ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНСТВО ПО ОБРАЗОВАНИЮ
Федеральное государственное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
«ЮЖНЫЙ ФЕДЕРАЛЬНЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»
И.И. Скнарина, Л.А. Недосека
по развитию навыков чтения и устной речи
на английском языке по страноведческой тематике
для студентов 1 - 4 курсов отделения «Туризм»
Южного федерального университета
Методические указания разработаны старшими преподавателями кафедры английского языка естественных факультетов Скнариной И.И., Недосека Л.А.
Рецензент - ст. преп. Белоусова М.М.
Печатается в соответствии с решением кафедры английского языка естественных факультетов, протокол № 10 от 18 мая 2007г.
Настоящие «Методические указания» предназначены для аудиторной и внеаудиторной самостоятельной работы студентов 1-4 курсов отделения «Туризм» геолого-географического факультета ЮФУ и для тех, кто интересуется вопросами страноведения. Содержательная направленность материалов отражает образовательные и воспитательные цели: ознакомление студентов с географическими особенностями, культурой и традициями стран мира, развитием индустрии туризма в странах континента Северной Америки, Турции, России и Новой Зеландии. Данные методические указания направлены на развитие навыков ознакомительного и изучающего чтения по страноведческой тематике и говорения на английском языке.
Методические указания состоят из четырех разделов:
1 Туризм в России (и текст о Санкт-Петербурге).
2 Туризм в Северной Америке (Канада, Флорида, Мексика).
3 Туризм в Турции (информация о Турции и Стамбуле).
4 Острова (Новая Зеландия).
В каждый раздел входят основной текст, предтекстовые упражнения, которые помогают студентам сосредоточиться на определенной страноведческой теме. Задание «Say what these geographical names mean» направлено на развитие навыков поиска информации и работы с географической картой. Лексические, тренировочные грамматические и коммуникативные упражнения служат для развития навыка говорения на английском языке, побуждают студентов проявлять инициативу в высказывании своего мнения по обсуждаемым темам, учат, аргументировано отстаивать его. Методические указания так же способствуют накоплению тематического словарного запаса по данным страноведческим темам. Под рубрикой «Discussion » приводятся творческие задания, которые направлены на совершенствование речевых навыков. Это задание следует использовать для коллективного обсуждения и комментирования, так как оно ориентированно на обмен мнениями и высказывание личного отношения к полученной информации.
Каждый раздел включает текст под рубрикой «Supplementary reading», предоставляющий дополнительную информацию по изучаемой теме, и задание, которое направлено на развитие навыков реферирования.
Данные методические указания позволят сэкономить время учащимся, которым не придется искать необходимую информацию по страноведению в Интернете или в библиотеках, и преподавателям, которым предлагается использовать ряд заданий для контроля самостоятельной работы студентов.
Text 1 TOURISM IN RUSSIA
1 Answer the following questions before reading the text:
2 Say what these geographical names mean:
Urals Baltic Sea Swedes Yenisey
3 Read the text to learn more about tourism in Russia
Russia has tremendous potential for both developing interior tourism and inviting foreign tourists. There is everything that provides such opportunities: vast territory, rich history and cultural legacy and in some regions- virginal nature. Russia stretches for 10 thousand kilometers from west to east and 3 thousand kilometers from arctic latitudes to sub-tropical regions in the south. The variety of landscapes provides the development of different types of tourism: sport and extreme tourism, mountain skiing tours, sea and river cruising, health recreation tours, children’s and youth tourism, ecological and business tourism. There are resorts at the Black sea in the south and at the Baltic Sea in the north, which make Russia a good place to enjoy beach recreation and health recreation at the seas. Mineral water springs of mountain resorts are very popular with many tourists. One can take ethnic tours to the areas populated by northern peoples or take part in tundra deer safari.
Any kind of mountain tourism (mountain climbing and hiking, rafting in “turbulent” mountain rivers, mountain skiing and biking) is possible to do in Russia. The full-flowing, wide and long rivers such as the Volga, Yenisei and Lena seem to have been created for cruising, fishing, rafting riding catamarans and boating. Seas located in the northwest of the country offer cruises for tourists. Numerous lakes are picturesque and pure. Water in these lakes is not merely seemingly pure: you can drink it from lakes of Karelia or from Lake Baikal.
