Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 138
даря; хранение адресов и почты; и так далее; прикладные программы; исправлять ошибки в написании; стирать предложения; переставлять абзацы; бухгалтер; биржевые брокеры; консультант по налогам; юристы; работники образования; управленцы; бухгалтерский учет; подоходный налог; компьютерное моделирование; электронные таблицы; составление расписания; оказывать огромное влияние; прокладывать путь; дать толчок; удовлетворять потребности; учебная деятельность; компьютерная грамотность; моделирование реально-жизненных ситуаций.
11. Найдите в текстах 1 и 2 слова:
a) близкие по значению следующим словам:
Verbs: to print; to produce; to convert; to keep; to found; to erase; to name; to change; to use; to start; to switch on; to supply; to give possibility; to involve.
Nouns: rate; analyst; possibilities; use; plays; control; post; mode; profession; consultant; teacher; director; book-keeper; fight; producer; attack; amateur; device; crystal; error; storage; primary (memory); monitor; characteristic; aim.
Adjectives: flexible; thrilling; main; little; general;
b) противоположные по значению следующим словам:
Verbs: to finish; to switch on; to take; to delete.
Nouns; online; input; work.
Adjectives: cheep; weak; common; general; large; soft; high; easy.
12. Расшифруйте следующие аббревиатуры и переведите их.
13. Переведите безличные предложения. Обратите внима
ние на их специфику.
1. 7/ is well known that personal computers enjoy great popularity among experimenters and hobbyists. 2. // took years to produce a high-speed computer performing a lot of functions. 3. When making up the summary of the text one should put down the exact title of the article, the author's name and the date of the edition. 4. It is difficult to imagine modern life with-
139 Unit 10. Personal Computers
out a computer. 5. It is quite impossible to listen to your English pronunciation: you make bad mistakes while reading. 6. Concerning these substances one must say that they vary in their composition. 7. When working with these substances one should be very careful. 8. // was once a universal practice to man-ifacture each of the components separately and then assemble the complete device by wiring (монтаж) the components together with metallic conductors. 9. It was no good: the more components and interactions, the less reliable the system. 10. // should first be made clear what the term "microelectronics" means.
Participle Active Passive
Present using being used
Perfect having used Having been used
1. The results obtained are of particular importance for our research. 2. Having obtainedthe required results we informed the manager of this fact. 3. The necessary data having been obtained, we could continue our experiment. 4. Being obtained the results of the research were analysed. 5. While operating with graphical interface people usually use such manipulators as a mouse and a track ball. 6. Key-to-disk devices used as data recording stations can correct data before storing it on a magnetic disk. 7. D.Mendeleyev having arranged the elements in a table, the existence of yet unknown elements could be predicted. 8. All the necessary preparations having been done, the operator began assembling the machine. 9. Being built on the basis of transistors lasers are successfully used in technology.
^ which; when; while;
since; till; until; whatever; whenever; in order to; regardless
1. It is well known in computer science that the words "computer" and "processor' are used interchangeably. 2. The operation part of the instruction is decoded so that the proper arith-
Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 140
metic and logic operation can be performed. 3. It is difficult to establish whether this problem can be solved at all. 4. Programs and data on which the control unit and the arithmetic-logical unit operate must be in internal memory in order to be processed. 5. The CU has a register that temporarily holds the instructions read from memory while it is being executed. 6. Regardless o/the nature of the I/O devices, I/O interfaces are required to convert the input data to the internal codes used by the computer and to convert internal codes to a format which is usable by the output devices. 7. The purpose of registers in the ALU is to hold the numbers and the results of the calculation until they can be transferred to the memory. 8. Since the computer deals with pulses, the input device is a way of converting numbers written on paper into pulses and sending them to the storage. 9. The principal characteristics of personal computers are that they are single-user system and are based on microprocessors. 10. However, although personal computers are designed as single-user systems, it is common to link them together to form a network.
