to maintain international peace and security, to develop friendly relations among nations, to cooperate in solving international problems and in promoting respect for human rights, and to be a center for harmonizing the actions of nations.

UN members are sovereign countries. The United Nations is not a world government, and it does not make laws. It does, however, provide the means to help resolve international conflicts and formulate policies on matters affecting all of us. It serves as a symbol of international order and global identity.

The United Nations is much more than a peacekeeper and forum for conflict resolution. Often without attracting attention, the United Nations is engaged in a vast array of work that touches every aspect of people’s lives around the world.

Child survival and development. Environmental protection. Human rights. Health and medical research. Alleviation of poverty and economic development. Agricultural development and fisheries. Education. Family planning. Emergency and disaster relief. Air and sea travel. Peaceful uses of atomic energy. Labour and worker’s rights. The list goes on and on.

The UN’s influence in world affairs has fluctuated over the years, but the organization gained new prominence beginning in the 1990s. It was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2001. Still, the UN faces constant challenges. It must continually secure the cooperation of its member nations because the organization has little independent power or authority. But getting that support is not always easy. Many nations are reluctant to defer their authority and follow the dictates of the UN.

The United Nations has six main organs. Five of them – the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Trusteeship Council and the Secretariat – are based at UN Headquarters in New York. The sixth, the International Court of Justice, is located at the Hague, the Netherlands.


Scanning


1. Answer the following questions:

  1. How many countries does the UN membership total today?

  2. What main principles does the UN Charter set out?

  3. Is the UN just a forum for conflict resolution?

  4. What do the countries joining the UN agree to accept?

  5. Why does the UN have little independent power or authority?

  6. What other purposes does the UN serve?

  7. When did the UN gain its new prominence?

^ 2. Give as much information as possible concerning the following notions:

the UN

the UN Charter

a world government

a peacekeeper and forum for conflict resolution.

the Nobel Peace Prize

UN Headquarters

^ 3. Prepare the summary of the text in 10-12 sentences. Use the active vocabulary from the Word Study section.


Word Study


1. Give the definitions of the following words and phrases from the text and use them in the sentences of your own:

  1. to be committed to

  2. to total

  3. obligations

  4. to set out (basic principles)

  5. to maintain (peace)

  6. to harmonize (actions)

  7. to resolve (conflicts)

  8. a peacekeeper

  9. a vast array

  10. alleviation of (poverty)

  11. to fluctuate

  12. to gain (prominence)

  13. to secure (cooperation)

  14. to defer (authority)

  15. headquarters




  1. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English using active vocabulary:

  1. ООН включает в себя 192 независимые страны, которые следуют основным принципам Устава ООН.

  2. Целью этой организации является поддержание мира между народами и разрешение всех спорных вопросов путем переговоров.

  3. Устав ООН был подписан в 1945 году 50 государствами в Сан-Франциско, Калифорния.

  4. Штаб-квартира ООН находится в США с филиалами в Париже, Риме и Женеве.

  5. При вступлении в ООН страны торжественно обещают разрешать все спорные вопросы мирным путем. Однако это обещание не всегда легко сдержать.

  6. Основные задачи ООН по уставу – поддержание мира и безопасности, разрешение конфликтов, развитие дружественных связей между странами и обеспечение соблюдения прав человека.

  7. ООН призывает страны воздерживаться от использования силы в межгосударственных отношениях. И разрешать конфликты мирным путем.



Talking Point


Express your opinion on the following questions:

  1. Do you think the UN fulfils its mission today?

  2. Do you think that the role of the UN is really very important in the modern world? Substantiate your point of view.

  3. Is there any country in the world that the UN should refuse to admit as its member? Give your reasons.



Part 2

UN structure


Warm-up


Discuss the following questions in groups. Share your ideas with the class:


  1. What roles do the bodies of the UN play in the world?

  2. How have their tasks and functions changed over the years?

  3. Who is the UN Secretary General now?


Pronunciation


Watch the pronunciation of the following words and word combinations. If necessary consult a dictionary:

the Generally Assembly

medium

convoked

unanimity

maintenance

a threat

breach of peace

convened

unanimity

eligible

veto

severance

refugee

the Trusteeship Council

obsolete

hostile

perceived


Reading


Read the text and find answers to the following questions:

1. What is the main body of the UN?

2. What UN body suspended its work?


^ 1. General Assembly

The General Assembly is composed of representatives of all member nations. All UN member states are represented in the Generally Assembly – a kind of parliament of nations which meets to consider the world’s most pressing problems. It’s like a global town hall, providing a powerful medium for countries to put forward their ideas and debate issues.

