* * #
1. In 1960's advances in microelectronic components led to
the development of the minicomputer, followed more recently
by an even smaller microcomputer. Both have filled a need for
small but relatively flexible processing systems able to execute
comparatively simple computing functions at lower costs.
In 1971 Intel Corporation delivered the first microprocessor, the 4004. All the logic to implement the central processing unit of a tiny computer was put onto a single silicon chip less than 1/4 inch square. That design was soon followed by many others. The progress toward smaller computers is continuing, designers are working at nano-computers and pico-computers.
When the central processing unit of a computer is implemented in a single, or very small number of integrated circuits, we call it a microprocessor. When a computer includes a microprocessor as its major component, such device is called a microcomputer.
Today the hardware in data-processing machines is built out of microelectronic devices. Advances in microelectronic devices give rise to advances in data-processing machinery.
2. The computer has made it possible to mechanize much
of the information interchange and processing that constitute
the nervous system of our society.
The versatility and convenience of the microprocessor has changed the entire architecture of modern computer systems. No longer is the processing of information carried out only in the computer's central processing unit. Today there is a trend toward distributing more processing capability throughout a computer system, with various areas having small local processors for handling operations in those areas.
There are a number of advantages of distributed processing. First, .since many elements of the computer can be working on different portions of the same task, the work may be done faster. Second, if one element in the network malfunctions, its workload can be shifted to another element or shared among several elements, so that the entire work is relatively immune
109 Unit 8. Central Processing Unit
to failure. Third, the network can be small enough to be contained within a single laboratory or building, or it can be spread out over a wide area.
1. Вставьте необходимые слова вместо пропусков.
1. Programs and data to be processed must be in the
,a) internal; b) external; c) secondary
2. The control unit instructions from the program.
a) sends; b) changes; c) obtains
3. The results of arithmetic operations are returned to the
for transferring to main storage.
a) decoder; b) counter; c) accumulator
4. The instruction to be in control unit is read out
from primary storage into the storage register.
a) calculated;Jb) executed; c) read out
5. The performs logical comparisons of the contents
of the storage register and the .
a) adder; b) accumulator; c) comparer
6. The read out command is passed from the regis
ter to the register.
a) instruction; b) address; c) storage
7. CPU is designed to and to basic instruc
tions for the computer.
/a) control; b) consist; c) carry ouU
8. CU and ALU consist of electronic circuits with millions
a) sensors; b) servers; c) switches
2. Согласуйте слова левой колонки с их интерпретацией,
Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 110
7. register ( > g) controls the flow between the primary stor-
age and the arithmetic-logical unit
8. decoder/ h) keeps the instruction while it is being per-
^9. comparer i) holds the results of processing operations; 10. adder .j) breaks the instructions into separate commands.
3. Выполните перевод следующего текста письменно по вариантам.
1. The microprocessor forms the heart of a microcomputer.
The first microprocessors were developed in 1971 as a branch
of pocket calculator development. Since then there has been a
tremendous raise of work in this field and there appeared doz
ens of different microprocessors. Microprocessors are used pri
marily to replace or increase random logic design.
As it is known computer actually refers to a computing system including hardware (processor, I/O circuits, power supplies, control panel, etc.) and software (instruction manual, user's manual, assembler and diagnostic and service routines). Processor refers to the processing circuits: control processing unit, memory, interrupt unit, clock and timing. Most processors also include computer software.
Central processing unit — heart of the processor — consists of the register array, arithmetic and logical unit, control unit (including microROM), and bus control circuits. Microsoftware may also include microinstruction manual, microassembler, etc.
2. The very first microprocessors were fabricated using
PMOS technology. "Holes" in the p-type material having a low
mobility, those microprocessors were relatively slow devices.
Later, improved technology permitted microprocessors to be
constructed using n-type MOS and these microprocessors are
almost as fast as normal minicomputers.
Ш Unit 8. Central Processing Unit
Some microprocessors are now made using CMOS. The speed and logic density of CMOS are inferior to n-type MOS but the process does have some significant advantages. First of all, it has a low power consumption, power being consumed only when a logic element changes a state. Secondly, it can operate over a wide voltage range. As a result, electronics based on CMOS can operate successfully with "noisy5* power supplies* The low consumption makes it quite possible to use a simple battery to maintain the security of supply for several weeks. This type of microprocessor has clear advantages over the other types.
