N. Shuvalova, S. Zagritsenko
ENGLISH TEACHER’S PROFESSIONAL SPEECH
Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации
Федеральное агентство по образованию
Государственное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
«Самарский государственный педагогический университет»
N. Shuvalova, S. Zagritsenko
ENGLISH TEACHER’S PROFESSIONAL SPEECH
Н.В. Шувалова, С.А. Загриценко
Учебное пособие для студентов старших курсов
Печатается по решению редакционно-издательского совета Самарского государственного педагогического университета
доктор педагогических наук, профессор Г.В.Глухов
(Самарской государственной экономической академии);
кандидат филологических наук, доцент Л.Н.Юровицкая
(Самарский государственный педагогический университет).
N. Shuvalova, S. Zagritsenko
Шувалова Н.В., Загриценко С.А.
Методика развития речи учителя: Учебное пособие для студентов старших курсов институтов и факультетов иностранных языков (на английском языке). – Самара: Издательство СГПУ 2006. – 162 с.
Настоящее учебное пособие предназначено для занятий по курсу «Методика развития речи учителя» со студентами старших курсов факультетов иностранных языков. Материалы пособия направлены на развитие умений профессионально-ориентированного общения на английском языке.
© СГПУ, 2007
ENGLISH TEACHER’S PROFESSIONAL SPEECH
Н.В. Шувалова, С.А. Загриценко
Учебное пособие для студентов старших курсов
Главный редактор М.С. Серенко
Лицензия ИД №06504. Подписано к печати 20.05.2007.
Бумага типографская. Печать оперативная.
Формат 160х84 1/16. Объем 10,0 п.л. Тираж 500 экз.
Издательство СГПУ: 443099, Самара, ул. М. Горького, 61/63. Тел. 333-27-27.
Introduction … 4
Lesson 1 About language learning … 11
Module 1 Ways of learning … 11
Module 2 Focus on teaching pronunciation … 22
Lesson 2 About you … 29
Module 1 A performer? An entertainer? An аrtist? … 29
Module 2 Focus on teaching vocabulary … 36
Lesson 3 About coursebooks … 51
Module 1 Choosing a coursebook … 51
Module 2 Focus on teaching grammar … 65
Lesson 4 About lessons … 75
Module 1 Talking about teaching … 75
Module 2 Focus on teaching speaking … 85
Lesson 5 Teacher development … 92
Module 1 Teacher development vs. teacher training … 92
Module 2 Focus on teaching reading … 100
Lesson 6 Job satisfaction … 111
Module 1 A tale of two teachers … 111
Module 2 Focus on cultural matters … 120
Lesson 7 Trouble in the classroom … 126
Module 1 Troublesome children … 126
Module 2 Focus on text simplification … 138
Lesson 8 Gender and the classroom … 151
Module 1 Ways of learning … 151
Bibliography … 162
Who is this book for?
English Teacher’s Professional Speech is a language improvement course for students of English as a Foreign Language. It focusses particularly on the language that teachers need in the classroom, for talking and reading about their work and for furthering their studies in English as a Foreign Language.
This book is intended for students whose language is at an upper intermediate or a more advanced level.
What are the aims of this book?
The primary aim of this book is to provide students with a means for developing and extending their use of English with particular emphasis on English related to teaching. It focusses on the English needed in the following areas:
– in the classroom;
– for studying the teaching and learning of English as a Foreign Language;
– for participating in teacher development and teacher-training courses;
– for making work-related contacts;
– for taking part in work-related discussions.
For example, it contains reading and listening texts related to topics such as language learning, talking about lessons, teacher development and gender in the classroom. It also contains sections that focus on the language of classroom instructions, and others that look at how to assess students' oral and written language.
The book also aims to:
provide students with opportunities to read about, listen to, reflect on and discuss issues related to teaching and learning
allow students to have the opportunity, through reflection on the learning methods they use, to better understand their own teaching and learning styles
allow future teachers to evaluate the benefit for their own students of different learning activities and approaches to learning
allow students to feel more confident in their use of English in situations related to their profession.
English Teacher’s Professional Speech contains eight units. Units 1-7 consist of two modules. The first module in each unit deals with the development of four communicative skills on a topic-based approach. The themes have been chosen as being central to most teachers' work and as representing subjects which teachers are frequently involved in discussing, reading, thinking about or following up in other ways. Through these themes the book aims to bring in and explore language of particular relevance to language teachers. The second module deepens students’ knowledge about techniques used in the classroom for teaching pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar, etc. and to master their professional skills. The module contains input reading sections , exploratory tasks and microteaching tasks. Unit 8 can be treated as an additional unit.
