Федеральное агентство по образованию
Государственное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
Омский государственный технический университет
Методические указания по дисциплине «иностранный язык»
для студентов дневной и очно-заочной формы обучения по направлению 521600 « экономика» бакалавриат
Омск – 2005
Составитель: Э.Г. Беззатеева
Методические указания предназначены для студентов 1-го и 2-го курсов экономического факультета, изучающих английский язык. Данные указания являются частью УМК, разрабатываемого на кафедре иностранных языков ОмГТУ для студентов-экономистов.
1. Прочтите следующие слова
economics, sensible, essentially, true, equally, survival, conscious, however, continuity, prosperous, fortunate, extremely, sustain, peasant, inhabitant, observe, totally, directly.
a vast subject, precise definitions, the basic question, the material aspects, an underlying problem, advanced countries, struggle for existence, standard of living, a large percentage, self-sufficient communities, economic independence, industrialized societies.
advanced countries – передовые страны
apply (v.) – применять, использовать
completely (adv.) – полностью
degree (п.) – степень
depend on (v.) – зависеть
directly (adv.) – прямо, непосредственно
effort (п.) – усилие
equally (adv.) – равным образом
essentially (adv.) – главным образом
examine (v.) – рассматривать, исследовать
extremely (adv.) – крайне
however (adv.) – однако
inhabitant (n.) – житель
means (п.) – средство
opposite (adj.) – противоположный
percentage (п.) – процент, процентное отношение
pose a question – ставить вопрос
poverty (п.) – бедность
provide (v.) – обеспечивать, снабжать
remote (v.) – далекий, не имеющий прямого отношения
satisfy wants – удовлетворять потребности
self-sufficient (adj.) – независимый в экономическом отношении
solve a problem – решать проблему
skill (я.) – умение, мастерство, квалификация
standard of living – уровень жизни
struggle for survival – борьба за выживание
sustain life – поддерживать жизнь
totally (adv.) – полностью
vast (adj.) – обширный
way (п.) – путь, способ
study, precise, complex, subject, essentially, use, exact, matter, basically, mainly, apply, developed, examine, advanced, completely, help, community, totally, assistance, society, build, gift, construct, present.
begin, difficult, high, poor, inside, wealth, finish, easy, low, prosperous, outside, poverty, capable, dependence, incapable, directly, large, independence, indirect, small.
6. Переведите следующие сочетания слов с русского языка на английский
точное определение, простой ответ, основной вопрос, изучение материальных сторон жизни, развитые страны, борьба за существование, уровень жизни, относительная беспомощность, без посторонней помощи, испытывать крайнюю бедность, степень экономической независимости, наблюдать противоположную ситуацию, жители городов, члены сложной экономической организации.
to be, to have, to give, to apply, to satisfy, to live, tо study, to examine, to solve, to leave, to survive, to experience, to provide, to turn, to observe, to feed, to build,
to depend, to guarantee
Most introductory textbooks on Economics begin by posing the question, 'What is Economics about? Although Economics is a vast subject and precise definitions are usually very complex, it is not a difficult matter to give a simple and sensible answer to the basic question. Economics is essentially a study of the ways in which people apply their knowledge, skills, and efforts to the gifts of nature in order to satisfy their material wants. Economies limits itself to the study of the material aspects of live, and while it is true that man cannot live by bread alone, it is equally true that he cannot live without it. An underlying problem in economics is that of survival and we must examine how people have solved or are trying to solve this problem. In the more advanced countries this may seem a very remote problem – few people, if any, are conscious of a life or death struggle for existence. In many other countries, however, the continuity of human existence is by no means assured – starvation is a very real prospect for millions of human beings.
Even in the prosperous, economically advanced countries there is an aspect of survival which attracts little or no attention from those of us fortunate enough to live in these areas. This is our relative helplessness as 'economic' individuals. The Indian peasants have an extremely low standard of living, yet, left completely to their own devices, they can survive. Such people have the abilities to sustain life without outside assistance.
A large percentage of the human race still lives in very small self-sufficient peasant communities.
These people experience great poverty, but they can provide on an individual basis, for their own survival. They have a degree of economic independence.
If we now turn to the inhabitants of New York, London, or any other great metropolitan area we must observe the opposite situation – a high standard of living together with an extreme economic dependence. The inhabitants of cities are totally incapable of providing for themselves, directly, the means of their survival. They could not feed themselves, or build their own houses. Such people depend, each and every day of their lives, on the efforts and cooperation of many thousands of specialist workers. In industrialized societies a high standard of living is possible only if the organized cooperation of large numbers of people can be guaranteed. In the economically developed countries we are rich, not as individuals, but only as members of a complex economic organization.
1. Economics is a ... subject and … definitions are very complex.
2. Starvation is a very real... for millions of... beings.
3. The Indian peasants have an extremely low... of living.
4. A large ... of the human race still lives in small self-sufficient peasant communities.
5. The ... of cities are totally incapable of providing for … themselves the ... of their survival.
1. limits, of, economics, to, study, the, of, aspects, the, material, itself, life.
