Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 116
Scanner: bar code scanner; black-and-white scanner; color scanner; desktop scanner; hand scanner; laser scanner; manual scanner; optical scanner; visual scanner.
Terminal: batch terminal; desktop terminal; display terminal; printer terminal; remote terminal; security terminal; logical terminal; text terminal.
6. Вспомните формы инфинитива, проанализируйте и пе
реведите следующие предложения.
Infinitive Active Passive
Indefinite to ask to be asked
Continuous to be asked
Perfect to have asked to have been asked
Perfect Continuous to have been asking
1. A printer is an example of a device to produce output in a human-readable format. 2. The high-speed devices to be used as secondary storage are both input and output devices. 3. The progress of electronics to have resulted in the invention of electronic computers was a breakthrough (прорыв) of the second part of the 20lh century. 4. Mendeleyev's periodic law to have been accepted as a universal law of nature is of great importance nowadays. 5. When output is available, output interfaces must be designed to reverse the process and to adopt the output to the external environment. 6. The memory stores the instructions and the data to be quickly retrieved on demand by the CPU.
7. Computers to have been designed originaly for arithmetic pur
poses are applicable for great variety of tasks at present. 8. The
film to have been running for over a month this year attracts at
tention of many spectators. 9. The CPU of a computer to be
arranged in a single or very small number of integrated circuits
is called a microprocessor. 10. Russia was the first country to
start the cosmic era.
7. Прочтите внимательно текст, составьте аннотацию на английском языке, озаглавьте текст. Для составления аннотации используйте следующие клише:
^ mation about...) The article deals with the problem ...
Ш Unit ft In put-Ouput Units
The subject of the text is...
At the beginning (of the text) the author describes... (dwells on ...; explains...; touches upon...; analyses...; comments ...; characterizes ...; underlines ...; reveals...; gives account of...)
The article begins with the description of..,, a review of..., the analysis of... The article opens with ...
Then (after that, further on, next) the author passes on to ..., gives a detailed (thorough) analysis (description), goes on to say that ...
To finish with, the author describes ... At the end of the article the author draws the conclusion that ...; the author sums it all up (by saying...) In conclusion the author...
* * *
As it is well known, a computer cannot perform or complete any useful work unless it is able to communicate with its external environment. All data and instructions enter and leave the central processing unit through primary storage. Input-output devices are needed to link primary storage to the environment, which is external to the computer system. So input devices are used to enter data into primary storage. Output units accept data from primary storage to provide users with information or to record the data on a secondary storage device. Some devices are used for both the input and output functions.
The data with which these devices work may or may not be in a form that humans can understand. For example the data that a data entry operator keys into the memory of a computer by typing on a keyboard are readable by humans. However, the data that tell a computer about the performance of an automobile engine are not in a form that humans can read. They are electrical signals from an analog sensor. Similarly, output may be on a printed page, which humans can read easily, or upon some other medium where the data are not visible, such as on magnetic tape or disk.
As we know, all of the data flow from input to final output is managed by the control unit in the CPU. Regardless of the nature of the I/O devices, special processors called I/O interfaces
Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 118
are required to convert the input data to the internal codes used by the computer and to convert internal codes to a format which is usable by the output device.
8. Ознакомьтесь с терминами текста 2.
keyboard ['ki:bo:d] — клавиатура
key [ki:] — клавиша; кнопка; переключатель; ключевой, основной; главный; переключать; набирать на клавиатуре
manipulator Imsmpju'leits] — манипулятор; блок обработки
trackball ['traekbo:!] — трекбол
touch panel ['tAt/'paenl] — сенсорная панель
graphic plotting tables ['grsefik 'pbtirj 'teibls] — графические планшеты
sound card ['saund 'ka:] — звуковая карта (плата)
enable [i'neibl] — разрешать; позволять; допускать; делать возможным
operating mode [ops'rertin 'moud] — режим работы press a button — нажать на кнопку keep buttons depressed — удерживать кнопки в нажатом состоянии
double-click ['dLvbl 'klikl — двойное нажатие
erase images [i'reiz 'imid3iz] — удалить, стереть изображение (объект)
roller ['rob] — ролик; валик
track — следить; прослеживать; проходить; след; траектория; путь; дорожка; соединение
by means of — посредством
permitting capacity — разрешающая способность
9. Прочтите текст и назовите приборы, которые служат для
введения информации в компьютер. Переведите текст.
