Пособие рассчитано на учащихся средних школ, лицеев, гимназий, колледжей и студентов высших учебных заведе­ний всех, кто интересуется английским языком и увлека­ется компьютером. Удк 811. 111(07) ббк81. 2Англ-9 icon

Пособие рассчитано на учащихся средних школ, лицеев, гимназий, колледжей и студентов высших учебных заведе­ний всех, кто интересуется английским языком и увлека­ется компьютером. Удк 811. 111(07) ббк81. 2Англ-9


1 чел. помогло.
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Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 138

даря; хранение адресов и почты; и так далее; прикладные программы; исправлять ошибки в написании; стирать предложения; переставлять абзацы; бухгалтер; биржевые брокеры; консультант по налогам; юристы; работники об­разования; управленцы; бухгалтерский учет; подоходный налог; компьютерное моделирование; электронные табли­цы; составление расписания; оказывать огромное влияние; прокладывать путь; дать толчок; удовлетворять потребно­сти; учебная деятельность; компьютерная грамотность; моделирование реально-жизненных ситуаций.

11. Найдите в текстах 1 и 2 слова:

a) близкие по значению следующим словам:

Verbs: to print; to produce; to convert; to keep; to found; to erase; to name; to change; to use; to start; to switch on; to sup­ply; to give possibility; to involve.

Nouns: rate; analyst; possibilities; use; plays; control; post; mode; profession; consultant; teacher; director; book-keeper; fight; producer; attack; amateur; device; crystal; error; storage; primary (memory); monitor; characteristic; aim.

Adjectives: flexible; thrilling; main; little; general;

b) противоположные по значению следующим словам:
Verbs: to finish; to switch on; to take; to delete.
Nouns; online; input; work.

Adjectives: cheep; weak; common; general; large; soft; high; easy.

12. Расшифруйте следующие аббревиатуры и переведите их.

^ PC; PU; CU; ALU; CPU; MPU; IBM; DOS; CRT; ROM; RAM; 1С; SSI; MSI; LSI; VLSI; MP; CD; I/O; IOP; CMI; CAI.

13. Переведите безличные предложения. Обратите внима­
ние на их специфику.


1. 7/ is well known that personal computers enjoy great pop­ularity among experimenters and hobbyists. 2. // took years to produce a high-speed computer performing a lot of functions. 3. When making up the summary of the text one should put down the exact title of the article, the author's name and the date of the edition. 4. It is difficult to imagine modern life with-

139 Unit 10. Personal Computers

out a computer. 5. It is quite impossible to listen to your En­glish pronunciation: you make bad mistakes while reading. 6. Concerning these substances one must say that they vary in their composition. 7. When working with these substances one should be very careful. 8. // was once a universal practice to man-ifacture each of the components separately and then assemble the complete device by wiring (монтаж) the components together with metallic conductors. 9. It was no good: the more compo­nents and interactions, the less reliable the system. 10. // should first be made clear what the term "microelectronics" means.

^ 14. Вспомните формы причастий, проанализируйте и пе­
реведите следующие предложения:


Participle Active Passive

Present using being used

Past used

Perfect having used Having been used

1. The results obtained are of particular importance for our research. 2. Having obtainedthe required results we informed the manager of this fact. 3. The necessary data having been obtained, we could continue our experiment. 4. Being obtained the results of the research were analysed. 5. While operating with graphi­cal interface people usually use such manipulators as a mouse and a track ball. 6. Key-to-disk devices used as data recording stations can correct data before storing it on a magnetic disk. 7. D.Mendeleyev having arranged the elements in a table, the ex­istence of yet unknown elements could be predicted. 8. All the necessary preparations having been done, the operator began assembling the machine. 9. Being built on the basis of transis­tors lasers are successfully used in technology.

^ 15. Переведите сложноподчиненные предложения. Запом­
ните союзы (союзные слова), вводящие придаточные
предложения: that; so that; if, whether;
which; when; while;
since; till; until; whatever; whenever; in order to; regardless
of, etc.

1. It is well known in computer science that the words "com­puter" and "processor' are used interchangeably. 2. The opera­tion part of the instruction is decoded so that the proper arith-

Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 140

metic and logic operation can be performed. 3. It is difficult to establish whether this problem can be solved at all. 4. Programs and data on which the control unit and the arithmetic-logical unit operate must be in internal memory in order to be pro­cessed. 5. The CU has a register that temporarily holds the in­structions read from memory while it is being executed. 6. Re­gardless o/the nature of the I/O devices, I/O interfaces are required to convert the input data to the internal codes used by the computer and to convert internal codes to a format which is usable by the output devices. 7. The purpose of registers in the ALU is to hold the numbers and the results of the calculation until they can be transferred to the memory. 8. Since the com­puter deals with pulses, the input device is a way of converting numbers written on paper into pulses and sending them to the storage. 9. The principal characteristics of personal computers are that they are single-user system and are based on micropro­cessors. 10. However, although personal computers are designed as single-user systems, it is common to link them together to form a network.