The units are topic-based and focus on subjects such as: teacher development, coursebooks, troublesome children, etc. Each unit is self-contained, and includes the following sections in varying order:
These sections have been included in the book on a systematic basis in order to provide regular and integrated coverage of the four language skills, opportunities for the study of the language system, and ways of developing teaching-related language, as well as awareness and evaluation of teaching methodologies. Each section develops out of the previous one, and consists of an integrated sequence of activities. The aim and content of each section is described below.
This section, which occurs at the beginning of each unit, is designed to stimulate discussion of the new topic and relate it personally to the reader.
speaking, reading, writing, listening
The main focus of each of these sections is obviously the relevant language skill. Each skill is, however, treated in an integrated way and contains activities that bring in other language skills and a focus on language subskills.
The activities used in these sections of the book vary considerably in that sometimes they concentrate on grammar, sometimes on pronunciation, sometimes on overall impression, etc. The purpose of this section is to provide readers with an opportunity to examine their attitudes to student error, the value and role of error and learn how and when to correct students. While doing this, they will also often have opportunities to work on language accuracy.
Classroom instructions form a major part of teacher talking time in a classroom, yet often the language of these instructions is not taught. Teachers have to pick it up or work it out as best they can. This section provides an opportunity for a systematic focus on classroom language. Each section provides a set of instructions that could be used to introduce one of the activities in the unit. The activities that have been chosen represent ones that are very common in the classroom, e.g. introducing a reading activity, giving instructions for homework, introducing pair work. The instructions are presented as a cloze test; the words that have been removed are usually prepositions, particles, articles, demonstrative pronouns or key lexical items. In this way readers are given the opportunity to concentrate on the linguistic accuracy of instructions. Readers are then asked to give the same instructions in their own words, if preferred, so that they can extend the accuracy practice to their own use of language.
This section contains two activities: ^ and Reflections on teaching (see below).
A wide variety of activities is used to focus on the four language skills. These include classifying, prioritising, true/false, selecting, listing, giving definitions, matching, note-taking, role-play, consensus discussion, opinion-gap activities, letter and article writing and many others. These activities have been chosen to provide variety and to allow the skill to be focussed on in the most authentic or appropriate way, e.g. work on subskills such as pronunciation, reading for specific information, listening for gist, etc.
Examples of regularly occurring activities are:
This activity occurs regularly as the final part of the exploitation of a reading or listening text. It is presented simply as a list of discussion points which can be talked about in groups or pairs or in whole-class discussion. There is no need to discuss all of the points. In other words, the Talking points are intended to be used flexibly.
In most units there is an activity which focusses on particular language functions, e.g. advising, giving and asking for clarification, changing the subject. This activity is designed to provide teachers with the chance to meet, study and use language which is often colloquial and very common in spoken language, yet not often presented in grammar books. It is an important ingredient of classroom language and its appropriate and fluent use contributes considerably to the naturalness of language.
This activity occurs in the Conclusions section at the end of each unit. Its aim is to allow for recall and extension of the topic-related vocabulary that has occurred in the unit.
reflections on teaching
This activity also occurs at the end of each unit. It poses questions about the topic or learning activities of the unit. It gives readers an opportunity for reflection on the value of the topic or activities to themselves and to their own students; in other words it provides moments to reflect on the content of the unit and on the extent of its learning value.
The Reading, Listening and Student language sections are structured round authentic texts. The written texts are all taken from students' homework, class work, or articles or stories submitted to school magazines. The students' oral language comes from recordings of students carrying out classroom activities. Other texts also cover a large range of text types. For example, the reading texts include articles from magazines and newspapers, extracts from novels and autobiographies, advertisements, poems, letters and conference programmes. The listening texts include conversations, talks and interviews with people of varying ages, nationalities and backgrounds.
The texts developed in the productive skills sections of speaking and writing also have an authentic focus. Readers are asked to write letters of various kinds, articles, book reviews, etc. and to engage in discussions and conversations.
By way of reference material the book includes:
• An Answer Key which provides the answers to all the objective tasks in the book. It does not give answers to questions which depend on judgement or experience.
How to use this book
The Map of the Book shows the detailed content of each unit. Use this to decide what to do next. Although the units are grouped thematically each one works independently, so you can use the book in a variety of ways, e.g.:
• Work through the book from beginning to end.
• Select units in accordance with your particular needs and interests
• Concentrate on particular sections across units, e.g. ^
Notes for trainers
How you use this book and what you choose to use in it will depend very much on the interests and needs of the group of students you are working with. The book has been designed so it can be used flexibly on a dip-in basis at unit level. The sections and activities are more closely linked and, with the exception of the Starter activities, Student language, Classroom instructions and Grammar sections, lend themselves more to sequential treatment.