There are several devices used for inputting information into the computer: a keyboard, some coordinate input devices, such
119 Unit 9. Input-Ouput Units
as manipulators (a mouse, a track ball), touch panels and graphical plotting tables, scanners, digital cameras, TV tuners, sound cards etc.
When personal computers first became popular, the most common device used to transfer information from the user to the computer was the keyboard. It enables inputting numerical and text data. A standard keyboard has 104 keys and three more ones informing about the operating mode of light indicators in the upper right corner.
Later when the more advanced graphics became to develop, user found that a keyboard did not provide the design capabilities of graphics and text representation on the display. There appeared manipulators, a mouse and a track ball, that are usually used while operating with graphical interface. Each software program uses these buttons differently.
^ is an optic-mechanical input device. The mouse has three or two buttons which control the cursor movement across the screen. The mouse provides the cursor control thus simplifying user's orientation on the display. The mouse's primary functions are to help the user draw, point and select images on his computer display by moving the mouse across the screen.
In general software programs require to press one or more buttons, sometimes keeping them depressed or double-click them to issue changes in commands and to draw or to erase emages. When you move the mouse across a flat surface, the ball located on the bottom side of the mouse turns two rollers. One is tracking the mouse's vertical movements, the other is tracking horizontal movements. The rotating ball glides easily, giving the user good control over the textual and graphical images.
In portable computers touch panels or touch pads are used instead of manipulators. Moving a finger along the surface of the touch pad is transformed into the cursor movement across the screen.
Graphical plotting tables (plotters) find application in drawing and inputtig manuscript texts. You can draw, add notes and signs to electronic documents by means of a special pen. The quality of graphical plotting tables is characterized by permitting capacity, that is the number of lines per inch, and their capability to respond to the force of pen pressing .
Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 120
Scanner is used for optical inputting of images (photographies, pictures, slides) and texts and converting them into the computer form.
^ have been spread recently. They enable getting videoimages and photographs directly in digital computer format. Digital cameras give possibility to get high quality photos.
Sound cards produce sound conversion from analog to digital form. They are able to synthesize sounds. Special game-ports and joysticks are widely used in computer games.
10. Ответьте на вопросы, используя информацию текста.
1. What devices are used for inputting information into the computer? 2. What was the most common device in early personal computers? 3. What is the function of a keyboard? 4. Why do many users prefer manipulators to keyboard? 5. How does the mouse operate? 6. What is its function? 7. What role does the ball on the bottom of the mouse play? 8. What is used in portable computers instead of manipulators? 9. What is the touch pad's principle of operation? 10. Where do graphical plotting tables find application?
11. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих
Введение информации; координатные устройства ввода; манипуляторы; мышь; трекбол; сенсорная панель; графические планшеты; цифровые камеры; сканеры; ТВ тюнеры; стандартная клавиатура; числовая и текстовая информация; световые индикаторы; клавиши; режим работы; презентация текста на мониторе; графический интерфейс; программные средства; оптико-механическое "устройство ввода; управлять движением курсора; упрощать ориентацию пользователя на экране; указывать и выбирать изображения; удерживать кнопки в нажатом состоянии; двойное нажатие; стирать объекты; ровная поверхность; вращать ролики; следить за вертикальным движением; легко скользить; портативный компьютер; рукописный текст; посредством; разрешающая способность
121 Unit 9. Input-Ouput Units
12. Вспомните значение новых глаголов и переведите сло
ва, производные от них.
То accomplish: accomplished; unaccomplished; accomplishment.
To adapt, adaptable; unadaptable; adaptability; unadaptabil-ity; adaptation; adapter.