Each nation may send not more than five representatives to each session. Each nation is entitled to one vote.

The General Assembly meets in regular annual sessions and in special sessions when necessary. Special sessions are convoked by the Secretary General at the request of the Security Council or of a majority of the members of the UN.

Any matter within the scope of the charter may be brought before the General Assembly which may make recommendations on all except issues on the agenda of the Security Council. However, the General Assembly in November, 1950, decided that if the Security Council, because of lack of unanimity among its permanent members, fails to exercise its primary responsibility for maintenance of international peace and security, in any case where there appears to be a threat to peace, breach of peace or act of aggression, the Assembly may consider it and recommend collective measures including, in the case of a breach of peace or act of aggression, the use of armed forces to maintain or restore peace. In such cases, the General Assembly may be convened within 24 hours in an emergency special session.


^ 2. Security Council

The Security Council consists of 15 members, 5 with permanent seats. The remaining 10 are elected for 2-year term by the General Assembly, they are not eligible for immediate reelection.

Permanent members of the Council: China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. These nations were the winning powers at the end of World War II and they still represent the bulk of the world’s military might. Decisions of the Council require nine votes. But any of one of the permanent members can veto an important decision. This authority is known as the veto right of the great powers. As a result, the Council is effective only when its permanent members can reach a consensus.

The Security Council has the primary responsibility for maintaining international peace and security and members agree to carry out its decisions. The Council may investigate any dispute that threatens international peace and security. When the Security Council is handling a dispute or situation the General Assembly makes no recommendation unless the Council requests it.

The Security Council functions continuously, each member being represented at all times. It may change its place of meeting.

Any member of UN at headquarters may participate in its discussions and a nation not a member of UN may appear if it is a party to a dispute.

The Security Council may decide to enforce its decisions without the use of arms. Such measures include interruption of relations, break in transportation and communications, and severance of diplomatic relations. If such measures fail the Council may call on UN members to furnish armed forces and assistance. The right of individual or collective self-defense is not prohibited by membership in the UN, and if a member nation is attacked it may do what is necessary, reporting this to the Security Council, which may take independent action. However, the Council encourages regional arrangements or agencies by means of which local disputes can be settled without getting as far as the Council, after the Council has approved this method.


^ 3. Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)

The Economic and Social Council consists of 54 member countries elected by the General Assembly for three-year terms. The Council is concerned with financial and technical assistance to the less developed countries, the international protection of refugees and aid to the world's children.

ECOSOC coordinates many specialized agencies that provide a variety of social, economic and related services. The agencies operate independently but work with other programs in the UN. Those programs include the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the International Labour Organization (ILO, and the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO).

^ 4. Trusteeship Council

The Trusteeship Council was established to oversee the transition of a handful of colonies to independence. The last of those colonies gained independence in 1994, making the Trusteeship Council obsolete.


5. International Court of Justice

Thе principal judicial organ of the United Nations is the International Court of Justice , also known as the World Court. It is the judicial arm of the UN. It sits at the Hague in the Netherlands. It is composed of fifteen judges who are elected by the Security Council and the General Assembly. A country is not required to participate in the court’s proceedings, but if it agrees to participate, it must abide the court’s decisions.


6. Secretariat

The administrative functions of the United Nations are carried out by the Secretariat. The Secretariat consists of some 6,000 members, 3,600 of whom are at the United Nations headquarters in New York.

The Secretary General who is appointed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council is at the head of the Secretariat.


^ 7.Secretary General

The Secretary General is a powerful public figure who oversees the daily operations of the UN and plays a major role in setting the organization’s agenda in international security affairs. The Secretary General has the authority to serve as a neutral mediator in international conflicts and to bring hostile parties together to negotiate.

