Методические указания по развитию навыков чтения научно-технической литературы по теме «Металлургия»./ Сост.: Сорокина М. Е., Гейман М. Ф. Мариуполь: пгту, 2003г c icon

Методические указания по развитию навыков чтения научно-технической литературы по теме «Металлургия»./ Сост.: Сорокина М. Е., Гейман М. Ф. Мариуполь: пгту, 2003г c

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Методические указания №11-3/204-09 23 07 2003г...
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Методические указания к переводу научной и технический литературы...

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(для студентов 1- 11 курсов металлургических специальностей)

У т в е р ж д е н о

на заседании кафедры

иностранных языков и перевода.

Мариуполь ПГТУ 2003

Методические указания по развитию навыков чтения научно-технической литературы по теме «Металлургия»./

Сост.: Сорокина М.Е. , Гейман М.Ф.- Мариуполь: ПГТУ, 2003г.- c.

Данные методические указания предназначаются для студентов металлургических специальностей и составлены с учетом специфики профессиональной подготовки специалистов металлургических вузов.

Методические указания состоят из 5 глав, содержащих тексты, посвященные определенному направлению в развитии металлургии. При отборе текстов учитывались их познавательность и информативность, а также возможность изучения в аудитории и дома.

Текст каждого урока посвящен различным отраслям металлургии, истории ее развития, металлургическим процессам. Он снабжен лексическими упражнениями, направленными на активное практическое овладение лексикой английского языка, развитие навыков перевода научно-технической литературы по специальности.

Составители: М. Е. Сорокина, ст. преп.

М.Ф. Гейман, препод.

Рецензент: Л.М. Ангарова

Metal-Making And Civilization

Text l

Metals in Perspective

Modern civilization is based on metals and millions of tons are extracted from the surface of the Earth every year. The place of metals in the modern world is supreme in importance. About three-quarters of all known chemical elements are metals.

Since the Stone Age, man has found many materials he could work with. However, the materials that helped him most to develop were the metals In many regions of the Ancient World man used lumps of native metals he could pick from the surface of the ground: gold nuggets, lumps of native copper and silver.

Archaeologists have found evidence of early metal is working dating as far back as 10,000 ВС. Such finds were made in the Middle East, where deposits of copper were most plentiful. This does not mean that this metal was easy to find, but that there were more deposits in the Middle East than other parts of the world.

Copper seems to be the first metal which began to oust stone. The need for copper was great indeed. The advantages that copper had over stone as a material for weapons, tools, were obvious. The metal occurred naturally in the pure (free) state and had many good things about it: it could readily be worked to any shape, flattened, pointed and holed. At first, man made it into small things such as arrowheads. Before long, however, man noticed that when hammered copper becomes harder and stronger, but if it is held over a fire - soft, malleable, easy to work.

Gold is the most malleable of all the metals. It is much sorter than copper and not very strong. But gold has been valued for thousands of years for its beautiful luster and scarcity.

In about 4300 ВС in the region of the Caspian Sea man discovered the process of smelting - how to extract the metals from their ores.

Two new metals came into use at this time - about 4,000 ВС. The first was silver, prized in those days as it is today, for its beauty, and used for ornaments. It was sometimes found 'free', lying around, as was gold, but was mostly smelted from ores. The second metal was lead, a dull heavy metal, soft and easily shaped into cups and beakers. Lead is never found 'free'; it has always been smelted from ore.

During the next 1,000 years the knowledge of the four metals far known - gold, copper, silver and lead - spread to other lands. Troy (home of Helen), near the Dardanelles, was the chief centre of trade and from there goods were carried by boat into Europe. The River Danube provided a highway deep into the continent, and the traders' boats also took metal goods to all countries around the Mediterranean. Eventually they reached Britain, and the art of smelting and metal working became known in this country. Quite early in the history of metal the process of casting was used to shape metal.

So, during the many centuries of his history man has learnt how to mine, smelt and work many metals. But iron - the chief metal of present times - has given the name of Iron Age to the most significant and productive period in the development of human society.

^ Task 2. Lexical Exercises

Exercise 1. Find the English equivalents for the words and word-combinations given below. Use them in the sentences of your own.

современная цивилизация, добывать металл, иметь огромное значение, химический элемент, куски природного металла, золотой самородок, месторождение меди, преимущество меди над камнем, встречаться в чистом виде, твердый, подвергаться термической обработке, мягкий, ковкий, блеск, плавка (плавление), извлечение чистого металла из руды, обрабатывать металл, свинец

Exercise 2. Match the English words and word-combinations given below with their Russian equivalents.

1. the place of metals in the modern world.