To digitize: digit; digital; digitization; digitizer.
To erase: erasable; erasability; eraser; erasing; erasure.
To match: matcher; matching.
To permit: permitted; permissible; permissibility; permission.
To print: printable; printed; printer; printing;
To scan: scanning; scanner.
To recognize: recognition; recognizer; recognizable; unrecognizable.
To respond: response; responsible; irresponsible; responsibility; irresponsibility.
^ reversed; reversible; irreversible; reversion; reversibility.
To transform: transformer; transformation; transformational; transformative
13. Проанализируйте предложения, содержащие конструк
ции "for + Infinitive" и "Objective with the Infinitive".
Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. It was not difficult for the pupils to understand the function of the mouse in computer operation. 2. There is no reason for computer experts to use computers of the first generation nowadays. 3. The mechanism is provided with special devices/or the whole system to function automatically. 4. The text was very interesting but rather difficult for the students to translate it without a dictionary. 5. It is not easy for me to learn to speak English fluently. 6. We know the machine to react to a series of electrical impulses that can be represented in binary numbers. 7. Scientists considered silicon to be one of the best materials for the creation of an 1С. 8. Wfe know all data to be translated into binary code before being stored in main storage. 9. Engineers expect these new devices to be tested very soon. 10. They want their son to become a computer operator and to design new computer models.
Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 122
14. Ознакомьтесь с терминами текста 3.
human-readable form — удобная для чтения форма performance [pa'fxmsns] — (рабочая) характеристика; производительность; быстродействие; скорость работы; пропускная способность
character printer — принтер с посимвольной печатью; символьный принтер
line printer ['lain]— принтер с построчной печатью page printer ['peid;] — принтер с постраничной печатью
(поп) impact printer ['nonimpskt] — (бес)контактный принтер
letter-quality printer — принтер с типографским качеством печати
dot-matrix printer ['dot 'meitnks] — точечно-матричный принтер
ink-jet printer ['ink 'd3et] — струйный принтер laser-beam printer ['leiza *bi:m] — лазерный принтер
to identify [ai'dentifai] — идентифицировать; распознать; обозначить
approach [ap'routj] — подход; метод; принцип; приближение
at a time — за один раз; одновременно
to cause ['ko:z] — вызывать; приводить к (ч.-л.); заставлять; вынуждать
to strike against a ribbon — ударять по ленте typewriter ftarpraits] — печатное устройство to spray drops of ink — распылять капли чернил to affect [a'fekt] — влиять; воздействовать; сказываться на (ч.-л.)
technique [tek'mk] — метод; способ; техника; методика; технология
printer output — вывод на печать; распечатываемые данные
123 / Unit 9. Input-Ouput Units
15. Прочтите текст и назовите типы принтеров и их назначение.
Printers provide information in a permanent, human-readable form. They are the most commonly used output devices and are components of almost all computer systems. Printers vary greatly in performance and design. Vfe will classify printers as character printers, line printers and page printers in order to identify three different approaches to printing, each with a different speed range. In addition, printers can be described as either impact or nonimpact. Printers that use electromechanical mechanisms that cause hammers to strike against a ribbon and the paper are called impact printers. Nonimpact printers do not hit or impact a ribbon to print.
^ print only one character at a time. A typewriter is an example of a character printer. Character printers are the type used with literally all microcomputers as well as on computers of all sizes whenever the printing requirements are not large. Character printers may be of several types. A letter-quality printer is a character printer which produces output of typewriter quality. Letter-quality printers typically have speeds ranging from 10 to 50 characters per second. Dot-matrix printers form each character as a pattern of dots. These printers have a lower quality of type but are generally faster printers than the letter-quality printers — in the range of 50 to 200 characters per second. One of the newest types of character printer is the ink-jet printer. It sprays small drops of ink onto paper to form printed characters. The ink has a high iron content, which is affected by magnetic fields of the printer. These magnetic fields cause the ink to take the shape of a character as the ink approaches the paper.