Forests of Central Russia and the Caucasus, taiga of Siberia and the Far East are full of birds and animals. The fact attracts many hunting tourists. There are many areas of the untouched and virginal nature. That is the ecological tours are the best. As opposed to many European countries, when traveling across Russia one can see no people at all for a long time. Regularly, one does not meet any cars when driving along a forest highway in Siberia for several hours! However, it is very likely that one will see a bear among the trees several times. An experienced hunter will point out flamingos, pelicans and other rare birds as you enjoy transfer to the fishing resort situated in Astrakhan region in the delta of the Volga river. None of those who are fond of nature will be indifferent to the horse riding in the fabulous region of Altai.
In Russian history numerous peoples had left their traces through the years: Vikings, ancient Slavs, Mongols, Polovtsy, Scythians, Swedes, Greeks, Genoese and others. Our ancestors inherited their exteriors, religions, cultures, languages and traditions. It makes modern Russians interesting to each other, stimulating domestic tourism. Great princes, monarchs and emperors acquired and lost lands and peoples; travelers discovered northern territory, Siberia and the Far East and explored new lands, seas and oceans. Democratic and authoritarian rulers replaced each other, and they were building palaces and country estates, creating museums, demolishing churches and Buddha temples. They established concentration camps, set up cornfields, launched space ships, created new types of weapons and rebuilt churches. All these events and acts made modern Russia look the way it does at present. Anyone can see this modern image of Russia during an excursion or cultural tour.
Apart from natural, historical and cultural factors that contribute to the development of foreign tourism of Russia, there are some social factors as well. They are high exchange rate of foreign currency, freedom of travel across most of the country, including such promising tour regions as the Far East, Sakhalin, Kuril Islands, the Urals, Northern Russia as well as Nizhniy Novgorod and Samara, the later two having been closed for foreign tourists in the recent past.
Foreign and domestic tourism in Russia is characterized by a variety of its types, such as ecological, sport, cognitive, business tourism, cruising, they are developing rapidly. Individual and youth tourism are also popular in Russia.
1) What types of tourism are developed in Russia? Why?
2) What part of the country are ethnic tours popular in?
3) Where is cruising, fishing and rafting possible in Russia?
4) What attracts tourists in the forests of Central Russia?
5) Where can experienced hunters admire virginal nature?
6) What makes Russia interesting for foreigners and stimulates domestic tourism?
7) What special factors should be mentioned as well?
8) What new types of tourism are developing rapidly in Russia?
1) very big, huge-
2) health recreational places on the seacoast-
3) very beautiful, scenic-
4) to ruin-
5) money used in the country-
6) excursions around the city-
8) to promote-
а) Russia is famous among international tourists only for cultural legacy.
b) There is no possibility for cruising in the country.
c) Forests of Central Russia can’t attract tourists.
d) Russian history is worth studying.
e) Tourists can see the modern image of the country during ethnic tours.
f) Some social factors have been the obstacles in the development of foreign tourism in
- I’ve read the text under the title “….”
- This text deals with…
- It should be mentioned that…
- In conclusion I’d like to say that…
- I think that the text …
1 Answer the following questions before reading the text:
1) What large cities of Russia can you remember?
2) Have you ever been to St. Petersburg? Would you like to go there? Why?
2 Say what these geographical names mean:
Hare Island Swiss
3 Read the text to learn more about St. Petersburg and its sights
St. Petersburg, the city symbolizing Russia’s European aspect, ranks with the great capitals of the world. The very name of the city suggests its international character. It consists of two meaningful words. The Russian version of the name combines elements of different languages: its first part derives from the Latin word “saint”, followed by the Apostle’s name, Peter, which means “rock” in Greek, and “burg”, a city in German or Dutch. It was founded on Hare Island by Peter the Great in 1703 and it was called so in his honour. The city is situated on the Neva River and has become the “window” to Europe. The Neva is a “cradle” of St. Petersburg, which not only predetermined its emergence as a port vital for Russia, but became the focal element in the spatial layout of the city never loosing its significance to the present day. It was along the banks of the Neva, stretching within the city for about 24 miles, that the most impressive architectural landmarks of the 18th and 19th centuries are located. St. Petersburg was built by the prominent European and Russian architects. St. Petersburg was the capital of Russia from 1712 till 1918.