2. to pick from the surface of the ground

3. deposits of copper

4. the need for iron

5. to work to any shape

6. alongside with silver

7. a hard material

8. basic metallurgical arts

9. the most widely used metal

10. to work metals

1. придавать любую форму.

2. твердый материал

3. как и серебро

4. наиболее широко используемый металл

5. обрабатывать металлы

6. место металлов в современном мире

7. основные металлургические ремесла

8. потребность в железе

9. поднять с поверхности земли

10. месторождения мед

Exercise 3. Answer the following questions.

1. What is modern civilization based on?

2. What were the materials that helped man most to develop? Why?

3. Was iron the first metal to oust stone?

4. When did man start using metals?

5. Where was evidence of early metal-work found?

6. Why is gold widely used for ornaments? :

7. What was the 4th metal discovered and what are its properties?

Exercise 4. Complete the following statements by choosing the answer which you think fits best. Are the other answers unsuitable? Why?

1. Modern civilization is based on metals because:

a) three quarters of all known chemical elements are metals.

b) they can be used to produce a wide variety of things.

c) they are very cheap.

2. Gold has been used for ornaments for thousands of years because:

a) it has beautiful luster.

b) it is not very strong.

c) it is scarce.

3. Heat treatment is used because:

a) it makes iron harder.

b) it protects iron against corrosion.

c) it improves the properties of iron.

4. Copper began to oust stone because:

a) it could be readily worked to any shape.

b) there was more copper than stone on the surface of the Earth.

c) it had a beautiful luster.

Exercise 5. Give a written Russian translation of the following definitions.

Copper - a ductile, malleable, reddish-brown metallic element that is an excellent conductor of heat and electricity. It is widely used either pure or in alloys such as brass or bronze.

Gold - a soft yellow, corrosion-resistant element, the most malleable ductile metal, occurring in veins and alluvial deposits and recovered by mining, or by panning sluicing. It is a good thermal and electrical conductor, generally alloyed to increase its strength, and used as an international monetary standard, in jewelry, for decoration and as a plated coating on a wide variety of electrical and mechanical components,

Silver - a lustrous white, ductile malleable metallic element, occurring both uncombined and in ores such as argentite, having the lightest thermal and electrical conductivity of the metals. It is highly valued for jewelry, tableware and other ornamental use, and is widely used in coinage, photography, dental and soldering alloys, electrical contacts and printed circuits.

Lead - soft, malleable, ductile, bluish-white, dense metallic element, extracted chiefly from galena.

^ Text 2

The Importance of Iron and Advent of Steel

Life seems impossible now without iron, the cheapest and most important metal we use. Iron is extracted from a rocky material called iron ore. Like many elements, iron is too reactive to exist on its own in the ground. Instead, it combines with other elements, especially oxygen, in ores. The chemical process for extracting a metal from its ore is called smelting.

The first people who discovered how to extract iron from iron ore were the Hittites, a powerful group of people living in Asia Minor and Syria -south of the Black Sea. They kept the process a closely guarded secret.

The Egyptians, for example, had to pay the Hittites in gold foot times the weight of iron, and once deceived them with lumps of bronze covered with a thin layer of gold.

The smelting of iron was the most important metallurgical development. Iron ore is plentiful all over the world, therefore it may seem surprising that such a long time elapsed before iron was produced. The reason was that the furnaces used to smelt copper were not hot.

Sometimes the early iron-workers, or smiths, accidentally produced a steel article instead of an iron one. Steel is iron with a small percentage of carbon in it. The carbon came from the fuel in the furnace in which the iron was heated. The smiths later learned from experience how to introduce this carbon when they wanted to produce steel.

Steel is stronger than iron, and can be made stronger still by quenching, which is the sudden cooling, in water or other fluids, from red-heat. However, steel becomes very brittle when made extremely hard, and as each smith used his own method the quality of the steel varied a great deal. Often a sword made by a poor smith snapped just when it was most needed.

In those days furnaces were not hot enough to melt iron completely. To extract the iron from the iron ore, the ore was heated as much as possible (reducing the iron to a 'spongy' consistency) and then hammered. This forced the bits of rock and other impurities out, leaving the iron behind. Great skill and dexterity were required, especially as tongs had not been invented and the hot metal was handled with green sticks

^ Task 2. Lexical Exercises

Exercise 1. Find the English equivalents for the words and word-combinations given below. Use them in the sentences of your own.

самый дешевый металл; самый важный металл; легко вступающий в реакцию; Малая Азия; к югу/северу от; распространиться как на запад, так и на восток; покрыть тонким слоем золота; твердость; производство орудий труда и оружия; кузнец; процентное содержание углерода; добавлять углерод; закаливать металл/сталь; хрупкий; производить сталь; плавить железо; жидкое вещество; примеси; щипцы.