2. problem, an, is, underlying, economics, in, that, survival, of.
3. seem, may, a problem, very, this, remote, very.
4. very, starvation, a, prospect, millions, for, real, human, beings, is, of.
5. peasants, an, Indian, have, living, of, the, low, extremely, standard.
6. people, great, experience, poverty, these.
7. degree, they, a, have, economic, of, independence.
1. Most textbooks ... Economics begin ... posing the question, “What is Economics ...?”
2. Economics is essentially a study... the ways... which people apply their knowledge… the gifts... nature ...order to satisfy their needs.
3. … the more advanced countries few people are conscious ... a life or death struggle ... existence.
4. Even... the economically advanced countries there is an aspect... survival.
5. Such people have the abilities to sustain life... outside assistance.
6. If we now turn ... the inhabitants of New York we must observe the opposite situation – a high standard ... living together ... an extreme economic dependence.
7. The inhabitants... cities are totally incapable ... providing ... themselves the means ... their survival.
8. Such people depend ... the efforts... many thousands ... specialist workers.
9. ... industrialized societies a high standard ... living is possible only if the organized cooperation ... large numbers ... people can be guaranteed.
10. ... the economically developed countries we are rich, not as individuals, but only as members ... a complex economic organisation.
1. It is not a difficult matter to give a simple answer to the basic question.
2. People apply their knowledge and efforts to the gifts of nature in order to satisfy their material wants.
3. Even in the prosperous countries there is an aspect of survival.
4. This problem attracts little attention
5. Such people have the abilities to sustain life without outside assistance.
6. They experience great poverty.
7. They depend on the efforts and cooperation of many thousands of specialist workers.
Материал для обсуждения
1. What do most introductory books on Economics begin by?
2. What does Economics study?
3. What does it limit itself to?
4. What is an underlying problem of Economics?
5. What categories of people can survive without outside assistance?
6. Why do they Бале a very low standard of living?
7. Why aren't the inhabitants of big cities economically independent?
8. Why is a high standard of living impossible without a cooperation of large numbers of people?
1. Precise definitions are usually very complex.
2. Economics limits itself to the study of the material life.
3. The Indian peasants have an extremely tow standard of living.
4. A large percentage of the human race still lives in very small peasant communities.
5. These people experience great poverty.
6. The inhabitants of big cities depend on the efforts of specialized workers.
1. Although Economics... a vast subject and precise definitions ... usually very complex, it... not a difficult matter to give a simple answer to the basic question (to be).
2. Economics ... itself to the study of the material aspects of life (to limit).
3. We must examine how people have solved or ... to solve this problem (to try).
4. It ... little attention from those of us fortunate enough to live in these areas (to attract).
5. A large percentage of human race still ... in small self-sufficient communities (to live).
4. Перескажите текст «The Individual and Society».
Текст B, C
1. Прочтите текст B и сформулируйте основную мысль каждого абзаца
Economics, then, is about the satisfaction of material wants. It is necessary to be quite clear about this; it is people's wants rather than their needs which provide the motive for economic activity. We go to work in order to obtain income which will buy us the things we want rather the things we need. It is not possible to define 'need' in terms of any particular quantity of a commodity, because this would imply that a certain level of consumption is 'right' for an individual. Economists tend to avoid this kind of value judgment which tries to specify how much people ought to consume. It is assumed that individuals wish to enjoy as much well-being as possible, and if their consumption of food, clothing, entertainment, and other goods and services is less than the amount required to give them complete satisfaction they will want to have more of them.
If the resources available to people are insufficient to satisfy all their wants, we say that such resources are scarce. Scarcity is a relative concept; it relates the extent of people's wants to their ability to satisfy those wants. Neither people'swants nor their ability to produce goods and services are constant. Their productive .potential is increasing all the time, but so is their appetite for material things. Whether this increase in the demands for more and better material satisfaction is in the nature of humankind or whether it is artificially stimulated by modern advertising is a subject much disputed at the present time.
Whatever the reason the fact is that we find ourselves in a situation of scarcity. We can not have all the things we want The resources available to satisfy our wants, are, at any time, limited in supply. Our wants, however, appear to be unlimited. Thus, we all are in a position of having to make choices; we can only have more of X by having less of Y. Our incomes are insufficient for us to buy all the things we would like to have. The individual with a limited income and unlimited wants is forced to exercise choice when he or she spends that income. Society as a whole faces a similar problem.