^ 16. Прочтите текст и составьте письменно реферат на ан­глийском языке.

A MODEM

The piece of equipment that allows a computer to commu­nicate with other computers over telephone lines is called a modem. The modem allows the individual to access informa­tion from all over the world and use that information in every­day life. Connecting with banks, Automatic Teller Machines, cash registers to read credit cards, access travel agents, buy prod­ucts, e-mail, access databases, and teleconferencing, the mo­dems provide easy access to many services. Files can be trans­ferred easily, by uploading to another machine, or downloading to your own machine within a matter of minutes. The comput­er modem can be used as a telephone answering system, and documents can be faxed from one computer to another assur­ing fast and easy access to important documents.

A modem takes computer information and changes it into a signal that can be sent over telephone lines. The modem is a bridge between digital and analog signals. The computer is of

Ш Unit 10. Personal Computers

the digital type, and the telephone using analog technology. The modem converts the "0"s and "l"s of the computer (off-on switches) into an analog signals modulating the frequency of the electronic wave or signal. The modem does just the opposite and demodulate the signal back into digital code. The modem gets its name from MOdulate and the DEModulate.

Most people believe that you need a separate phone line for a modem, but that is not true.Your modem and telephone can share one line, the problem arises when someone else needs to use the tele­phone while the modem is in use. Also disable call waiting, it could disrupt your modem connection while the modem is in use.

There are three kinds of modems — internal, external, and fax. All modems do the same thing, they allow computers to communicate through telephone lines. This lets computers ex­change information everywhere. Internal Modem is a circuit board that plugs into one of the expansion slots of the comput­er. Internal modems usually are cheaper than external modems, but when problems occur, fixing and troubleshooting the mo­dem can sometimes prove to be quite difficult. External Modem attaches to the back of the computer by way of a cable that plugs into the modem port. It is usually less expensive and very por­table. It can be used with other computers very easily by unplug­ging it and plugging it into another computer. Fax Modem can be hooked up to your telephone and used to send information to your computer. Your computer can also send information to a fax machine. Most computer modems are modems with fax­ing capabilities.

17. Выполните письменно перевод следующего текста по вариантам.

^ MICROCOMPUTER SYSTEM ORGANIZATION

1. The organization of a microcomputer system is the same as that of a larger computer system. The microprocessor unit (MPU), usually concentrated in a single chip, consists of the control unit and the arithmetic logical unit. Internal memory

^ Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 142

is made up of random access memory (RAM) and read-only memory (ROM). Because RAM is only temporary storage, all microcomputers require some instructions to get started after they are turned on, and these are contained in ROM. A micro­computer includes both an MPU and internal memory.

The portion of the system software that is in ROM brings into RAM the additional instructions required to operate the micro­computer. Typically these instructions are stored on a magnetic disk; hence, they are called a disk operating system, or DOS. This start-up process is called bootstrapping*. ROM also con­tains other programs that help to make personal computers easy to use, such as a programming language. Computer games are also stored in ROM cartridges.

In addition to the MPU, RAM, ROM, and associated con­trol circuits, other components, called peripheral devices, are needed to make a complete microcomputer system. The prin­cipal peripheral units are: input devices, output devices, mass storage units, and communication components. Like a DOS, the programs that control the flow of data between a microcom­puter and its peripheral devices are a part of systems software.

The most common input device used with personal comput­ers is the keyboard. Most personal computer keyboards have extra keys that perform special functions and that can be used to control the movement of a cursor on a screen. A leverlike** device, called a joystick, is also used as an input device, com­monly for playing video games.

2. The CRT (cathode-ray tube) screen used with personal computers is called a monitor. Keyboards and monitors may be part of a single unit that also contains the microcomputer and the disc drives, or they may be separate units. Besides the mon­itor, the most common input units are dot-matrix and letter-quality printers. Dot-matrix printers are suitable for most mi­crocomputer applications. Letter-quality printers are usually used for high-quality office correspondence. Both types of print­ers are considered to be low-speed character printers.