The piece of equipment that allows a computer to communicate with other computers over telephone lines is called a modem. The modem allows the individual to access information from all over the world and use that information in everyday life. Connecting with banks, Automatic Teller Machines, cash registers to read credit cards, access travel agents, buy products, e-mail, access databases, and teleconferencing, the modems provide easy access to many services. Files can be transferred easily, by uploading to another machine, or downloading to your own machine within a matter of minutes. The computer modem can be used as a telephone answering system, and documents can be faxed from one computer to another assuring fast and easy access to important documents.
A modem takes computer information and changes it into a signal that can be sent over telephone lines. The modem is a bridge between digital and analog signals. The computer is of
Ш Unit 10. Personal Computers
the digital type, and the telephone using analog technology. The modem converts the "0"s and "l"s of the computer (off-on switches) into an analog signals modulating the frequency of the electronic wave or signal. The modem does just the opposite and demodulate the signal back into digital code. The modem gets its name from MOdulate and the DEModulate.
Most people believe that you need a separate phone line for a modem, but that is not true.Your modem and telephone can share one line, the problem arises when someone else needs to use the telephone while the modem is in use. Also disable call waiting, it could disrupt your modem connection while the modem is in use.
There are three kinds of modems — internal, external, and fax. All modems do the same thing, they allow computers to communicate through telephone lines. This lets computers exchange information everywhere. Internal Modem is a circuit board that plugs into one of the expansion slots of the computer. Internal modems usually are cheaper than external modems, but when problems occur, fixing and troubleshooting the modem can sometimes prove to be quite difficult. External Modem attaches to the back of the computer by way of a cable that plugs into the modem port. It is usually less expensive and very portable. It can be used with other computers very easily by unplugging it and plugging it into another computer. Fax Modem can be hooked up to your telephone and used to send information to your computer. Your computer can also send information to a fax machine. Most computer modems are modems with faxing capabilities.
17. Выполните письменно перевод следующего текста по вариантам.
1. The organization of a microcomputer system is the same as that of a larger computer system. The microprocessor unit (MPU), usually concentrated in a single chip, consists of the control unit and the arithmetic logical unit. Internal memory
is made up of random access memory (RAM) and read-only memory (ROM). Because RAM is only temporary storage, all microcomputers require some instructions to get started after they are turned on, and these are contained in ROM. A microcomputer includes both an MPU and internal memory.
The portion of the system software that is in ROM brings into RAM the additional instructions required to operate the microcomputer. Typically these instructions are stored on a magnetic disk; hence, they are called a disk operating system, or DOS. This start-up process is called bootstrapping*. ROM also contains other programs that help to make personal computers easy to use, such as a programming language. Computer games are also stored in ROM cartridges.
In addition to the MPU, RAM, ROM, and associated control circuits, other components, called peripheral devices, are needed to make a complete microcomputer system. The principal peripheral units are: input devices, output devices, mass storage units, and communication components. Like a DOS, the programs that control the flow of data between a microcomputer and its peripheral devices are a part of systems software.
The most common input device used with personal computers is the keyboard. Most personal computer keyboards have extra keys that perform special functions and that can be used to control the movement of a cursor on a screen. A leverlike** device, called a joystick, is also used as an input device, commonly for playing video games.
2. The CRT (cathode-ray tube) screen used with personal computers is called a monitor. Keyboards and monitors may be part of a single unit that also contains the microcomputer and the disc drives, or they may be separate units. Besides the monitor, the most common input units are dot-matrix and letter-quality printers. Dot-matrix printers are suitable for most microcomputer applications. Letter-quality printers are usually used for high-quality office correspondence. Both types of printers are considered to be low-speed character printers.