^ are electromechanical machines used for high-volume paper output on most computer systems. Their printing speeds are such that to an observer they appear to be printing a line at a time. They are impact printers. Trie speeds of line printers vary from 100 to 2500 lines per minute. Line printers have been designed to use many different types of printing mechanisms. Two of the most common print mechanisms are
Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 124
the drum and the chain. Drum printers use a solid, cylindrical drum, rotating at a rapid speed. Speeds of dram printers vary from 200 to over 2000 lines per minute. ^ have their character set on a rapidly rotating chain called a print chain. Speeds of chain printers range from 400 to 2400 lines per minute.
Page printers are high-speed nonimpact printers. Their printing rates are so high that output appears to emerge from the printer a page at a time. A variety of techniques are used in the design of page printers. These techniques, called electrophotographic techniques, have developed from the paper copier technology. Laser-beam printers use a combination of laser beam and electrophotographic techniques to create printer output at a rate equal to 18000 lines per minute.
16. Ответьте на вопросы, используя информацию текста.
1. What are the three types of printers? 2. What is a letter-quality printer? 3. What is a dot-matrix printer? 4. What type of printer is the most common with microcomputer systems? 5. What is the most common printer type used on large computer systems? 6. What is an impact printer? Give an example. 7. What is a nonimpact printer? Give examples. 8. What are the most widely used printers? 9. How do you distinguish between a letter-quality printer and a dot-matrix printer? 10. Which of these printers is slower? 11. What types of character printers do you know? 12. How are printed characters formed by means of an ink-jet printer? 13. What are the main types of a line printer? Which of them is faster? 14. What techniques are used in the operation of page printers?
17. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих
Удобная для восприятия человека форма; наиболее часто употребляемые устройства вывода информации; различаться по рабочим характеристикам и внешнему виду; принтеры с посимвольной печатью; принтеры с построчной печатью; принтеры с постраничной печатью; различные методы печати; диапазон скорости; принтеры контактные и бесконтактные; ударять по ленте; печатать по одному символу; буквально все компьютеры; а также; требования печати; принтер с типографским качеством печа-
125 Unit 9. Input-Ouput Units
ти; точечно-матричные принтеры; струйные принтеры; разбрызгивать капли чернил; высокое содержание железа; магнитные поля; принимать форму символа; кажется, что печатают по строчке; барабанный принтер; цепочечные принтеры; лазерный принтер.
18. Вспомните значение новых слов и попытайтесь пере
вести словосочетания с этими словами.
Approach: comprehensive approach; database approach; educational (training) approach; general approach; graphic approach; self-study approach; step-by-step approach; trial-and-error approach.
Performance: application performance; computer performance; device performance; disk performance; display performance; error performance; execution performance; memory performance; network performance; processor performance.
Printer: black-and-white printer; color printer; character (at-a-time) printer; dot-matrix printer; graphical (image) printer; impact printer; ink:jet printer; laser printer; letter-quality printer; matrix printer; network printer; page (at-a-time) printer.
Technique: advanced technique; analog technique; computing technique; display (video) technique; formatting technique; hardware technique; measuring technique; modeling (simulation) technique; multimedia technique; numerical technique; programming technique; scanning technique; software technique; testing technique.
19. Переведите предложения, содержащие инфинитивный
оборот Nominative with the Infinitive (сложное подлежа
1. Printers are known to vary greatly in performance and design. 2. They are expected to be the most commonly used devices. 3. Magnetic fields are supposed to effect a high iron content of the ink. 4. The ink-jet printer is stated to be one of the newest types of character printers. 5. Electrophotographic techniques proved to have developed from the paper copier technology. 6. An impact printer is considered to produce a printed character by impacting a character font against the paper. 7. Dot-matrix printers seem to have a lower quality of type. 8. The most common printer type used on larger systems is sure to be the line printer. 9. A lot of techniques are believed to be used in the de-
Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 126
sign of printers. 10 A laser is certain to be an acronym for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation.