Mass storage units are available over a range of capacities and access times. Floppy disks, or diskettes, are the most common mass storage media. They store patterns of bits on magnetically coated, flexible plastic platters. A floppy disk platter is sealed permanently in a paper jacket with a small window for reading

143 Unit 19. Personal Computers

and writing. Hard disk storage systems are also available. They may be fixed or removable. Some mass storage units contain both floppy and hard disk devices.

Low-cost modulator-demodulator devices, called modems, that allow microcomputer systems to communicate over tele­phone lines have become increasingly popular. Modems permit networks of personal computer owners to exchange information or to access large data banks. These data banks may be dedi­cated to special applications, such as law or medicine, or they may provide a variety of consumer services.

Notes

* bootstrapping — начальная загрузка; ** leverlike — рычажковый

TESTS

^ 1. Вставьте необходимые слова вместо пропусков.

1. A personal computer is a small relatively inexpensive de-

vice designed for an individual .

a) person; b) producer; c) user

2. One of the first and most popular personal computer was

in 1977.

a) interpreted; b) introduced; c) integrated

3. All personal computers are based on technology,

its CPU being called MPU.

a) microscopy; b) microprocessor; c) microelement

4. Very soon a microcomputer was from a calcula-

tor into a PC for everyone.

a) transformed; b) transferred; c) transported

5. Input in PC is usually performed by means of a .

a) mouse; b) scanner; c) keyboard

6. A personal computer uses disks as input and out-

put media.

a) hard; b) fixed; c) floppy

7. Personal computers have a lot of , scientific, en­
gineering, educational being among them.

a) multiplication; b) application; c) investigation

Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 144

8. Personal computers have a great upon pupils,

educators, accountants, stock brokers and who not.

a) influence; b) information; c) environment

9. A word processing program called application

enables you to modify any document in a manner you wish.

a) hardware; b) software; c) firmware

10. Using a display you can mistakes, words

and replace sentences.

a) delete; b) dial; c) correct

2. Найдите в предложениях неличные формы глагола и назовите их:

A. a) Gerund; b) Present Participle Active; с) Present Participle
Passive; d) Past Participle Passive; e) Perfect Participle Active;
f) Perfect Participle Passive.

1. When keyed the data are held in a small memory called buffer. 2. Data keyed into the memory of a computer by typing on a keyboard are readable by humans. 3. Keyboard enables inputting numerical and text data. 4. The mouse provides the cursor control simplifying user's orientation on the display. 5. Having been constructed recently a new electronic device has important applications in space exploration. 6. Being supplied with a special appliance a television set may have a remote con­trol. 7. The control unit operates by reading one instruction at a time. 8. Improved methods of obtaining three-dimensional television pictures have been worked on the basis of holography.

B. a) Indefinite Infinitive Active; b) Indefinite Infinitive Ibssive;
c) Continuous Infinitive Active; d) Perfect Infinitive Active;
e) Perfect Infinitive Passive.

1. Input devices are used to enter data into primary storage.

  1. These data appeared to have been investigated long ago.

  2. \№ are glad to have obtained such valuable results. 4. You
    should have known wonderful features of computers long ago.
    5. The problem to be solved is of great importance to the de­
    velopment of this branch of industry. 6. The first amplifying
    semiconductor devices (transistors) are known to have been
    developed in the USA in 1948. 7. He ordered these devices to
    be repaired as soon as possible.

145 Unit 10. Personal Computers

3. Прочтите текст. Выберите основную мысль для каждо­го абзаца из предложенных ниже.

^ PERSONAL COMPUTERS

The personal computer can serve as a work station for the individual today. Moreover, as it has become financially feasi­ble to provide a computer for the individual worker, so also tech­nical developments have made the interface between man and machine increasingly "friendly", so that a wide array of com­puter functions are now accessible to people with no technical background.

A personal computer is a small computer based on a micro­processor; it is a microcomputer. Not all computers, however, are personal computers. A microcomputer can be dedicated to a single task such as controlling a machine tool or metering the injection of fuel into an automobile engine; it can be a word processor, a video game or a "pocket computer" that is not quite a computer. A personal computer is something different: a stand­alone computer that puts a wide array of capabilities at the dis­posal of an individual.

The first generation of true personal computers, which came on the market between 1977 and 1981, had eight-bit micropro­cessors; later introduced systems had 16-bits ones. Now 32-bit microprocessor chips are available, and soon they will be includ­ed in complete computer systems.

