11. ^ gramming
simulation program; support program; utility program; virus-detection program; watch-dog program.
Программа в двоичном коде; прикладная программа; (не) совместимая программа; бесплатная программа; программа отладки; сторожевая программа; дистанционная программа; программа моделирования; сервисная программа; вспомогательная программа; программа для доступа (к данным); заархивированная программа; программа, работающая с базой данных; обучающая программа; программа, выполняемая с большой скоростью; универсальная программа; программа, выполняемая в защищенном режиме; программа обработки данных; программа операционной системы (системная программа); выполняемая программа; сетевая /несетевая программа; самозагружающаяся программа; часто используемая (распространенная) программа; программа управления; программа обнаружения вирусов.
6. Переведите предложения, содержащие сослагательное
1.1 should like to be a top specialist in computer technology. 2. It is necessary that the program should be debugged (отлажена) by a programmer. 3. It is required that the programmer should code the instructions of the program in the appropriate sequence. 4. The manager demanded that the work should be performed in time. 5. Write down the algorythm of computer operations lest you should make errors. 6. Our teacher speaks English as if he were a real Englishman. 7. Without the Sun there would be no light, no heafe, no energy of any kind. 8.1 wish it were summer now and we could go to the seaside. 9. American scientists suggested that the quantum generator should be called laser, which is the acronym for fight amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. 10.1 wished you had mentioned these facts while the subject was being discussed.
7. Ознакомьтесь с терминами текста 2.
programming language — язык программирования
coded form — кодированный вид; кодированное представление
to convey — передавать; сообщать
Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 150
to improve — улучшать, совершенствовать
machine-oriented language — машинно-ориентированный язык
business-oriented language — язык для (программирования) экономических задач
problem-oriented language — проблемно-ориентированный язык
string of binary — строка двоичного представления data handling — обработка данных; работа с данными field-name length — длина имени поля incorporate features — включать свойства, особенности versatile — многофункциональный; разносторонний;
универсальный generous — большой, значительный (о количестве)
mathematical relationship — математическая связь (соотношение)
8. Прочтите текст и объясните, что представляют собой языки программирования.
Text 2. ^
Let's assume that we have studied the problem, designed a \
logical plan (our flowchart or pseudocode), and are now ready \
to write the program instructions. The process of writing pro- j
gram instructions is called coding. The instructions will be writ- .
ten on a form called a coding form.^The instructions we write ■
will be recorded in a machine-readable form using a keypunch, ;
key-to-tape, or key-to-disk, or entered directly into computer ;
memory through a terminal keyboard.
The computer cannot understand instructions written in just ■ v
any old way. The instructions must be written according to a set !
of rules. These rules are the foundation of a programming Ian- j
guage. A programming language must convey the logical steps ■*
of the program plan in such a way that the control unit of the \
CPU can interpret and follow the instructions. Programming j
languages have improved throughout the years, just as comput- ^
er hardware has improved. They have progressed from machine- \
151 Unit 11. Computer Programming
oriented languages that use strings of binary Is and 0s to problem-oriented languages that use common mathematical and/or English terms.
There are over 200 problem-oriented languages. The most common of them are COBOL, FORTRAN, PL/I, RPG, BASIC, PASCAL.
COBOL was the most widely used business-oriented programming language. Its name is an acronym for Common Јlisi-ncss-Oriented Zanguage. COBOL was designed to solve problems that are oriented toward data handling and input-output operations. Of course, COBOL can perform arithmetic operations as well, but its greatest flexibility is in data handling. COBOL also was designed as a self-documenting language. Self-documenting languages are those that do not require a great deal of explanation in order to be understood by someone reading the program instructions. The self-documenting aspect of COBOL is made possible by its sentencelike structure and the very generous maximum symbolic field-name length of 30 characters. With a field-name length of up to 30 characters, the name can clearly identify the field and its purpose.
The FORTRAN IV language is oriented toward solving problems of a mathematical nature. The name FORTRAN comes from the combination of the words formula translation. The version of FORTRAN IV has been designed as algebra-based programming language. Any formula or those mathematical relationships that can be expressed algebraically can easily be expressed as a FORTRAN instruction. FORTRAN is the most commonly used language for scientific applications.
