Пособие для студентов факультета международных отношений минск icon

Пособие для студентов факультета международных отношений минск


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БЕЛОРУССКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ

ФАКУЛЬТЕТ МЕЖДУНАРОДНЫХ ОТНОШЕНИЙ

Кафедра английского языка гуманитарных специальностей


ФОРМЫ ОБРАЩЕНИЙ
В ДИПЛОМАТИЧЕСКОМ
ОБЩЕНИИ



Пособие для студентов факультета
международных отношений



МИНСК 2008

УДК 811.111(075.8)

ББК 81.2Англ-923

Ф79


Автор-составитель

И. А. Таранда


Рекомендовано Ученым советом

факультета международных отношений

27 июня 2008 г., протокол № 9


Рецензент

кандидат педагогических наук, доцент

кафедры иноязычного речевого общения МГЛУ

^ Н. П. Грицкевич




Ф79

Формы обращений в дипломатическом общении: пособие / авт.-сост. И. А.Таранда. – Минск : БГУ, 2008. – 38 с.


Пособие предназначено для студентов, изучающих курс деловой и дипломатической переписки на английском языке.

Образцы форм обращений, званий и титулов, широко используемых в дипломатической практике, делают возможным использование пособия в качестве справочника при составлении и переводе документов и корреспонденции, а также при устном общении на английском языке.


УДК 811.111(075.8)

ББК 81.2Англ-923


© БГУ, 2008


INTRODUCTION

Courteous people, regardless of their nationality, social status and rank, are concerned with addressing each other properly. This is especially true for diplomats, as they represent their nation in the international arena.

Every diplomat should acquaint him/herself with the general rules of social conduct as well as those rules particular to a post or a country of assignment. An understanding and acceptance of these rules will facilitate interactions within the diplomatic and host country communities, help avoid social blunders and enhance relationships, whether formal, informal, official or unofficial, with people of other nations and ensure that everyone is treated with due respect, and without bias.

The necessary respect is expressed most visibly through spoken courtesies. Although guidelines exist, forms of address for foreign government officials and people holding professional, ecclesiastical, or traditional titles vary among countries.

The following pages include internationally recognized, but not country-specific forms of address. The address forms presented are based on the American and international usage. For the exact titles of foreign officials check local customs.


^ DIPLOMATIC RANKS

One of the rules in protocol is the observance of the order of precedence at all functions where officials of a government or its representatives are present.

The recognition of the proper rank and precedence of an official is of utmost importance both in written correspondence and in conversation. Failure to do so may be regarded as an insult to the person’s position and the country he/she represents. To avoid confusion and ensure that the person receives his due respect, one should take into consideration that ranks, titles and posts in the country of accreditation may vary from those in the sending state.

Following is the list of diplomatic titles and ranks.

ambassador

посол

ambassador appointed

дипломат высшего ранга, еще не представивший верительные грамоты

ambassador extraordinary

неаккредитованный представитель главы государства

Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary

Чрезвычайный и Полномочный Посол

ambassador-at-large

посол по особым поручениям

ambassador-designate

посол, назначенный, но еще не вступивший в должность

attaché

атташе; низший дипломатический ранг

career diplomat

профессиональный/карьерный дипломат

chargé d’affaires

поверенный в делах (Note: in official and diplomatic correspondence ^ Chargé d’Affaires is usually written in capital letters)

chargé d’affaires ad interim

временный поверенный в делах (Note: in written correspondence ^ Chargé d’Affaires a.i. is the usual form)

commercial attaché

торговый атташе

consul

консул

consul general

генеральный консул (Note: in official and diplomatic correspondence this title may be written as Consul-General)

counsellor (Am.E.: counselor)

советник

diplomat

дипломат

diplomatic agent

дипломатический представитель

diplomatic corps

дипломатический корпус

doyen

дуайен

emissary

эмиссар

envoy

дипломатический посланник/представитель

envoy extraordinary

чрезвычайный посланник

Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary

Чрезвычайный посланник и Полномочный министр (посол)

head of a consular mission

глава консульского учреждения

head of a (diplomatic) mission

глава дипломатического представительства

internuncio

посланник Ватикана

legate

папский посол

military/service attaché

военный атташе

minister

1. министр 2. посланник; советник посольства

minister plenipotentiary

полномочный министр

minister resident

министр-резидент

naval attaché

военно-морской атташе

nuncio

посол Ватикана; нунций

resident/ ordinary ambassador

постоянный посол

technical attaché

технический атташе

vice-consul

вице-консул

  1. Ambassador: a top-ranking diplomat accredited to a foreign government or to the head of state as a resident representative