20. Прочтите текст и составьте письменно реферат на ан
Some of the devices mentioned above can perform both the input and output functions. Magnetic disc, magnetic diskette, and magnetic tape are examples of such devices. Magnetic discs, diskettes, and tapes can record data as output from primary storage and can also serve as input devices returning the data to primary storage.
Data are recorded on magnetic discs and magnetic tapes either by outputting the data from primary storage or by using a data recorder. Data recorders are not input devices, and they are not connected to the computer system. Instead they are offline recorders. The magnetic media recording devices are key-to-disk, key-to-diskette, and key-to-tape machines.
Key-to-disk devices are used as data recording stations in multistation shared-processor systems. They are able to correct data before storing it on a magnetic disk and before its entry into the main computer system.
Key-to-diskette systems store data on flexible discs, called diskettes. Diskettes are inexpensive and reusable.
Key-to-tape devices can record data on reels, on cassettes, and on tape cartridges. The magnetic tape reels produced by key-to-tape systems are in a computer-compatible format for subsequent direct data input into a computer. However, data on cartridges and cassettes often are transferred to higher-speed media, such as a full-sized reel of magnetic tape or magnetic disc, for data transfer to the computer.
21. Выполните перевод следующего текста письменно по
1. There is a wide variety of keyboard devices, or terminals, available for use in entering data directly into a computer.
127 Unit 9. Input-Ouput Units
The visual display terminal (VDT) is the most popular type of I/O device in use today. It consists of a typewriterlike keyboard for inputting and a cathode ray tube (CRT) for displaying output data. Each character entered through the keyboard is also displayed on the CRT. When keyed the data are held in a small memory, called a buffer, within the terminal itself. The data are not sent on to the computer until the operator presses an enter key on the keyboard. This allows the operator the opportunity to proofread or verify the data being entered by reading the data displayed on the screen. There are three major uses of VDT's: alphanumeric displays, graphic displays, and input through a light pen.
Alphanumeric displays. The most common use of the visual display terminal is to display alphanumeric data, that is, character data. Because of their relatively fast output rates and their ability to provide a viewer with an "instant" output, video displays have replaced printers for many applications.
^ Visual display terminals with a graphic display capability provide a very powerful and versatile tool for many users. Graphic-display devices provide not only a means of displaying high-resolution drawings but also the capability of manipulating and modifying the graphic display. The busi-nessperson can use the graphic display to present data in the form of line charts, bar charts, or pie charts. Graphic displays can be very effective in information systems for business manager.
2. Different types of keyboard devices, such as visual display terminals, teleprinter terminals, and point-of-sale devices are among the keyboard devices.
A light pen is a photosensitive penlike instrument which can sense a position on the cathode ray tube (CRT) when the end of the pen is held against the screen. The light pen is an input device. By sensing the position on the screen when you touch it by the light pen, you are inputting data to the main storage. The light pen is commonly used by engineers to modify designs.
Teleprinter terminals. There are situations where it is desirable to have a printed copy of data outputted to a terminal. If a user finds a printed copy to be required, the solution could be a teleprinter terminal. A teleprinter terminal has a keyboard for input and a typewriterlike printer for output. These printers are
Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 128
character printers and are therefore slower output devices than CRT displays.
^ is the electronic equivalent of a cash register, however it is capable of capturing more data than a cash register. Most point-of-sale devices are online terminals attached to a computer for processing the transaction while the customer is making the purchase. The significant features of most of the current electronic POS devices include: the capability of entering extensive information about the sale, the guiding of the operator through the possible transactions by a series of lighted indicators or messages, a provision for transmission of the data to a central computer, and the provision for a local computational capability such as price extensions and tax calculations.
TESTS 1. Вставьте необходимые слова вместо пропусков.
1. Input-output devices allow the computer to with
its external environment.
a) compute; b) command; c) communicate
2. An I/O interface is a special that converts input
data to the internal codes.
a) register; b) processor; c) plotter
3. The devices allow the computer to communicate
with its external environment.