St. Petersburg is an industrial, cultural and scientific center in Russia. There are about 80 museums, 20 theatres, exhibition halls, clubs, universities, many colleges, schools, libraries and parks. The Pushkin Drama Theatre, Gorky Drama Theatre, the Mariinsky Theatre of Opera and Ballet are the pearls of Russian arts. In the city there are a lot of parks and gardens where the residents and guests spend their free time.
The Peter and Paul Fortress was built to protect the Neva banks from Swedish invasion. Later D. Trezzini, the famous Swiss architect, reconstructed the fortress. It became a prison, it served as a burial place of the Russian Emperors and members of the royal family (there are 32 tombs), now it’s a museum and one of masterpieces of architecture. Russian tsars were buried in it.
The Summer Garden is the oldest and most fascinating park. Rare trees, bushes and species of flowers grow there. It’s decorated by beautiful marble statues of Italian sculptors and a cast iron grille. There is a bronze monument dedicated to the prominent Russian fabulist Ivan Krylov (by sculptor Klodt) in the Summer Garden. The 89 statues put on display in the garden nowadays reveal the depth of Peter’s concept, who wanted to make his gardens a sort of academy.
In St. Petersburg tourists usually start sightseeing from Palace Square, the largest and most beautiful. One can’t help admiring the ensemble in Palace Square: the Winter Palace (built by Rastrelli) was the residence of Russian tsars till the revolution.
The Hermitage, one of the oldest art museums in Russia, occupies the Winter Palace and four other buildings. There one can see masterpieces of the outstanding artists: Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Rembrandt, Velazquez and other unique work of arts. Walking along the suites of state rooms in the Winter Palace and the Hermitage, you can enjoy really superb examples of interior decoration ranking with the world’s best achievements. Worthy of special mention are the Throne Room of Peter the Great designed by Montferrand; the 1812 War Gallery by Rossi; St. George Hall by Quarenghi; the Malachite Drawing Room, the Rotunda and the Alexander Room by Briulov and others. Making the tours of the rooms, you plunge into different ages and familiarize yourselves with cultures of various peoples inhabiting our planet.
The Russian museum is located in the Mikhailovsky Palace, designed by Rossi. Marvelous paintings of the famous Russian artists: Tropinin, Repin, Bryulov, Fedotov, Surikov, Serov, the works of sculptors: Rastrelli, Shubin, Antokolsky are exhibited there.
The streets and squares in the city are very beautiful. Nevsky Prospect is the main street, where there are amazing buildings, shops, hotels and the remarkable Kazan Cathedral (by Voronikhin) with a colonnade and monuments to M. Kutuzov and Barclay de Tolly. The overall length of the Prospect is 4.5 kilometers; its width varies from 25 to 60 meters. In 1738 it was named Nevskaya Perspective and in 1783 renamed Nevsky Prospect. Here in the prospect one can see the magnificent building of Admiralty (by Zakharov) and an ensemble of the Alexander Nevsky Lavra. Famous Russain writers, painters, composers and actors were buried in the Lavra.
The majestic palaces, cathedrals, churches and other buildings decorate St. Petersburg: palaces of Stroganov, Vorontsov, Menshikov, Anichkov, the Triumphal Arch and St. Isaacs Cathedral, erected by Montferrand.
One cannot forget to mention the Smolny Institute and Smolny nunnery, masterpieces of Rastrelli. Girls from aristocratic families studied and lived in the institute.
A lot of bridges cross the Neva, the Fontanka, the Moika and the canals, but the Anichkov Bridge is the most beautiful one. It is 54.6 meters long and 38 meters wide. The bridge owes its name to a certain officer, Anichkov, who built it in wood during the reign of Peter the Great. The present-day structure was designed in 1841 by the engineer f. Gotman.
St. Petersburg inspired many of our great poets, writers, painters, sculptors, composers and actors. Much of the life and work of Lermontov, Griboyedov, Pushkin, Belinsky, Glinka, Tchaikovsky, and Raping was connected with the city.
Citizens, tourists and guests enjoy visiting the suburbs of St. Petersburg: Petergof, Pushkin, Pavlovsk, Lomonosov with wonderful palaces, parks and fountains
Welcome to St. Petersburg and its suburb to get acquainted with their amazing sights.