PL/I stands for programming language I. It was designed as a general-purpose language incorporating features similar to COBOL for data handling instructions and features similar to FORTRAN for mathematical instructions. PL/I is much more than a combination of the good features of both COBOL and FORTRAN, as it has many capabilities that are unique. Yet, although PL/I is one of the most versatile and the most powerful of the programming languages, it is not the most commonly
Английский язык. Оыюяыквивыотерной грамотности 252
used. COBOL and FORTRAN have been available for a longer period of time than PL/I, and many more users work with those languages.
9. Просмотрите текст еще раз и ответьте на вопросы, ис
пользуя информацию текста.
1. What is the process of writing instructions called? 2. What is a code? 3. How must instructions be written? 4. What is the foundation of any programming language? 5. How was the development of programming languages progressing throughout the years? 6. What are the most common problem-oriented languages? 7. What is COBOL? 8. What functions was COBOL designed for? 9. What does FORTRAN serve for? 10. What capabilities has PL/I?
10. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих
Языки программирования; блок-схема; кодированная форма; вид, удобочитаемый для компьютера; в соответствии с набором правил; представить логические шаги программы; таким образом; совершенствовать языки программирования; машинно-ориентированные языки; проблемно-ориентированные языки; обычный термин; язык для программирования экономических задач; обработка информации; операции по вводу-выводу данных; гибкость; идентифицировать поле и его цели; решение проблем математического характера; сферы научного применения; универсальный язык; включать свойства; уникальные возможности; многофункциональный и самый мощный из языков программирования.
11. Найдите в текстах 1 и 2 слова, близкие по значению
Nouns: command; line; characteristic; form; evolution; enumeration; mistake; method; character; manual (instruction); consumption; storage; basics; abbreviation; interpretation; correlation; possibility.
Verbs: include; inform; process; protect; apply; permit; stress; suppose; learn; make up; write; key; explain; define; perfect; advance; decide; execute; demand.
153 Unit 11. Computer Programming
Adjectives: full; incorrect; usual; necessary; accessible; required; considerable; floppy; possible.
I. 1. If you try very hard you can master any language. 2. If
you want to master any language you must know at least three
thousand words. 3. You will improve your pronunciation if you
read aloud every day. 4. Time will be saved if one uses a com
puter. 5. If you learn all the words of the lesson you will write
your test successfully. 6. If you or I add up two numbers of six
figures without a calculator, it will take us a lot of time.
II. 1. It would be a good thing if you didn't smoke. 2. If the
earth didn't rotate it wouldn't have the shape of a ball. 3. If I
had the time I should help you to solve the problem. But I must
be off. 4.1 should translate the article without difficulty if I knew
English well. 5. If I were in your place I should learn to speak
English fluently. 6. Were you asked to explain why addition is
performed the way it is, you would probably have to think for a
while before answering.
HI. 1.1 decided to stay at home last night. I would have gone out if I hadn't been so tired. 2. Had he not been busy, he wouldn't have missed that conference. 3. Why didn't you phone me yesterday? I would have helped you. 4. If you had attended preliminary courses, you would have passed you examinations more successfully. 5. Had the manager had this information before, he would have acted differently. 6. The binary system is particulary appropriate to the nature of an electric machine; if it had not existed, computer designers would have had to invent it.
1. RPG II Programming language
RPG II is a business-oriented language. The name stands for report program generator. RPG is considerably different from other programming languages. RPG is, in effect, a large prewritten program. The programmer simply indicates the options within the master program that are to be used and, through a set of indicators, when they are to be used.
Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 154
RPG was originally referred to as a "quick-and-dirty" programming language. That is, it is quick for the programmer to write and relatively inefficient in its use of main storage and processing speed. The latest version of RPG, called RPG II, greatly improved the language and gave it additional capabilities. RPG has an advantage over COBOL in that it requires less training for a programmer to become proficient in it. For this reason, RPG is commonly used on many smaller computers and in small business.
BASIC is the acronym for beginner's all-purpose symbolic instruction code. It was developed in Dartmouth College as an easy-to-learn programming language for students and inexperienced programmers. Its key design goal is simplicity. BASIC has become a very popular language in systems where many users share the use of a computer through terminals and it has become a universal language for personal computers.
The language BASIC is mathematically oriented, that is, its typical use is to solve problems of a mathematical nature. Because BASIC programs are usually executed from a terminal or microcomputer where input is entered through a keyboard and printed output is relatively slow, problems of a business nature requiring large volumes of input-output data are usually not practical.