■ a) high-speed; b) medium-speed; c) low-speed
4. The low-speed devices are those with complex mechani-
cal motion or those that operate at the speed of a human
a) mechanical; b) electrical; c) electronic
5. Data are entered from a in a manner similar to
a) keyboard; b) digitizer; c) printer
6. A remote banking terminal is an example of a
a) human-dependent; b) human-independent; c) human-related
129 Unit 9. Input-Ouput Units
7. Input match the physical or electrical character-
istics of input devices to the requirements of the computer
a) interconnections; b) interfaces; c) intercommunication
8. They data into the binary codes.
a) transmit; b) translate; c) transform
2. Согласуйте слова левой колонки с их интерпретацией,
1. Scanner sa) a device producing output in a hu-
2. Keyboard £, b) a manipulator used mainly in com-
3. Touch pad > c) a device enabling to get video imag-
es in digital form;
4. Mouse d) a device converting the finger move-
ment into the cursor movement , across the screen;
5. Plotter oe)a device for direct data entry, which
can convert images into the computer form;
6. Joystick '0 a special pen that can draw and in-
7. Digital camera 'X g) a device inputting numerical and text
data by means of keys;
8. Magnetic disc '■' h) an optic-mechanical device helping
the user select images on computer display due to rotating balls;
9. Printer i) an entirely electronic high-speed de-
vice keeping information.
3. Прочтите внимательно текст. Заполните пропуски подхо
дящими словами в предложениях, данных после текста.
Scanners provide a capability for direct data entry into the computer system. The major advantage of this direct data entry is that humans do not have to key the data. This leads to faster and more accurate data entry. The two major types of scanners
Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 136
are optical scanners and magnetic-ink character recognition devices.
^ are input devices that can "read" data recorded on paper. The scanning techniques used involve a light source and light sensors; thus, they are called optical devices. The data to be scanned may be typed or handwritten characters, data-coded as pencil marks, or data-coded as bars. The common optical scanner devices are called optical character readers, optical mark readers, and bar-code readers.
An optical character reader (OCR) inputs data by using optical scanning mechanisms that can detect or scan alphabetic and numeric characters printed on paper. If the data are typewritten, they must be typed using a special type font, called an OCR font. Examples of the use of OCR devices include the scanners used by the Postal Service to aid in sorting bulk mail, and as first-draft input for word processing system.
Optical mark readers (OMR) are able to detect pencil marks, made on special paper forms. The actual inputting of data through an OMR device involves shining a light on the page being scanned and detecting the reflections from the pencil marks. Pencil marks made with a soft lead pencil (high graphite content) will reflect the light. It is this reflection that the OMR device detects.
^ detect combinations of marks or printed bars that represent the data. Bar codes have been used for a number of years for some types of credit card processing and by the post office for mail sorting. It is very common to use bar-code readers in conjunction with point-of-sale devices. The most widely known bar code is the universal product code (UPC), which now appears on almost all retail packages.
^ were developed to assist the banking industry. MICR devices speed up data input for the banking industry by reading characters imprinted on paper documents using a magnetic ink (an ink that contains iron oxide particles). Check and deposit form processing is the largest application of MICR.
}?l Unit 9. Input-Ouput Units
bar-coded reader — устройство^считывания штрих-кода type font — печатный шрифт point-of-sale device — кассовый терминал
1. The scanning techniques of optical scanners use .
a) mechanical mechanisms; b) electronic processor c) a light source
2. Optical bar-code readers have been used by the .
a) radioengineering; b) banking industry; c) post-office
3. The largest application of is processing of vari-
ous documentation in bank industry, a) OMR; b) OCR; c)MICR
Unit 10 ^
1. Ознакомьтесь с новыми словами и терминами текста 1.