1) Where is St. Petersburg situated?
2) Why does the name of the city have international character?
3) What kind of city is St. Petersburg?
4) What is its architecture like?
5) Why has St. Petersburg always been “the cultural capital” of Russia?
6) What streets are popular with the citizens and guests of the city?
7) What outstanding people did St. Petersburg inspire in their work?
8) Are there many bridges in the city? Which is the most popular?
9) What places in St. Petersburg do usually tourists admire?
a) a district lying outside a city or town;
b) a splendid residence;
c) a creator of artworks from stone and clay;
d) a principal church;
e) to prepare the preliminary sketch or plan;
f) to feel pleasure in excellence or beauty;
g) a person telling fables;
h) famous, important.
to decorate, remarkable, masterpieces, to familiarize, majestic, to mention, fascinating, famous ,to inspire, amazing, prominent.
Split into groups of 3-4 and expand on the following statements:
1) St. Petersburg is one of the most beautiful cities in the world.
2) St. Petersburg is the city of great history.
3) St. Petersburg is the second capital of Russia.
4) The architecture of the city is a masterpiece of different architects.
Veliky Novgorod (“Novgorod the Great”) stands out among the oldest towns of Russia commanding special attention. It is noteworthy not only for its own remarkable history, but for its contribution to the development of medieval Russia as a whole. The territory of Novgorod was the cradle of the early Rus nation. It was here in the 9th century that Rurik dynasty was granted sovereignty, and the members of this house ruled all Russian principalities for the next seven centuries. And it was from here at the beginning of the 10th century that Novgorodian warriors mounted their campaign against Constantinople. For 1000, years, right up until the beginning of the 18th century, Novgorod was a major international trading post between East and west. At the same time it was the oldest religious center in northern Rus, and made significant contributions to the expansion of Christianity and towards preserving the unity of Orthodox Faith.
Novgorod was first mentioned in the chronicles as a settlement founded in 859 AD by the East Slavs. The name “Novgorod” means “New Town” and implies the existence of an earlier town, but historians have not been able to clarify it. The most likely theory is that there was a pre-existing township about 2 kilometers south of the current town on the right bank of the river Volkhov, where after two decades of investigation, archeologists have unearthed settlement layers and storage vessels from the 9th century.
The left bank of the river is known as ‘St Sophia’s side’. This is the heart of Novgorod, where the Kremlin stands: the town’s political, cultural and religious hub throughout the centuries. In the 10th century the kremlin was a small wooden fortress; in 11th century it grew with the addition of Saint Sophia’s Cathedral, the first stone church in the north of Russia; in the 12th century it acquired the form we still see today. Its perimeter walls are between two and four meters thick and stretch for 1,385 meters to cover an area of twenty hectares. Only nine of the thirteen original towers have survived.
A 15-century building on the Bishop’s Court is the Church of St Sergius of Radonezh, built in 1463 by Archbishop Jonah. Novgorod reached its peak in the 15th century, as is reflected in many buildings and artworks dating from that period: the Bishop’s Palace, magnificent icons, and the belfry of St Sophia’s.
In the centre of the Kremlin square is an imposing bronze monument crowned with orb and cross. This sight of Novgorod is called ‘The Millennium of Russia’. It was unveiled in 1862, a year after the abolition of serfdom and one thousand years after the event that marks the birth of Russia: the invitation of Rurik, the leader of the Varangians to Novgorod in 862. It stands 15.7 meters high, 96 thousand tones and has 129 bronze figures, 109 of them crafted in high relief on a rotunda base. There were always a large number of churches, both stone and wooden, on the trading side of the river, their architecture reflecting the tastes of various boyars, ambassadors and merchants who commissioned them from the 12th until the end of the 15th century. The main market church was St Nicholas’s Cathedral, founded in 1113. Church of Transfiguration was constructed in 1374 and Church of the Nativity on the Red Field- in 1380, the Church of St. Peter and St. Paul was built in 1406. There are a lot of monasteries in the city: Yuryev (1031), Derevyanitsky (1335), Zverinets Monastery of Intercession and others.
Novgorod is famous for its remarkable historical interest; people refer to it as a “museum town”. No other old Russian town has managed to hold on to such a wealth of architecture and so many works of both fine and applied arts. Its incomparable past has secured a special place for Novgorod in the history of Russia. The town is known as an important European art center. Its architectural treasures, the legacy of many centuries are included in UNESCO’s list of World Heritage Sites.