PASCAL was invented in 1970 by Professor Niklaus Wirth of Zurich, Switzerland. It was named after the mathematician Blaise Pascal, who invented one of the earliest practical calculators. PASCAL is a mathematically oriented programming language and, as such, is most commonly used in mathematics, engineering, and computer science departments of colleges and universities. This language is somewhat unusual in that it was designed to be a structured language. This means that the program must be written in logical modules which are in turn called by a main controlling module. Much of PASCAL'S popularity is due to work done at the University of California at San Diego, where PASCAL has been implemented on several different computers including microcomputers.
155 Unit 11. Computer Programming
14. Прочтите тексты (по вариантам) и составьте рефераты на английском языке.
As we see, most of the symbolic languages are oriented toward the particular application areas of business or science (math). The one problem with all symbolic languages is that none of them can be understood by a computer. The symbolic languages may say AP, ADD, or use a "plus" sign to indicate an addition step, but the only thing that means addition to a computer is its binary machine code. Wfe have symbolic programs that are relatively easy for humans to understand, but they cannot be understood by computers. On the other hand, we have machine code that is understood by the computer, but it is difficult for humans to use. The solution is a translator that translates the symbolic program into machine code. The translator allows the human to work with relatively easy-to-understand symbolic languages and it allows the computer to follow instructions in machine code. The translation of symbolic instructions to machine code is accomplished through the use of a program called a language processor. There are three types of language processors. They are called assemblers, compilers, and interpreters. Each translates symbolic instructions to machine code, but each does it differently.
(The translator is a program itself. It is part of a group of programs, called the operating systems, that help us to use the computer.)
The operating system is a collection of program provided by the computer's manufacturer that allows us to shedule jobs for the computer, to translate source programs into object programs, to sort data stored on secondary storage devices, and to copy data from any input device to any output device. These programs are called control programs, language programs and utility programs.
The control program (often called the supervisor, monitor, or executive) is a main-storage-resident program. Its functions are to schedule jobs, shedule input and output for our programs, and to monitor the execution of our programs.
Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 156
The language processors are programs that translate source programs into object programs. There are three types of language processors: assemblers, compilers, and interpreters. Each language has its own language processor.
The service programs are programs that are commonly used in all data processing centers. They have functions that are required by everyone using a computer. Examples of service programs include linkage editors to prepare object programs for execution, a librarian to catalog programs into a library area on magnetic disc, utility programs to transfer data from device to device, and sort-merge programs for sorting data on magnetic tape or disk.
3. Testing the computer program
There are two kinds of errors or bugs with which programmers must deal. The first type is the coding error. Such errors are syntax errors that prevent the language processor from successfully translating the source program to object program code. The language processor identifies the nature and the location of the error on the source program listing, so these errors are relatively easy to find and correct. The second type of bug is the logic error. The computer program can be successfully translated, but the program does not produce the desired results. These errors are generally much more difficult to find and to correct than are coding errors. Logic errors can be avoided through careful planning of the program logic, but it is the programmer's responsibility to test thoroughly all of the program's functions, in order to verify that the program performs according to specifications.
There are many tools provided to the programmer to help in debugging the program logic. These tools are called debug packages or tracing routines. They assist the programmer in following the logic by printing out calculation results and field values used in making logic decisions in the program. In a few cases it may be necessary to use a memory dump — a printout of the instructions and date held in the computer's memory — in order to find the cause of logic errors.
1. Подберите вместо пропусков подходящее по смыслу
1. The most common for planning the program logic
are flowcharting and pseudocode.
a) technologies; b) technics; c) techniques
2. was designed for dealing with the complicated
mathematical calculations of scientists and engineers, a) COBOL; b) FORTRAN; c) PL/I
3. is the foundation of any programming languages.
a) a set of rules; b) a group of numbers; c) a lot of instructions
4. I / О match the physical and electrical charac
teristics of input-output devices.
a) interchanges; b) interfaces; c) interpretations
5. Letter-quality, dot-matrix and ink-jet printers are all
a) line; b) page; c) character
6. The most common device used to transfer information
from the user to the computer is the .
a) keyboard; b) printer; c) modem
7. Input-output units link the computer to its external
a) requirement; b) development; c) environment
8. I / О devices can be classified according to their speed,
visual displays being devices.
a) high-speed; b)medium-speed; c) low-speed
2. Согласуйте слова в левой колонке с их интерпретаци
ей, предложенной справа.