The Secretary General is formally chosen by the General Assembly, but he must first be nominated by the Security Council and win the consent of all five permanent members. The Secretary General serves a five-year term, which may be renewed. The Security Council can nominate a candidate from any country, but it’s an unwritten tradition that the position rotates geographically, with a secretary general chosen from a new region after every two terms. In 1997 the General Assembly created the post of deputy Secretary General to assist in the management of the Secretariat.

Past Secretaries General have come from various regions of the world, but it’s an unwritten rule that they never should come from one of the most powerful countries. This tradition is a response to concerns that a secretary general selected from such a country would not be perceived by other nations as objective and neutral. There is also a fear that such a selection would give the world’s most influential nations that much more power.


^ 8.Agencies Related to the UN

Working in partnership with the UN in various economic, social, scientific and technical fields is a group of organizations related to the UN by special agreements. The agencies are:

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) —Международное агентство по атомной энергии (МАГАТЭ)

^ International Labour Organization (ILO) — Международная организация труда (МОТ)

Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) — Организация по вопросам продовольствия и сельского хозяйства (ФАО)

^ United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) — Организация по вопросам образования, науки и культуры (ЮНЕСКО)

World Health Organization (WHO) — Всемир­ная организация здравоохранения (ВОЗ)

^ International Bank for Reconstruction and De­velopment (or World Bank) (BRD) — Международный банк реконструкции и развития (МБРР)

International Development Association (IDA) — Международная ассоциация развития (MAP)

International Finance Corporation (IFC) — Международная финансовая корпорация (МФК)

^ International Monetary Fund (IMF) — Между­народный валютный фонд (МВФ)

International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) — Международная организация гражданской авиации (ИКАО)

Universal Postal Union (UPU) — Всемирный почтовый союз (ВПС)

International Telecommunication Union (ITU) — Международный союз электросвязи (МЭС)

^ World Meteorological Organization (WMO) — Международная метеорологическая организация (ВМО)

International Maritime Consultative Organiza­tion (IMCO) — Международная консультативная организация по морскому судоходству (ИМКО)

United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) – Организация Объединенных Наций по вопросам промышленного развития (ЮНИДО)

Scanning


^ 1. Read the text and say whether these statements are true or false:

  1. The General Assembly meets biannually in order to consider the world’s most pressing problems.

  2. Special sessions are convoked by the Secretary Ge­neral at the request of the General Assembly or of a majority of the members of the UN.

  3. Any of one of the permanent members of the Security Council can veto an important decision of the Council.

  4. The right of individual or collective self-defense is not prohibited by membership in the UN, and if a member nation is attacked it may do what is necessary.

  5. The Economic and Social Council consists of 34 member countries elected by the General Assembly for five-year terms.

  6. Thе principal judicial organ of the United Nations is the Secretariat, known as the judicial arm of the UN.

  7. The Secretary General who is appointed by the Security Council on the recommendation of the General Assembly is at the head of the International Court of Justice.

  8. According to the UN Charter the position of Secretary General rotates geographically, with a secretary general chosen from a new region after every two terms.


^ 2. Read the text again and answer the following questions using the active vocabulary:

  1. What is the composition of the General Assembly?

  2. How many votes is each UN member-country entitled to?

  3. What matters may be brought before the General Assembly?

  4. What are the functions of the General Assembly and how does it take its decisions?

  5. In what cases may the General Assembly be convened within 24 hours in an emergency special session?

  6. How many members does the Security Council consist of?

  7. What countries have permanent seats in the Security Council and why?

  8. Who are the remaining 10 members of the Security Council elected by?

  9. What is the primary responsibility of the Security Council?

  10. How does the Security Council function?

  11. Who can participate in the discussions of the Security Council’s sittings?

  12. In what way can the Security Council enforce its decisions?

  13. In what cases can the Security Council furnish armed forces?

  14. What are the functions of the Economic and Social Council?

  15. Why doesn’t the Trusteeship Council function today?

  16. What is the principal judicial organ of the UN? Where does it sit?

  17. Who are its members elected by?

  18. What organ carries out the administrative functions of the UN?

  19. Who is at the head of the Secretariat?

  20. What agencies work in partnership with the UN? Give some examples.

  21. What authority does the Secretary General have in the UN?

  22. Who is the Secretary General chosen by?

  23. Can the Security Council nominate a candidate to the post of Secretary General from any country?

  24. What post was created by the General Assembly in 1997?

  25. Why shouldn’t the Secretary General come from any of the most powerful countries?


^ 3.Give as much information as possible concerning the following notions:

the General Assembly

the Security Council

the Economic and Social Council

the World Health Organization

the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

the International Court of Justice

the Secretariat

the Secretary General


^ 4. Prepare the summary of the text in 20-25 sentences. Use the active vocabulary from the Word Study section.


Word Study


  1. Give Russian equivalents of the following words and phrases:

General Assembly, Secretary General, Deputy Secretary General, Security Council,

Economic and Social Council, Trusteeship Council, International Court of Justice,

most pressing problems, an emergency special session, within the scope of the charter,

lack of unanimity, the bulk of the world’s military might, a party to a dispute,

severance of diplomatic relations, to furnish armed forces, obsolete, hostile parties,

consent.


  1. ^ Give English equivalents of the following words and phrases from the text:

страны-члены ООН, иметь право на что-либо, повестка дня, нарушение мира,

постоянное место (в Совете Безопасности ООН), непрерывно осуществлять функции (действовать), заниматься, интересоваться чем-либо, основной правовой орган, организации, связанные с ООН, работать в партнерстве.


^ 3. Use the lexical units from the exercises above in the sentences of your own.



  1. Give the definitions of the following words and phrases from the text and use them in the sentences of your own:

  1. to be composed of

  2. to convoke

  3. to carry out (decisions)

  4. to handle a dispute

  5. to enforce

  6. to call on

  7. to encourage

  8. to oversee

  9. to abide (the court’s decisions)

  10. to bring smb. together




  1. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English using active vocabulary:

  1. Каждая страна может послать на заседание сессии Генеральной Ассамблеи ООН не более 5 представителей.

  2. Чрезвычайные сессии ООН могут быть созваны Генеральным секретарем ООН по просьбе Совета Безопасности или по решению большинства членов Генеральной Ассамблеи.

  3. Совет Безопасности ООН работает на постоянной основе с обязательным присутствием всех его членов на всех заседаниях.

  4. В случае, если страна-член ООН подверглась нападению, она может предпринимать необходимые действия, уведомив об этом Совет Безопасности.

  5. Генеральная Ассамблея ООН дает рекомендации странам-членам ООН и другим организациям ООН с целью укрепления международного сотрудничества в политических, экономических, социальных и других областях.

  6. Генеральный секретарь ООН, назначаемый Генеральной Ассамблеей ООН по рекомендации Совета Безопасности, возглавляет Секретариат ООН.


Translation


Translate the following text from English into Russian using a dictionary:


What the UN does for peace


Preserving world peace is a central purpose of the United Nations. Under the Charter, member states agree to settle disputes by peaceful means and refrain from threatening or using force against other states.

UN efforts have produced dramatic results. The UN helped defuse the Cuban missile crisis in 1962 and the Middle East crisis in 1973. In 1988 a UN-sponsored peace settlement ended the Iran-Iraq war. In the 1990s, the UN was instrumental in restoring sovereignty to Kuwait and played a major role in ending civil wars in Cambodia, El Salvador, Guatemala and Mozambique.

UN peacemaking brings hostile parties to agreement through diplomatic means. The Security Council may recommend ways to avoid conflict or restore or secure peace – through negotiations, for example, or undertake mediation, or recourse to the International Court of Justice. In the event of fighting the UN tries to secure a ceasefire. It may send a peacekeeping mission to help the parties maintain the truce and to keep opposing forces apart. Peacekeeping operations may last for a few months or continue for many years.


Talking Point


Express your opinion on the following questions:

  1. What recent actions or peacekeeping operations of the UN can you remember? Were they successful?

  2. Do you think that the UN peacekeeping forces could substitute for NATO or EU forces in the future?

  3. What role does the Secretary General play in the UN? How has it changed recently? Is the UN Secretary General an important political figure in the world?







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