  2. Ambassador-at-large: a diplomatic agent accredited to no particular country

  3. Ambassador-designate: a diplomatic agent who has been appointed to office, approved by the head of the receiving state, but has not presented his credentials

  4. Ambassador extraordinary: a nonaccredited personal representative of the head of state on a special diplomatic mission

  5. Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary: a personal representative of the head of one state accredited to the head of another state, head of the mission (1st class)

  6. Attaché: 1. the lowest ranking official of the diplomatic service, this rank being abolished in many countries and replaced by the “third secretary” 2. a senior diplomatic official attached to a mission for specialized services, e. g.: a military (naval, air or commercial) ~

  7. Chargé d’affaires: a diplomatic representative inferior in rank to an ambassador or minister who is sent to another country and accredited to the minister of foreign affairs: head of the mission (3rd class)

  8. Chargé d’affaires ad interim: the counsellor or secretary of an embassy or legation who automatically assumes charge of a diplomatic mission in the temporary absence of an ambassador or minister

  9. Consul: an official appointed by a government to reside in a foreign country to look after the interests of citizens of the appointing country

  10. Consul general: a consular officer of the highest rank; senior official at the consulate general

  11. Counsellor: a senior secretary at an embassy who, in the absence of the head of a mission, acts as “Charge d’affaires”

  12. Diplomat: 1. one engaged in diplomacy, esp. accredited to a seat of government in the receiving state; 2. an adroit negotiator, a tactful person

  13. Diplomatic agent: head of the mission or a member of the diplomatic staff of the mission

  14. Diplomatic corps: the collective heads of foreign diplomatic missions and their staffs in the capital of a country

  15. Doyen: a senior official of the diplomatic corps

  16. Internuncio: a papal representative ranking below a nuncio

  17. Legate: an envoy or minister, esp. one officially representing the Pope

  18. Minister-designate: a diplomatic agent who has been appointed to office, approved by the head of government to which he has been accredited, but has not presented his credentials

  19. Vice-consul: a diplomatic officer next in rank to, or qualified to act in place of, a consul

Assignments

1. Give Russian equivalents:

Chargé d’Affaires ad interim, Counsellor, First Secretary, Second Secretary, Naval Attaché, Press Attaché, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, Consul-General, Ambassador-at-large, envoy, head of a consular mission.

2. Give English equivalents:

Чрезвычайный посланник, посланник Ватикана, временный поверенный в делах, дипломатический корпус, военный атташе, дипломатический представитель, дуайен, глава дипломатического представительства, торговый атташе, дипломат высшего ранга, еще не представивший верительные грамоты.

3. Translate the following into English:

«Дипломатический корпус – это совокупность независимых друг от друга дипломатических представителей, общими для которых являются страна пребывания и характер их деятельности. Понятие «дипломатический корпус» часто употребляется в более широком смысле. Тогда в него включают всех работников посольств и миссий, которых страна пребывания признает в качестве дипломатического персонала. В этом случае к дипломатическому корпусу помимо дипломатических сотрудников и проживающих с ними постоянно членов семей относятся торговые представители (советники) и их заместители, военные атташе и их помощники, специальные советники и атташе (по экономическим вопросам, культуре, сельскому хозяйству и т.д.), а также члены их семей»

(А.Ф. Борунков. Дипломатический протокол в России).

4. Translate the following into English:

«Особое место в дипломатическом протоколе издавна занимала проблема определения старшинства среди глав дипломатических представительств и дипломатов, что служило причиной возникновения дипломатических конфликтов, порой осложнявших отношения между государствами.

Тенденция к определению старшинства проявилась еще в начале XIX века. На Венском конгрессе 19 марта 1815 г. представители европейских государств приняли регламент, дополненный 21 ноября 1818 г. Аахенским протоколом. Согласно этому регламенту были установлены дипломатические классы, которые соответствовали дипломатическим рангам: класс послов (к ним приравнивались представители ватиканской церкви – легаты и нунции), посланников, полномочных министров (интернунции Ватикана), министров-резидентов, поверенных в делах. Эта регламентация отражала неравенство государств, их деление на большие и малые. Послы представляли монархов, вели переговоры от их имени. Венский регламент, таким образом, отражал господство абсолютизма.

Прошло более столетия, прежде чем удалось сделать следующий шаг в классификации дипломатов. Это произошло 18 апреля 1961 г. также в Вене, где представителями большинства государств мира – членов ООН была согласована Венская конвенция о дипломатических сношениях. С учетом произошедших в мире изменений конвенция зафиксировала три класса глав дипломатических представительств: класс послов и нунциев, класс посланников и интернунциев (аккредитуются при главах государств), а также класс поверенных в делах (аккредитуются при министрах иностранных дел).