There is a limit to a country's productive capacity because the available supply of land, factories, machines, labour and other economic resources is limited. These economic resources have alternative uses; they can be used to produce many different kinds of goods and services. If some of these resources are committed to the production of one thing society mast forego the outputs of the other things which it might have produced. For example, if we commit resources to the building of houses then the real cost of these houses is the potential output of schools, shops, office blocks or theatres which has been sacrified in order to produce houses
2. Прочтите текст С и раскройте содержание каждой из трех рассматриваемых в нем проблем
People have limited means to satisfy unlimited wants so they are forced to choose. The problems of choice essentially problems of allocation. People must decide how to allocate resources to different uses and then how to allocate the goods and services produced to the individual members of society. There are three fundamental choices to be made:
1. Which goods shall be produced and in what quantities? This problem concerns the composition of total output. The community must decide which goods it is going to produce and hence which goods it is not going to produce. Having decided the range of goods to be produced, the community must then decide how much of each good should be produced. In reality the choices before a community are rarely of 'all or nothing' variety. They usually take the form: more of one thing and less of another. The first and major function of any economic system is to determine in some way the actual quantities and varieties of goods and services which will best meet the wants of its citizens.
2. How should the various goods and services be produced? Most goods can be produced by a variety of methods. Wheat can be grown by making use of much labour and little capital, or by using vast amounts of capital and very little labour. Electrical appliances can be made by using large and complex machines operated by relatively few semi- or unskilled workers. Alternatively they might be produced in hosts of small workshops by highly skilled technicians using relatively little machinery. Different methods of production can be distinguished from one another by the differences in the quantities of resources used in producing them. Economists use the term capita – intensive to describe the alternative methods just outlined. The total output of the community depends not only on the total supply of resources available but on the ways in which these resources are combined together. A community must make decisions on the methods of production to be adopted.
3. How should the goods and services be distributed? This is the third function which an economic system has to perform. The total output has to be shared out among the members of the community. The economic system has to determine the relative sizes of the shares going to each household. Should everyone be given an equal share? Should the output be shared out in accordance with people's ability to pay the price, or should the shares be decided according to tradition and custom? These basic problems are common to all societies no matter what level of economic development they have reached. The methods of solving them will be different from one society to another but the problems are common in all societies.
Материал для обсуждения
- individual and a society
- scarcity and choice
-three basic problems
2. Подготовьте устное изложение по теме «The Economic Problem».
1. Выучите следующие слова и выражения.
total production – общая производительность
total employment – общая занятость
the rate of change of overall prices – коэффициент изменений предельных цен
rate of economic growth - темпы экономического роста
broad aggregates - масштабные совокупности
individual households – индивидуальные хозяйств
layoffs – увольнения
economic activity - экономическая активность
determinant - показатель, определитель
value – ценность
meaningful totals - значимые итоги
gross domestic product (GDP) - валовой внутренний продукт (ВВП)
national income - национальный доход
personal income - личный доход
personal disposable income - личный доход после уплаты налогов
business cycle - экономический цикл
economic growth - экономический рост
attainment – достижения
maintenance - поддержание, содержание
price stability - стабильность цен
eliminate - ликвидировать, исключать
labor shortage - нехватка рабочей силы
reduction - уменьшение
1. Прочтите и переведите текст
The word macroeconomics means economics in the large. The macroeconomist's concerns are with such global questions as total production, total employment, the rate of change of overall prices, the rate of economic growth, and so on. The questions asked by the macroeconomist are in terms of broad aggregates – what determines the spending of all consumers as opposed to the microeconomic question of how the spending decisions of individual households are made; what determines the capital spending of all firms combined as opposed to the decision to build a new factory by a single firm; what determines total unemployment in the economy as opposed to why there have been layoffs in a specific industry.
Macroeconomists measure overall economic activity; analyze the determinants of such activity by the use of macroeconomic theory: forecast future economic activity; and attempt to formulate policy responses designed to reconcile forecasts with target values of production, employment, and prices. An important task of macroeconomics is to develop ways of aggregating the values of the economic activities of individuals and firms into meaningful totals. To this end such concepts as gross domestic product (GDP), national income, personal income, and personal disposable income have been developed.
Macroeconomic analysis attempts to explain how the magnitudes of the principal macroeconomic variables are determined and how they interact. And through the development of theories of the business cycle and economic growth, macroeconomics helps to explain the dynamics of how these aggregates move over time.
Macroeconomics is concerned with such major policy issues as the attainment and maintenance of full employment and price stability. Considerable effort must first be expended to determine what goals could be achieved. Experience teaches that it would not be possible to eliminate inflation entirely without inducing a major recession combined with high unemployment. Similarly, an overambitious employment target would produce labor shortages and wage inflation.
During the 1960s it was believed that unemployment could be reduced to 4 percent of the labor force without causing inflation. More recent experience suggests that reduction of unemployment to 5.5 percent of the labor force is about as well as we can do.
Материал для обсуждения
l) What does the word macroeconomics mean?
2) What are the concerns of the macroeconomist?
3) What is the difference between the Questions asked by macroeconomists and
4) What is, according to the text, the important task of macroeconomist?
5) What does macroeconomic analysis attempt to explain?
6) What are the concepts of macroeconomics?
7) What are the most important theories of macroeconomics?
8) What is said about the correlation between the inflation and unemployment?
2. Fill in the table to show the difference between macroeconomics and microeconomics