Text 3 CANADA
1 Answer the following questions:
2 Say what these geographical names mean:
3 Read the text “Canada” to learn more about this country
Canada is the second largest country in the world. Only Russia has a greater land area. Canada is situated in North America. Canada is slightly larger than the United States, but has only about a tenth as many people; About 28 million people live in Canada. About 80 percent of the population lives within 320 km of the southern border. Much of the rest of Canada is uninhabited or thinly populated because of severe natural conditions.
Canada is a federation of 10 provinces and 2 territories.
Canada is an independent nation. But according to the Constitution Act of 19S2 British Monarch, Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom is recognized as Queen of Canada. This symbolizes the country's strong ties to Britain. Canada was ruled by Britain completely until 1867, when Canada gained control of its domestic affairs. Britain governed Canada's foreign affairs until 1931, when Canada gained full independence.
Canada's people are varied. About 57 percent of all Canadians have some English ancestry and about 32 percent have some French ancestry. Both English and French are official languages of the country. French Canadians, most of who live in the provinces of Quebec, have kept the language and customs of their ancestors. Other large ethnic groups are German, Irish and Scottish people. Native people - American Indians and
Eskimos - make up about 2 percent of the country's population. 77 percent of Canada's people live in cities or towns. Toronto and Montreal are the largest urban areas. Ottawa is the capital of the country.
Today, maintaining a sense of community is one of the major problems in Canada because of differences among the provinces and territories. Many Canadians in western and eastern parts of the country feel that the federal government does not pay enough attention to their problems. 80 percent of Quebec's population is French Canadians. Many of them believe that their province should receive a special recognition in the Canadian constitution.
Canada's history is an exciting story of development of a vast wilderness into a great nation. Most experts believe that the first people who lived on this land came from Asia about 15000 years ago. They came over a land bridge that once connected Asia and North America. Their descendants are known today as Indians. The ancestors of the Eskimos came to Alaska after them probably about 6000 years ago.
In 1497, John Cabot, an Italian navigator in the service of England, found rich fishing grounds off Canada's south- east coast. His discovery led to the European exploration of-Canada. France set up a colony in eastern Canada in the early 1600’s. Great Britain gained control of the country in 1763, and thousands of British emigrants came to Canada. In 1867, the French and English-speaking-Canadians helped to create a united colony called the Dominion of Canada. Two groups worked together to settle the country and to develop its great mineral deposits and other natural resources.
Canada gained its independence from Britain in 1931. During the middle of 20th century, hard-working Canadians turned their country into an economic giant. Today Canada is a leading producer of wheat, oats, and barley. Canada also ranks among the world's top manufacturing countries, and it is a major producer of electric power.
Throughout its history, Canada has often been lack of unity among its people. French Canadians, most of them live in the province of Quebec, have struggled to preserve their own culture. They have long been angered by Canadian policies based on British traditions. Many of them support a movement to make Quebec a separate nation. People in Canada are nine other provinces also frequently favor local needs over national interests.
4 Comprehension check. Answer the following questions:
5 Give correct word to the definition:
a) to be known - …
b) to get - …
c) business of any kind - …
d) a forefather - …
e) included in a city - …
f) a wild region - …
g) a traveler on water in a ship - …
h) seed used in making beer or ale - …
a) Canada is the second largest country in the world.
b) China has a greater land area than Canada.
c) About 50 million people live in Canada.
d) Canada is a federation of 10 provinces and 2 territories.
e) Canada was ruled by the USA completely until 1867.
f) In 1497, John Cabot, an Italian navigator found rich fishing grounds off Canada's
g) Canada gained its independence from Britain in 1945.
h) Today Canada is a leading producer of wheat, oats, and barley.
i) Canada has often been lack of unity among its people.
1) Canada is a large country both in territory and population.
2) Canada is an independent nation.
3) Canada's history is an exciting story of development of a vast wilderness into a great
4) Canada's people are varied.
Read the text about Toronto and render it due to the plan:
- I’ve read the text under the title …
- This text is about …
- It reads that …
- It should be said, that …
- In conclusion I would like to mention …
- I think that the text ...