Mass storage units are available over a range of capacities and access times. Floppy disks, or diskettes, are the most common mass storage media. They store patterns of bits on magnetically coated, flexible plastic platters. A floppy disk platter is sealed permanently in a paper jacket with a small window for reading
143 Unit 19. Personal Computers
and writing. Hard disk storage systems are also available. They may be fixed or removable. Some mass storage units contain both floppy and hard disk devices.
Low-cost modulator-demodulator devices, called modems, that allow microcomputer systems to communicate over telephone lines have become increasingly popular. Modems permit networks of personal computer owners to exchange information or to access large data banks. These data banks may be dedicated to special applications, such as law or medicine, or they may provide a variety of consumer services.
* bootstrapping — начальная загрузка; ** leverlike — рычажковый
1. A personal computer is a small relatively inexpensive de-
vice designed for an individual .
a) person; b) producer; c) user
2. One of the first and most popular personal computer was
a) interpreted; b) introduced; c) integrated
3. All personal computers are based on technology,
its CPU being called MPU.
a) microscopy; b) microprocessor; c) microelement
4. Very soon a microcomputer was from a calcula-
tor into a PC for everyone.
a) transformed; b) transferred; c) transported
5. Input in PC is usually performed by means of a .
a) mouse; b) scanner; c) keyboard
6. A personal computer uses disks as input and out-
a) hard; b) fixed; c) floppy
7. Personal computers have a lot of , scientific, en
gineering, educational being among them.
a) multiplication; b) application; c) investigation
Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 144
8. Personal computers have a great upon pupils,
educators, accountants, stock brokers and who not.
a) influence; b) information; c) environment
9. A word processing program called application
enables you to modify any document in a manner you wish.
a) hardware; b) software; c) firmware
10. Using a display you can mistakes, words
and replace sentences.
a) delete; b) dial; c) correct
2. Найдите в предложениях неличные формы глагола и назовите их:
A. a) Gerund; b) Present Participle Active; с) Present Participle
Passive; d) Past Participle Passive; e) Perfect Participle Active;
f) Perfect Participle Passive.
1. When keyed the data are held in a small memory called buffer. 2. Data keyed into the memory of a computer by typing on a keyboard are readable by humans. 3. Keyboard enables inputting numerical and text data. 4. The mouse provides the cursor control simplifying user's orientation on the display. 5. Having been constructed recently a new electronic device has important applications in space exploration. 6. Being supplied with a special appliance a television set may have a remote control. 7. The control unit operates by reading one instruction at a time. 8. Improved methods of obtaining three-dimensional television pictures have been worked on the basis of holography.
B. a) Indefinite Infinitive Active; b) Indefinite Infinitive Ibssive;
c) Continuous Infinitive Active; d) Perfect Infinitive Active;
e) Perfect Infinitive Passive.
1. Input devices are used to enter data into primary storage.
145 Unit 10. Personal Computers
3. Прочтите текст. Выберите основную мысль для каждого абзаца из предложенных ниже.
The personal computer can serve as a work station for the individual today. Moreover, as it has become financially feasible to provide a computer for the individual worker, so also technical developments have made the interface between man and machine increasingly "friendly", so that a wide array of computer functions are now accessible to people with no technical background.
A personal computer is a small computer based on a microprocessor; it is a microcomputer. Not all computers, however, are personal computers. A microcomputer can be dedicated to a single task such as controlling a machine tool or metering the injection of fuel into an automobile engine; it can be a word processor, a video game or a "pocket computer" that is not quite a computer. A personal computer is something different: a standalone computer that puts a wide array of capabilities at the disposal of an individual.
The first generation of true personal computers, which came on the market between 1977 and 1981, had eight-bit microprocessors; later introduced systems had 16-bits ones. Now 32-bit microprocessor chips are available, and soon they will be included in complete computer systems.