(А.Ф. Борунков. Дипломатический протокол в России)

5. Translate the following articles from Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations:

Article 14

  1. Heads of missions are divided into three classes – namely:

  1. That of ambassadors or nuncios accredited to Heads of State, and other heads of missions of equivalent rank;

  2. That of envoys, ministers and internuncios accredited to Heads of State;

  3. That of chargés d’affaires accredited to Ministers of Foreign Affairs.

  1. Except as concerns precedence and etiquette, there shall be no differentiation between heads of mission by reason of their class.

Article 19

1. If the post of head of mission is vacant, or if the head of the mission is unable to perform his functions a chargé d’affaires ad interim shall act provisionally as head of the mission. The name of the chargé d’affaires ad interim shall be notified, either by the head of the mission or in case he is unable to do so, by the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of the sending State to the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of the receiving State or such other ministry as may be agreed.

2. In cases where no member of the diplomatic staff of the mission is present in the receiving State, a member of the administrative and technical staff may, with the consent of the receiving State, be designated by the sending State to be in charge of the current administrative affairs of the mission.

6. Comment on the following quotations:

1. “Life is not so short but that there is always time for courtesy”.
-- Ralph Waldo Emerson      

2. “True politeness consists in being easy one's self, and in making every one about as easy as one can”.
-- Alexander Pope      

3. “Nothing is ever lost by courtesy. It is the cheapest of the pleasures which costs nothing and conveys much. It pleases him who gives and him who receives, and thus, like mercy, it is twice blessed”.
-- Erastus Wiman      

4. “Men are respectable only as they respect”.
-- Ralph Waldo Emerson  

5. “Speech is power: speech is to persuade, to convert, to compel”.
-- Ralph Waldo Emerson      

6. “Without knowing the force of words, it is impossible to know men”.
-- Confucius      

7. “Conversation is an art in which man has all mankind for competitors”.
-- Ralph Waldo Emerson      


^ TITLES AND FORMS OF ADDRESS

Courtesy Title Distinctions

1. The Honorable (Br. E.: Honourable) title is accorded foreign diplomats and officials of Cabinet or equivalent rank, Chargés d’Affaires of ministerial level, and heads of international organizations, unless the individual is otherwise entitled to His Excellency. This title is also used in addressing most high-ranking American officials, in office or retired: congressmen, senators, governors, judges and mayors.

Examples:

The Honorable

(full name)

Chargé d’Affaires ad interim of (country)

The Honorable

(full name)

Director General of the (international organization)

The Honorable is never used by the person who holds the office in issuing or answering invitations or on personal stationary or calling cards.

Correct:

Mr. John Smith

Under Secretary of (department)

requests the pleasure of

Wrong:

The Honorable John Smith

Under Secretary of (department)

requests the pleasure of

The Honorable is written out in full on the line above, or to the left of, the name.

Sometimes on business-type letters, it is abbreviated as The Hon. or Hon. preceding the name on the same line, but this is not in the best social usage.

The Honorable is not used in speaking to a person or in salutation, although it is sometimes used in platform introductions. It is never used before a surname only, and when appearing in the text of a letter or other communication The is not capitalized (e.g., “…speech given by the Honorable John Smith”).

2. His/Her Excellency applies to a foreign Chief of State (the President of a foreign republic), head of government (a Premier, a Prime Minister), a foreign Cabinet officer, foreign Ambassador, other foreign high official or former foreign high official.

Example:

His Excellency

John Smith

Prime Minister of (country)

A person once entitled to the title His Excellency may retain it throughout his lifetime. It is customary to omit such a title when addressing the Prime Minister or a Cabinet officer of a country within the British Commonwealth. A Prime Minister takes the title The Right Honourable in addition to and preceding the appropriate title denoting rank of nobility, if any.

3. Esquire. This title, when written in full, may be used in addressing a lawyer, the Clerk of the United States Supreme Court, officers of other courts, and male Foreign Service officers below the grade of Career Minister. When Esquire is used, the individual’s personal title (Mr., Dr., etc.) is omitted: e.g., John Smith, Esquire

4. Doctor (medical). This title, when abbreviated, is used before the names of persons who have acquired entitling degrees. It should not be used in combination with the abbreviation indicating such degrees.