personal computers — персональные компьютеры competitive operating systems — конкурирующая операционная система
IBM (International Business Machine) — фирма по производству компьютеров to enter the fray — ввязаться в драку computer of choice — лучший компьютер to fall by the wayside — остаться в стороне; уступить дорогу
to survive onslaught [sa'vaiv 'onsbt] — выдержать конкуренцию
word size — размер слова; разрядность двоичного слова soft-copy output — вывод электронной, программно-управляемой копии
hard-copy output — вывод «твердой» печатной копии online storage — неавтономное хранение данных в ЗУ offline storage — автономное хранение данных отдельно
input media — носитель для входных данных output media — носитель для выходных данных general -purpose — универсальный; общего назначения stand-alone — автономный to plug in ['р1лд in] — подключать; подсоединять leisure activities ['1езз ak'tivitiz] — досуговая деятельность
2. Прочтите текст и скажите, существуют ли отличия пер
сональных компьютеров от больших компьютеров и в
чем они заключаются.
Text 1. ^
Personal computers are supposed to appear in the late 1970s. One of the first and most popular personal computers was the
133 Unit 10. Personal Computers
Apple II, introduced in 1977 by Apple Computer. During the late 1970s and early 1980s, new models and competitive operating systems seemed to appear daily. Then, in 1981, IBM entered the fray with its first personal computer, known as the IBM PC. The IBM PC quickly became the personal computer of choice, and most other personal computer manufacturers fell by the way-side. One of the few companies to survive IBM's onslaught was Apple Computer, which is sure to remain a major player in the personal computer marketplace. In less than a decade the microcomputer has been transformed from a calculator and hobbyist's toy into a personal computer for almost everyone.
What is a personal computer? How can this device be characterized?
Probably the most distinguishing feature of a personal computer is that it is used by an individual, usually in an interactive mode. Regardless of the purpose for which it is used, either for leisure activities in the home or for business applications in the office, we can consider it to be a personal computer.
Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 134
3. Ответьте на вопросы, используя информацию текста.
1. When did the first personal computer appear? 2. What was one of the first PC model? 3. What is a personal computer?
4. What are the four main characteristics of a PC? 5. What does
the term * microprocessor-based" mean? 6. What are the typi
cal word sizes of a PC? 7. How is input carried out in personal
computers? 8. What principle storage devices do PC use?
9. What kind of a system is a PC? 10. What differs personal com
puters from large computer systems?
Конкурирующая операционная система; появляться ежедневно; ввязаться в драку; лучший компьютер; остаться в стороне; выдержать конкуренцию; главный поставщик на компьютерном рынке; игрушка для любителя; микропроцессорный; цельный кристалл (микросхема) из кремния; размер слова; компоненты меньшей мощности; посредством; вывести на экран; низкоскоростной принтер с посимвольной печатью; использовать гибкие диски; приборы (не) автономного хранения данных; универсальный; автономная система; отличительная черта; интерактивный режим; независимо от цели; досуговая деятельность.
А) бессоюзные; В) с сочинительной связью. Запомните следующие сочинительные союзы: and, but, or, while, both ... and, as well as, not only... but also, either... or, neither... nor.
A) 1. The computer you told me about was constructed at a Russian plant. 2 We hope we'll buy the computer your friend spoke so much about 3. This is the principle the electronic computer is based upon. 4. The teacher says we may ask any questions we like. 5. Elements integrated circuits are made of are electrically interconnected components. 6. The main tendencies of 1С development scientists are working at are to increase the scale of
135 Unit 10. Personal Computers
integration and to improve reliability. 7. — Where are the computer games I gave you yesterday? — The computer games you are asking about are on the top shelf. 8. He was one of the greatest scientists the world had ever known.
B) 1. These devices can perform both the input and output functions. 2. Data are recorded on magnetic discs and tapes either by outputting the data from primary storage or by using a data recorder. 3. Neither-the programmer nor tha analyst could explain the cause of the computer errors. 4. Data as well as instructions must flow into and out of primary storage. 5. This grammar exercise is not only too long but also very difficult. 6. Printers may be either impact ornonimpact. 7. Character printers are used with all microcomputers as well as on computers of all sizes. 8. Both primary and secondary storage contain data and the instructions for processing the data. 9. The CPU functional units can be in one of two states: either "on" or"ofF\ 10. High-speed devices are both input and output devices that are used as secondary storage.