1. a) Performance of a wide array of computer functions;
2. a) A microprocessor-based PC;
3. a) Microprocessor's capacity;
Unit 11 ^
1. Ознакомьтесь с терминами текста 1.
equation [i'kwei/эп] — уравнение, приравнивание
list of instructions — перечень команд
guard ['gad] — защищать; предохранять; завершать; заканчивать
appropriate sequence [a'propnit 'sikwans] — необходимая (требуемая) последовательность
program logic — логическая последовательность выполнения программы
flowchart ['floutfat] — блок-схема; составлять блок-схему
flowcharting — построение блок-схемы pictorial representation — наглядное представление
predefined symbols [pndi'famd 'simbslz] — заранее заданные символы
specifics [spa'sifiks] — специальные черты; характерные особенности
emplate [im'pleit] — шаблон; маска; образец; эталон
pseudocode ['psju:doukoud] — псевдокод; псевдопрограмма
burden ['bsidanj — издержки ^затраты programming rules — правила программирования consume [kan'sjuim] — потреблять; расходовать emphasize ['emfasaiz] — выделять; подчеркивать top-down approach — принцип нисходящей разработки
looping logic — логическая схема выполнения (операций) в цикле
147 Unit 11. Computer Programming
2. Прочтите текст и объясните, как вы понимаете термин «компьютерное программирование».
Text 1. ^
Programming is the process of preparing a set of coded instructions which enables the computer to solve specific problems or to perform specific functions. Theiessence of computer programmingjis the encoding of the program for the computer by means of algorythms. The thing is that any problem is expressed in mathematical terms, it contains formulae, equations and calculations^ But the computer cannot manipulate formulae, equations and calculations. Any problem must be specially processed for the computer to understand it, that is — coded or programmed.
The phase in which the system's computer programs are written is called the development phase. The programs are lists of instructions that will be followed by the control unit of the central processing unit (CPU). The instructions of the program must be complete and in the appropriate sequence, or else the wrong answers will result. To guard against these errors in logic and to document the program's logical approach, logic plans should be developed.
There are two common techniques for planning the logic of a program. The first technique is flowcharting. A flowchart is a plan in the form of a graphic or pictorial representation that uses predefined symbols to illustrate the program logic. It is, therefore, a "picture" of the logical steps to be performed by the computer. Each of the predefined symbol shapes stands for a general operation. The symbol shape communicates the nature of the general operation, and the specifics are written within the symbol. A plastic or metal guide called a template is used to make drawing the symbols easier.
The second technique for planning program logic is called pseudocode. Pseudocode is an imitation of actual program instructions. It allows a program-like structure without the burden of programming rules to follow. Pseudocode is less time-consuming for the professional programmer than is flowcharting. It also emphasizes a top-down approach to program structure.
Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 148
Pseudocode has three basic structures: sequence, decision, and looping logic. With these three structures, any required logic can be expressed.
1. What is programming? 2. What is the essence of programming? 3. What should be done with the problem before processing by the computer? 4. What is a program? 5. What are instructions? 6. What are the main techniques for planning the program logic? 7. What is a flowchart? 8. What is a template and what is it used for? 9. What do you understand by "pseudocode"? 10. What are the basic structures of pseudocode?
Совокупность закодированных'команд; суть компьютерного программирования; кодирование посредством алгоритма; формулы, уравнения, вычисления; обработать особым образом; перечень команд; необходимая последовательность; защищать от ошибок; составлять план логической последовательности; общепринятая методика; логическая последовательность выполнения программы; построение блок-схемы; наглядное представление; заранее заданные символы; шаблон; псевдопрограмма; без издержек; выделять принцип нисходящей обработки; расходовать меньше времени; логическая схема выполнения операций в цикле; необходимая последовательность операций.
5. Подберите из предложенных ниже русских словосоче
таний значения следующих терминов на английском
Program: access program; application program; archived program; binary program; common program; compatible / incompatible program; control / management program; database program; debugging program; educational / teaching / training program; free program; general-purpose program; high-performance program; off-line program; on-line program; operating (-system) program; processing program; protected-mode program; remote program; running program; self-loading program;