This book is about both language improvement and issues related to teaching. One or both of these strands can be emphasised in a lesson or across a series of lessons. In its informal approach to issues related to teaching, the book can provide a useful tool in teacher development and an introduction to and general familiarisation with methodology.
In order to involve students on your course further in this book and in their exploration of language and methodology, you may find it useful to ask them to bring in supplementary materials, e.g. magazine articles, examples of their own students' language, transcripts and recordings of their own classroom instructions.
Lesson 1. About language learning
WAYS oF LEARNING
How do you like to learn languages? Look at these extracts from advertisements for methods of learning languages. Tick the methods you would like. Explain and discuss your answers.
Superb mini-documentaries on video not only to build your command of the language, but also give you a real taste of the country, its people and its culture.
In addition to learning what to say in a situation, you develop a real understanding of why you should say it that way – how sentences are structured and how the language works.
Memory Maps build up vivid mental pictures. When the images are recalled, so are the words. Having the French and English text side by side means that you absorb the words naturally.
The Unique Physical Learning Video. You watch the action, follow it yourself and repeat the words. Your brain links the word to the action, just as you learned to speak as a child.
The easiest and most natural way to improve or learn English?
Stay with a friendly host family where English is spoken all the time.
Individual paying guest visits for students or teachers arranged by the EN FAMILLE AGENCY (Established 1945).
We specialise in ‘matching’ age group, interests and background. Hundreds of families throughout Britain available at all times of the year. Careful attention given to every application by experienced staff.
We also arrange:
Private formal language tuition
Airport/seaport escort collection service
Many people find speaking their new language the hardest part, but Linguaphone’s proven method enables you to start speaking from the very first lesson. You imitate what you hear and immediately after the teacher repeats the sentences so that you can check the progress. What’s more, with Linguaphone you’ll find you’re speaking with the correct accent and pronunciation.
Armchair Theatre. A series of entertaining radio plays. As you get absorbed in the story, you absorb the words and pronunciation without thinking about it.
2. People learn languages in different ways. Here are some descriptions and explanations of different kinds of language learners. Match the descriptions (1-6) to the explanations (A-F).
1. a risk taker
2. a translator
3. a systems person
4. a reader
5. a child-like unconscious learner
6. a teacher-depender
A Someone who likes to study grammar, work with vocabulary lists and generally understand the systems (grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation) of language.
B Someone who needs to read language before they feel they’ve really grasped it.
C Someone who will try hard to use all the language at their disposal and communicate regardless of how many mistakes they may be making.
^ Someone who just absorbs and picks up language without really being aware of it or trying to analyse it.
E Someone who feels they need to translate everything into their own language before they fully understand what something means or how it works.
F Someone who feels they need the approval, guidance and support of someone knowledgeable before or while using the language.
1. Listen to Emmah, talking about how she learnt French at school in Britain and how she would like to learn French in future. Decide which kind of learner she would refer herself to.
2. Listen again and make notes in the chart below. Then compare your answers with a partner.
The ways in which
Emmah learnt French
The ways in which Emmah would like to learn French
3. Look at the list below of words and expressions from the conversation. With a group, write definitions of each one. Then explain them to someone from a different group, as if you were explaining them to a student. Would you explain them just by using the definition or in some other way?
verb tables slang
to learn off by heart picking up a language
^ expressions of hesitation, expressions for correcting yourself/rephrasing, and expressions to stop interruptions.
now, let me think what I mean is
I mean I just wanted to add,
hold on how can I put it?
sorry, what I meant to say was… or rather
just a minute
^ Now discuss with a partner:
• how you learnt English
• if the way you learnt was a good way
• if the way you teach is influenced by the way you learnt English.
Try to use the expressions above at appropriate places in your discussion
1. Read the following article and choose a heading from the list below for each paragraph. There is one extra heading which you do not need to use.
A A very powerful mechanism.
B Why we forget our earliest memories.
C Short-term and long-term memory.
D Healthy body, healthy mind.
E An old approach but a good one.
F Are you forgetful?
(1 ___ )
Perhaps you do badly in exams because you can’t recall facts and figures or words and structures in a foreign language. Are you always losing things or forgetting the books you need for school that day? Or do you forget what mum wanted you to get at the corner shop? Relax! Help is close at hand. There’s a tremendous range of methods to boost your memory.
Your memory is like a brilliant but unreliable computer storing a vast amount of information. In fact the memory’s capacity is theoretically unlimited. The brain can record more than 86 billion bits of information every day and our memories can probably hold 100 trillion bits in a lifetime.