7. Ознакомьтесь с терминами текста 2.
word processing — обработка текста
telephone dialing ['tebfoun 'daishn] — набор номера телефона
security [sa'kjuanti] — безопасность; охрана appliance [ap'laians] — устройство; прибор
maintenance ['memtsnansl — поддержание; сохранение; эксплуатация
application software — прикладные программы to delete [di'Iiit] — удалять; стирать; очищать память to move paragraphs around — менять местами абзацы accountant [a'kauntsnt] — бухгалтер accounting [a'kauntirj] — бухгалтерский учет income tax ['тклт 'taeks] — подоходный налог stock market forecasting — биржевые прогнозы worksheet ['wakjlt] — электронная таблица
Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 136
scheduling ['JedjulirjJ— составление расписания, графика computer-assisted instructions — компьютерные команды to meet the demands — удовлетворять потребности record keeping — регистрация; ведение записей grading ['greidirj] — оценивание; классификация
8. Прочтите текст и укажите сферы деятельности, где используются персональные компьютеры.
Text 2. ^
Personal computers have a lot of applications, however, there are some major categories of applications: home and hobby, word processing, professional, educational, small business and engineering and scientific.
Home and hobby. Personal computers enjoy great popularity among experimenters and hobbyists. They are an exciting hobby. All hobbyists need not be engineers or programmers. There are many games that use the full capabilities of a computer to provide many hours of exciting leisure-time adventure.
The list of other home and hobby applications of PCs is almost endless, including: checking account management, budgeting, personal finance, planning, investment analyses, telephone answering and dialing, home security, home environment and climate control, appliance control, calendar management, maintenance of address and mailing lists and what not.
Word processing. At home or at work, applications software, called a word processing program, enables you to correct or modify any document in any manner you wish before printing it. Using the CRT monitor as a display screen, you are able to view what you have typed to correct mistakes in spelling or grammar, add or delete sentences, move paragraphs around, and replace words. The letter or document can be stored on a diskette for future use.
Professional. The category of professional includes persons making extensive use of word processing, whose occupations are particularly suited to the desk-top use of PCs. Examples of other occupations are accountants, financial advisors, stock brokers,
137 Unit 10. Personal Computers
tax consultants, lawyers, architects, engineers, educators and all levels of managers. Applications programs that are popular with persons in these occupations include accounting, income tax preparation, statistical analysis, graphics, stock market forecasting and computer modeling. The electronic worksheet is, by far, the computer modeling program most widely used by professionals. It can be used for scheduling, planning, and the examination of "what if situations.
Educational. Personal computers are having and will continue to have a profound influence upon the classroom, affecting both the learner and the teacher. Microcomputers are making their way into classrooms to an ever-increasing extent, giving impetus to the design of programmed learning materials that can meet the demands of student and teacher.
Two important types of uses for personal computers in education are computer-managed instruction (CMI), and computer-assisted instruction (CAI). CMI software is used to assist the instructor in the management of all classroom-related activities, such as record keeping, work assignments, testing, and grading. Applications of CAI include mathematics, reading, typing, computer literacy, programming languages, and simulations of real-world situations
9. Ответьте на вопросы, используя информацию текста.
1. What are the main spheres of PC application? 2. Do you enjoy computer games? 3. Is it necessary for a person to be an analyst or a programmer to play computer games? 4. What other home and hobby applications, except computer games, can you name? 5. What is "a word processing program"? 6. What possibilities can it give you? 7. Can you correct mistakes while typing any material and how? 8. What other changes in the typed text can you make using a display? 9. Which professions are in great need of computers? 10. How can computers be used in education?
10. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих
Много областей применения; тем не менее; обработка текстов; пользоваться популярностью; любители; способности компьютера; бесконечный перечень; анализ инвестиций; набор номера телефона; автоответчик; ведение кален-