1. Computer a) an electronic device accepting data pro-
cessing results from the computer system;
2. Input b) the unit performing arithmetic opera-
tions called for in the instructions;
Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 158
3. Output с) the unit coordinating all the activities of
various components of the computer. It reads information, enterpretes instructions, performs operations, etc.;
4. Software d) a set of programs designed to control the
operation of a computer;
5. Hardware e) lists of instructions followed by the con-
trol unit of the CPU:
6. Storage f) an electronic device keying information
into the computer;
7. CPU g) the unit holding all data to be processed,
intermediate and final results of processing;
8. CU h) visible units, physical components of a
data processing system;
9. ALU i) the unit that directs the sequence of sys-
tem operations, selects instructions and interpretes them;
10. Program j) a device with a complex network of elec-
tronic circuits that can process information, make decisions, and replace people in routine tasks.
1. The problems to be studied are of great importance. 2. The problem studied helped us understand many things. 3. To study the problem we must make some experiments. 4. To study the problem means to give answers to many questions. 5. Having studied the problem we could answer many questions. 6. The problem studied is unlikely to be of great interest. 7. Scientists studying the problem made a lot of experiments to get answers to the required questions. 8. The problem to have been studied last year will not help us to solve our task now. 9. Having been well prepared for the examination the pupils could answer all the questions the teacher asked them. 10. The problem to be discussed at the meeting requires careful consideration.
159 Итоговый тест
4. Выполните перевод грамматикализованных предложе
I. I. Accuracy is one of the major items in judging a control
system. The higher the accuracy of the system, the less errors
the system makes. 2. The digital computer employs the princi
ple of counting units, digits, and hence, if properly guided, gives
answers which have a high degree of accuracy. 3. Electronic
computers can choose which of several different operations are
the right ones to make in given circumstances. Never before has
mankind had such a powerful tool available. 4. In many cases
man has proved to be but an imperfect controller of the ma
chines he has created. Thus, it is natural, that wherever neces
sary, we should try to replace the human controller by some form
of automatic controller. 5. It is necessary to draw a distinction
between calculating machines and computers, the former requir
ing manual control for each arithmetic step and the latter hav
ing the power to solve a complete problem automatically.
II. 1. Many servomechanisms and regulators are known to
be composed of a number of control elements connected in se
ries, the output of one being used as the input to the next. 2.
Vfe expect a computer to work for at least several hours without
a fault; that is to say, supposing a speed of one thousand opera
tions per second, to perform more than ten million operations.
3. Digital programming implies the preparation of a problem for
a digital computer by putting it in a form which the computer
can understand and then entering this program into the com
puter storage unit. A problem to be solved by a digital comput
er must be expressed in mathematical terms that the computer
can work with. 4. Among all forms of magnetic storage, mag
netic tapes were the first to be proposed in connection with dig
ital computers. 5. Programming a computer involves analysing
the problem to be solved and a plan to solve it.
5. Прочтите тексты (по вариантам) и составьте короткую
аннотацию на каждый из них.
1. The WORLD-WIDE WEB
People have dreamt of a universal information database since late nineteen forties. In this database, not only would the data be accessible to people around the world, but it would also easily link to other pieces of information, so that only the most
Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 160
important data would be quickly found by a user. Only recently the new technologies have made such systems possible. The most popular system currently in use is the World-Wide Web (WWW) which began in March 1989. The Web is an Internet-based computer network that allows users on one computer to access information stored on another through the world-wide network.
As the popularity of the Internet increases, people become more aware of its colossal potential. The World-Wide Web is a product of the continuous search for innovative ways of sharing information resources. The WWW project is based on the principle of universal readership; "if information is available, then any person should be able to access it from anywhere in the world." The Web's implementation follows a standard client-server model. In this model, a user relies on a program (the client) to connect to a remote machine (the server), where the data is stored. The architecture of the WWW is the one of clients, such as Netscape, Mosaic, or Lynx, "which know how to present data but not what its origin is, and servers, which know how to extract data", but are ignorant of how it will be presented to the user.
One of the main features of the WWW documents is their hypertext structure. On a graphic terminal, for instance, a particular reference can be represented by underlined text, or an icon. "The user clicks on it with the mouse, and the referenced document appears." This method makes copying of information unnecessary: data needs only to be stored once, and all referenced to it can be linked to the original document.
2. SUCCESS of