Examples:

Dr. John Smith or John Smith, M.D. (Doctor of Medicine)

Dr. John Smith or John Smith, D.V.M. (Doctor of Veterinary Medicine)

Dr. John Smith or John Smith, D.D.S. (Doctor of Dental Surgery)

The general practice is that a doctor is addressed professionally in writing with the initials of his degree following his name. For personal introduction and in conversation, both professionally and socially, the preferred form is Dr. Smith

5. Academic titles. There are two types of academic titles; 1) doctor’s degree, Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), 2) academic position. If the holder of a doctorate is also a professor, he may be addressed as Professor John Smith rather than Dr. John Smith.

A President, Chancellor, Dean, Acting Dean, Professor, or Acting Professor with doctoral degree is usually addressed as Dr. with his position written on the same line following a comma, or on a line beneath the name. For those without the doctoral degree, the title Mr. is used.

To distinguish his position from other holders of a doctorate in the same community who do not have the academic position, the individual is often addressed as President (or Chancellor) John Smith. The academic position title is generally used in making introductions: e.g., Professor John Smith of Riverside College.

6. Ecclesiastical titles A clergyman may be called Dr. if he has an academic doctoral degree that is earned (Ph.D.) or honorary (D.D. or LL.D.). He may be addressed as The Reverend in writing but his full name should always follow this title and Reverend must always be preceded by The. It is incorrect to address him as Reverend Smith or in writing as Dear Reverend. Depending on the sect or denomination he represents and the position he fills, a clergyman may also be addressed as The Right Reverend (if a bishop), Bishop, Cardinal, Father, Pastor, Rabbi or Cantor.

Abbreviations

Before name

Titles preceding full names in a written address normally are not abbreviated with the exception of Mr., Mrs. and Dr.

In diplomatic correspondence, excessively long titles (e.g., Lieutenant Colonel, Brigadier General) may be abbreviated in the address for the sake of balance and appearance.

The abbreviation Messrs. is the plural form of the French word “Monsieur” (“Mister”) and is used before a list of men’s names: “Messrs. Smith, Brown, and Peterson”, and before the names of business partners: “Messrs. Dombey & Sons”. In circular notes the title “Messieurs” is often used along with the title “Mesdames”, when addressing heads of missions among whom there are women.

After name

Designations of degrees, fellowships, professional occupations and military service branch used after a name are abbreviated. The initials of an individual degree or order are written without spaces between them but with periods; military service designations are written in capital letters without periods- USMC (Unite States Marine Corps). Reserve officers of all the services add the letter ‘R’ after the branch – USMCR. Scholastic degrees are not used in combination with complimentary titles of address or with a military rank. Academic degrees and religious orders should be used in the following sequence: religious orders, theological degrees, doctoral degrees, honorary degrees. It is a common practice to use not more than three degrees after a name.

Here are some more abbreviations used in correspondence:

Bachelor of Arts – B.A.

Bachelor of Laws – LL.B.

Bachelor of Science – B.Sc.

Captain – Capt.

Colonel – Col.

Director – Dir.

Doctor of Laws – LL.D.

Doctor of Philosophy - Ph.D.

Doctor of Science – D.Sc.

His/Her Excellency – H.E.

His/Her Royal Highness — H.R.H.

Master of Arts – M.A.

Master of Business Administration - MBA

Master of Laws – LL.M.

Member of Parliament – M.P.

Professor – Prof.

Reverend – Rev.

Secretary – Sec.

Vice Chancellor – V.C.

Salutations

Salutations vary according to sex, official rank, status of the addressee, degree of formality desired, and the relationship the person sending the letter has to the recipient. In recent years there has been an increasing tendency to use less formal salutations in official correspondence.

The title Mr. is used before such titles as President, Vice-President, Chairman, Secretary, Ambassador and Minister. If the official is a woman, the title of Miss or Mrs. (or Madam) is substituted for Mr. and the surname rather than formal title is used.

Example:

Dear Madam Secretary (to a woman Cabinet officer)

Dear Mrs. Smith (to a woman Member of the House of Representatives)

but

Dear Senator Smith (to a woman member of the Senate)

When it is not known whether the addressee is a man or a woman, the prefix Mr. is always used; when it is not known whether a woman is married, Miss is used rather than Mrs., although in recent years some agencies use Ms. when it is known that a woman prefers that title. Ms. is not used, however, in diplomatic or official correspondence.

In official correspondence the titles of top-ranking government officials (e.g., the President, Vice President, Ambassador) are never used with the individual’s surname. Instead, the formal salutation Dear Mr. President,


Dear Mr./Madam Ambassador is used.

The most impersonal openings to officials are Sir and Madam and may be used for business letters. Gentlemen or Ladies may be used if a group is being addressed.




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