Nevertheless only about 20 per cent of our daily experience is registered, and of that only a tiny proportion is loaded into long term memory. Most of the images and ideas that pass through our minds during a day are held for only 25 to 30 seconds. This is just long enough for us to be able to keep the words of a sentence in our head as we read it so we understand its meaning.
Normal, healthy people can improve their memories very easily. First of all learn to relax if you are trying to memorise something. You may miss important items if your mind is on something else or if you weren’t paying attention because of anxiety – you retain information best when you are alert and concentrating. If you are having trouble concentrating, increase the flow of oxygenated blood to the brain. Despite its small size the brain uses 20 per cent of the body’s oxygen requirement. So try to combine study with exercise, particularly the kind of exercise that gets you breathing faster. Keep your mind fit as well as your body by doing mental workouts. Crosswords, scrabble and quizzes all help to keep the mind in shape.
You can also train your memory in certain ways. The ancient Greeks invented memory systems called mnemonics, and they still work today. Most systems involve associating the things you want to remember with something you already have stored in your head, and the most effective systems make use of visual imagery, smell, touch and sound. If you want to remember someone’s name, try to find something distinctive about their hair, nose or eyes to associate with the name, e.g. Jane’s wearing jewellery, Tim’s tall or Bill’s got a beard. If you want to remember numbers in sequence – think of people’s ages, special dates, whether they are odd or even.
2. Discuss the following points with a partner:
Is it better to be one kind of learner than another?
Are there any advantages or disadvantages in being a particular kind of learner?
Do you think people can change from being one kind of learner to another?
Do you think your own style of learning is effective? Why/Why not?
3.1. The pictures below illustrate the different stages of two consecutive language lessons. Look at them and, with a partner, work out what is going on in each picture.
3.2. Now read the passage below which describes the two lessons. Were you and your partner right?
a) Each group gets into a closed circle and holds a conversation. This is recorded by passing the cassette recorder to each person as they speak. (The teacher remains outside the circle, but can be consulted by students if they need help.)
b) The teacher plays the recording back to the group and students ask for unfamiliar words to be written up on the board. There are no further questions at this stage.
c) The teacher asks the group to reflect on the conversation and pass comments on it.
d) The teacher takes away the cassette and transcribes the conversation, marking errors with a simple system of notation.
e) In the next lesson, students receive copies of the transcript and reflect on it for five minutes. They make their own corrections wherever possible.
f) The recording is played through again and students ask questions about errors that they cannot correct themselves. During this stage, the teacher judges when to do a little spot remedial teaching and may also decide to devote a whole follow-up lesson to a particular point.
g) Students receive copies of the cassette for private study, either at home or in a listening centre.
The cycle begins again with a new conversation.
(adapted from ^ Rod Bolitho)
3.3. Look at the passage again. What is meant in (f) by:
a) 'spot remedial teaching'
b) 'a follow-up lesson'?
Look at the list below. Match the verbs on the left with the nouns on the right. Some verbs may be matched with more than one noun.
a) to get into the teacher
b) to hold a recording
c) to consult a closed circle
d) to play back unfamiliar words
e) to write up remedial teaching
f) to play through a conversation
g) to do
3.4. Now look at the pictures again and, without looking at the passage, describe to a partner what is happening in each stage of the lesson.
3.5. Talk about one or both of the points below with a partner or partners.
• Do you think you could learn languages this way?
• Would you like to try teaching this way?
Introducing a conversation lesson
1. Imagine that a teacher has decided to try out for the first time the teaching technique described in Section ^ . The teacher might introduce the technique with the instructions below. Read them and then fill in the blanks.
“Right, now today we're going to do something (a) ….. different from anything we’ve done before. It's a kind of conversation (b) ….. . OK?
Now, I'm going to ask you to (c)…..into groups of six and I’m going to (d) .... .each group a cassette recorder. Right, now, in your groups you're going to (e) .…. a conversation and you're going to record whit you say. OK? Now (f) ….. you’re talking I'll be here, walking around, and if there’s anything you (g)..... to ask me, like how to say this or that, you fast call me and I'll (h) .......... and help. Now, what are you going to talk about? I'd like you to choose a topic from …”
2. Now introduce the same activity to a partner as if you were speaking to a class. Use your own words or those above.
1. Teaching-related vocabulary
In this unit there are many words and expressions related to teaching and learning. Read through the unit and write down ten items which you find particularly useful.
Look at the Teaching/learning techniques column in the chart below. Add two other techniques to this list.
Do these techniques help you learn language? Complete the first column with your opinion.
the language at home with a friend
Listening to rapid conversations
| || |
| || |
Now fill in the other columns by finding out colleagues’ opinions. Then discuss your answers.
Добавить документ в свой блог или на сайт