Exercise 2. Match the English words and word-combinations given below with their Russian equivalents.

1. to extract iron

2. chemical process

3. a steel article

4. the fuel in the furnace

5. to learn from experience

6. the quality of the steel

7. to melt iron completely

8. to vary a great deal

9. to require great skill

10. steel becomes very brittle


1. химический процесс

2. учиться на опыте

3. качество стали

4. раскаленный докрасна

5. добывать железо

6.топливо в печи

7. требовать большого умения

8. полностью расплавить железо

9. отличаться во многом друг от друга

10. изделие из стали

11. сталь становится очень хрупкой

Exercise 3. Answer the following questions,

1. Why is life impossible without iron? 2. Who first discovered how to extract iron from iron ore? 3. Why did they keep this process as a closely guarded secret? 4. How did the discovery of iron spread both east and: west? 5. What is smelting? 6. What did the smiths do? 7. How did they get steel? 8. What process is called quenching? 9. Were the early smiths able to melt iron completely?

Exercise 4. Complete the following statements by choosing the answer which you think fits best. Are the other answers unsuitable? Why?

1. Man cannot live without iron because:

a) it is easy to mine it.

b) it is very cheap.

c) he uses it in his everyday life.

2. The Hittites kept the process of smelting a top-secret because:

a) they wanted to use iron only for themselves.

b) it helped them to sell iron at high price.

c) they were very primitive people.

3. Early smiths could not produce proper steel because:

a) they did not know the right percentage of carbon.

b) the furnaces were not hot enough.

c) they tried to introduce oxygen.

4. Great skill and dexterity were required to extract iron from ore because;

a) iron was heated very quickly.

b) the furnaces were not hot enough and tongs hadn't been invented.

c) the hammer was too heavy

Exercise 5. Give a written Russian translation of the following sentences.

Iron is the commonest of all metallic elements (symbol Fe), used in various forms. Practically all of the iron is extracted from its chemical compounds in the blast furnace. A certain amount of harmful impurities is always present in iron ore. Ferrous metals are used in industry in two general forms: cast iron and steel.

Steel is iron containing to 1.7 per cent carbon content. Pure iron is not used in industry because it is too soft.

Cast iron is a hard, brittle, non-malleable iron-carbon alloy containing 2.0 to 4.5 % carbon, 0.5 to 3% silicon and lesser amounts of sulphur, manganese and phosphorus.

Text 3

Iron in the Middle Ages

Iron came to Britain long before the reign of William the Conqueror. There is evidence that the forging of iron was the chief trade of the city of Gloucester. Yet iron continued to be scarce in England.

For some hundred years after the Norman Conquest considerable quantities of iron and steel were exported to Britain by Germany and other continental countries. The merchants who brought metals were known as 'German merchants of the Steelyard'. The great quantities of iron and steel were sold at the Steel Yard in London.

According to the Act of Parliament no iron was to be carried out of the country. Some iron was manufactured in England in the reign Henry III, but much was still imported from Germany and later from Spain.

During the reign of Edward I (1239 - 1307) there were seventy-two hearths in the Forest of Dean - a source of iron ore. By the time of Edward III (1312 - 1377) the chief centers were Kent and Sussex. That iron was Still of great value is shown by an inventory of the king's possessions, in which his iron pots, pans, and other household utensils are classed as jewels and valuables.

no sensational developments in the manufacture of iron and steel had, taken place; the local smiths converted the raw ore into wrought iron by means of charcoal obtained by burning timber from the forest round about and worked up this iron into the required shapes.

In the 14th century the direct extraction of wrought iron from the ore was gradually displaced by first carbonizing the metal, so turning it into cast iron. This displacement method has continued steadily up to the present day.

During the 14th and 15th centuries England continued to import iron and steel from the continent. The growing importance of the industry gave its owners a political influence that grew steadily from that day to this. Improvements in the manufacture of iron had taken place during this period, and the ironmasters succeeded in getting Parlia­ment to make laws prohibiting the importation into England of any iron or steel goods already made there. In 1483, for example, an Act was passed prohibiting the importation of knives, tailors' shears scissors and irons, grid-irons, stock-locks, keys, hinges, spurs, bits, stittups, buckles for shoes, iron wire, iron candlesticks, grates and many other such objects.

Minor advances in the art of making iron continued up to the times of Elizabeth I and James I. Production increased, especially in Sussex. By this time the blast furnace had established itself for the smelting of iron. It continued slowly to rise higher and increase in diameter. The immediate problem confronting the iron manufacturer of the 16th century was the growing shortage of wood from which to make charcoal.