1. a) Performance of a wide array of computer functions;

  1. Accessibility of PC for not professionals.

  2. Friendly interface of a personal computer.

2. a) A microprocessor-based PC;

  1. PC — a pocket computer;

  2. Comparison of a microcomputer and a PC.

3. a) Microprocessor's capacity;

  1. The growth of MPC's capacity;

  2. The first generation of personal computers.

Unit 11 ^ COMPUTER PROGRAMMING

1. Ознакомьтесь с терминами текста 1.

equation [i'kwei/эп] — уравнение, приравнивание

list of instructions — перечень команд

guard ['gad] — защищать; предохранять; завершать; за­канчивать

appropriate sequence [a'propnit 'sikwans] — необходимая (требуемая) последовательность

program logic — логическая последовательность выпол­нения программы

flowchart ['floutfat] — блок-схема; составлять блок-схе­му

flowcharting — построение блок-схемы pictorial representation — наглядное представление

predefined symbols [pndi'famd 'simbslz] — заранее задан­ные символы

specifics [spa'sifiks] — специальные черты; характерные особенности

emplate [im'pleit] — шаблон; маска; образец; эталон

pseudocode ['psju:doukoud] — псевдокод; псевдопро­грамма

burden ['bsidanj — издержки ^затраты programming rules — правила программирования consume [kan'sjuim] — потреблять; расходовать emphasize ['emfasaiz] — выделять; подчеркивать top-down approach — принцип нисходящей разработки

looping logic — логическая схема выполнения (опера­ций) в цикле

147 Unit 11. Computer Programming

2. Прочтите текст и объясните, как вы понимаете термин «компьютерное программирование».

Text 1. ^ COMPUTER PROGRAMMING

Programming is the process of preparing a set of coded in­structions which enables the computer to solve specific prob­lems or to perform specific functions. Theiessence of computer programmingjis the encoding of the program for the computer by means of algorythms. The thing is that any problem is ex­pressed in mathematical terms, it contains formulae, equations and calculations^ But the computer cannot manipulate formu­lae, equations and calculations. Any problem must be specially processed for the computer to understand it, that is — coded or programmed.

The phase in which the system's computer programs are written is called the development phase. The programs are lists of instructions that will be followed by the control unit of the central processing unit (CPU). The instructions of the program must be complete and in the appropriate sequence, or else the wrong answers will result. To guard against these errors in logic and to document the program's logical approach, logic plans should be developed.

There are two common techniques for planning the logic of a program. The first technique is flowcharting. A flowchart is a plan in the form of a graphic or pictorial representation that uses predefined symbols to illustrate the program logic. It is, there­fore, a "picture" of the logical steps to be performed by the computer. Each of the predefined symbol shapes stands for a general operation. The symbol shape communicates the nature of the general operation, and the specifics are written within the symbol. A plastic or metal guide called a template is used to make drawing the symbols easier.

The second technique for planning program logic is called pseudocode. Pseudocode is an imitation of actual program in­structions. It allows a program-like structure without the bur­den of programming rules to follow. Pseudocode is less time-consuming for the professional programmer than is flowcharting. It also emphasizes a top-down approach to program structure.

Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 148

Pseudocode has three basic structures: sequence, decision, and looping logic. With these three structures, any required logic can be expressed.

^ 3. Просмотрите текст еще раз и ответьте на вопросы, ис­
пользуя информацию текста.


1. What is programming? 2. What is the essence of program­ming? 3. What should be done with the problem before process­ing by the computer? 4. What is a program? 5. What are instruc­tions? 6. What are the main techniques for planning the program logic? 7. What is a flowchart? 8. What is a template and what is it used for? 9. What do you understand by "pseudocode"? 10. What are the basic structures of pseudocode?

^ 4. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих
словосочетаний:


Совокупность закодированных'команд; суть компьютер­ного программирования; кодирование посредством алгорит­ма; формулы, уравнения, вычисления; обработать особым образом; перечень команд; необходимая последователь­ность; защищать от ошибок; составлять план логической последовательности; общепринятая методика; логическая последовательность выполнения программы; построение блок-схемы; наглядное представление; заранее заданные символы; шаблон; псевдопрограмма; без издержек; выде­лять принцип нисходящей обработки; расходовать меньше времени; логическая схема выполнения операций в цикле; необходимая последовательность операций.

5. Подберите из предложенных ниже русских словосоче­
таний значения следующих терминов на английском
языке:

Program: access program; application program; archived program; binary program; common program; compatible / in­compatible program; control / management program; database program; debugging program; educational / teaching / training program; free program; general-purpose program; high-perfor­mance program; off-line program; on-line program; operating (-system) program; processing program; protected-mode pro­gram; remote program; running program; self-loading program;

149 Unit




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