^ Task 2. Lexical Exercises

Exercise 1. Find the English equivalents for the words and -word-combinations given below. Use them in the sentences of your own.

большое количество железа и стали; импортировать из; источник железной руды; высоко цениться; преобразовывать; обработанное железо; древесный уголь; постоянно расти; запрещать; опись; ценные вещи; обжигать (коксовать); решетка (сетка); скоба; диаметр; непосредственные проблемы, стоящие перед.

Exercise 2. Match the English words and word-combinations given below with their Russian equivalents.

1. long before

2. to continue steadily up to he present

3. in the reign of

4. to displace gradually by

5. the growing importance

6. to succeed in

7. the great quantities of

8. blast furnace

1. большое количество

2. во время правления

3. растущая важность

4. преуспеть в чем-либо

5. доменная печь

6.задолго до

7. продолжаться без изменений до

настоящего времени

8. постепенно заменить чем-либо

Exercise 3. Answer the following questions.

1. When did iron first come to Britain? 2. Was it imported from Germany? 3. What shows that iron was of great value in Medieval Britain? 4. What displaced the direct extraction of wrought iron? 5. Why did the owners of metal industry get a political influence? 6. Did Parliament play an important role in the development of metal industry?

Exercise 4. Complete the following statements by choosing the answer which you think fits best. Why are the other answers unsuitable?

1. That iron was of great importance is shown by an inventory of king's possessions because:

a) things made of iron were classed as jewels and valuables.

b) King Edward III wrote about their value himself.

c) things made of iron could be used only by the king.

2. The owners of metal industry got a political influence because:

a) they had much money.

b) the industry grew in importance.

c) people wanted so.

3. The importation into England of any iron steel goods was prohibited by Parliament because:

a) it was necessary to develop native industry.

b) the native production stopped.

c) England didn't need them.

4. The immediate problem confronting the iron manufacturer was:

a) the lack of skills in steel-making.

b) the growing shortage of wood.

c) the establishment of the blast furnaces.

Exercise 5. Give a written Russian translation of the following passages.

1. The chemical process for extracting a metal from its ore is called smelting. Iron ore is heated with limestone and coke, which is mostly made up of carbon. Coke and limestone remove the unwanted parts of the iron ore to leave almost pure iron, which still contains some carbon. Steel is made by removing more carbon and adding other metals.

2. Gold is much softer than copper, so it is easier to hammer into shape. It is not very strong. A gold knife might look very fine but would not have been much use for skinning a bear, so from early times gold became the metal for ornaments. Copper is much harder; it would have been much more difficult for early man to shape; but the finished article was more durable.

3. These metal-workers were masters of the ancient craft of gold-beating, a process by which gold is beaten between skins until it is reduced to a very thin sheet. The Egyptians could produce sheets only one five-thousandth of an inch thick, and used them for gilding wooden statues and for other decorative purposes.

^ Text 4

Iron-Smelting without Charcoal. The First Blast Furnaces

So far, no furnace in Europe had been hot enough to melt iron to a liquid state. All that could be produced was a ‘spongy’ mass from which impurities had to be hammered out. However, design of furnaces improved over the centuries, and about the year 1400 very efficient blast furnaces were introduced by the Germans. They had found that a blast of air from water-powered bellows increased the temperature, though the iron still did not liquefy. It became soft and spongy, worked its way down through the burning charcoal, and collected at the bottom of the furnace.

Furnaces were usually built about ten or fifteen feet high, but to economise on fuel a new one was built thirty feet high. Although the internal temperature in this was no higher, the iron arrived at the bottom in a completely liquid state. Not only could the metal be run off into moulds, but many of the impurities (which had previously to be hammered out) separated automatically from the melted iron. The reason for this tremendous stride in metallurgy was simple: the height of the furnace. The soft 'sponge' iron took so long to seep down through the charcoal that it absorbed a great deal of carbon. It became carburized, and as the melting point of carburized iron is 350°C less than 'sponge' iron, it became liquid. By about the year 1600, iron production in Britain was beginning to suffer from lack of fuel. For 3,000 years all iron-smelting, both here and abroad, had been done with charcoal. Charcoal is partly-bummed wood. In Britain, timber was running short and it was impossible for the iron-makers to equal the output of a country such as Sweden, where timber was abundant.

Fortunately for Britain a Quaker, Abraham Darby, found a way to do without charcoal altogether. In his iron factory at Coalbrookdale, Shropshire, he made many experiments using coke, and finally succeeded. There were technical difficulties to overcome, and at first Darby kept the process secret for the benefit of his family. Later his methods were adopted throughout Europe. No longer had dependant on dwindling forests, Britain remained her position as a leading iron producer.

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