MOS (metal-oxide-semiconductor) — структура металл-оксид-полупроводник, МОП-структура
PMOS (p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor) — р-МОП-структура;
CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) — комплементарная МОП-структура (КМОП)
Unit 9 ^
1. Ознакомьтесь с терминами текста 1.
environment [m'vaisramsnt] — среда; окружение; режим работы;
external environment — внешняя среда
human-related ['hju:msn n'leitid] — (взаимо)связанный с
человеком human-independent — независимый от человека
remote terminal [n'mout Чэ:ттэ1] — удаленный терминал reel of magnetic tape — бобина с магнитной лентой
input-output interface — интерфейс (сопряжение, место стыковки) ввода-вывода
scan ['sksen] — просматривать; сканировать; развертывать
scanner ['sksena] — сканер; устройство оптического считывания
bar-code scanner / bar-code reader — устройство считывания штрих-кода
regardless of [n'gardbs sv] — несмотря на; независимо от
to match characteristics ['mastfkasrskta'ristiks] — сопоставлять параметры
similarly ['simibli] — подобным образом; также; аналогично
to fall between — падать; попадать в интервал между
card reader — устройство считывания платы (карты)
line printer — построчный принтер; принтер печатания строки
page printer — принтер с постраничной печатью character printer — принтер с посимвольной печатью optical character reader — оптическое считывающее устройство текста
113 Unit 9. Input-Ouput Units
optical mark reader — оптическое считывающее устройство знаков
visual display ['vizjual dis'plei]— визуальный индикатор
digitizer [did3i'taizs] — аналого-цифровой преобразователь; сканер
keyboard input device — клавишное устройство ввода plotter ['рЫэ] — графопостроитель
voice recognition and response unit — устройство распознавания голоса и реагирования
2. Прочтите текст и скажите, какие устройства относятся к сфере ввода-вывода информации.
Text 1. ^
Data and instructions must enter the data processing system, and information must leave it. These operations are performed by input and output (I/O) units that link the computer to its external environment.
The I/O environment may be human-related or human-independent. A remote banking terminal is an example of a human-related input environment, and a printer is an example of
Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 114
a device that produces output in a human-readable format. An example of a human-independent input environment is a device that measures traffic flow. A reel of magnetic tape upon which the collected data are stored in binary format is an example of a human-independent output.
^ Data enter input units in forms that depend upon the particular device used. For example, data are entered from a keyboard in a manner similar to typing, and this differs from the way that data are entered by a bar-code scanner. However, regardless of the forms in which they receive their inputs, all input devices must provide a computer with data that are transformed into the binary codes that the primary memory of the computer is designed to accept. This transformation is accomplished by units called I/O interfaces. Input interfaces are designed to match the unique physical or electrical characteristics of input devices to the requirements of the computer system. Similarly, when output is available, output interfaces must be designed to reverse the process and to adapt the output to the external environment. These I/O interfaces are also called channels or input-output processors*(IOP).
The major differences between devices are the media that they use and the speed with which they are able to transfer data to or from primary storage.
^ Input-output devices can be classified as high-speed, medium-speed, and low-speed. The devices are grouped according to their speed. It should be noted that the high-speed devices are entirely electronic in their operation or magnetic media that can be moved at high speed. Those highspeed devices are both input and output devices and are used as secondary storage. The low-speed devices are those with complex mechanical motion or operate at the speed of a human operator. The medium-speed devices are those that fall between — they tend to have mechanical moving parts which are more complex than the high-speed devices but not as complex as the low-speed.
^ magnetic disk; magnetic tape.
Medium-speed devices: card readers; line printers; page printers; computer output microfilms; magnetic diskette; optical character readers; optical mark readers; visual displays.
US Unit 9. Input-Ouput Units
Low-speed devices: bar-code readers; character printers; digitizers; keyboard input devices; plotters; voice recognition and response units.
3. Дайте ответы на следующие вопросы.
1. What is the purpose of input and output devices? 2. What types of input-output devices do you know? 3. Why are data transformed into a binary code while entering the input device?
4. Give an example of a human independent output. 5. What is
an I/O interface? 6. What are the major differences between the
various I/O devices? 7. What types of I/O devices tend to be
high-speed devices? 8. What types of devices tend to be low-
4. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих
Среда устройств ввода-вывода; система обработки информации; внешняя среда; связан с человеком; независим от человека; удаленный банковский терминал; измерять поток данных; бобина с магнитной лентой; хранить собранную информацию; двоичный формат; интерфейс ввода-вывода; вводить с клавиатуры; устройство считывания штрих-кода; не смотря на; преобразовать в двоичный код; сопоставлять параметры; подобным образом; интерфейс вывода; изменить процесс в обратном направлении; настроить устройство ввода-вывода к внешней среде; главное отличие; основная память; вторичная память; низкоскоростные устройства; в соответствии.
5. Вспомните значение новых слов и попытайтесь переве
сти словосочетания, употребляемые с этими словами.
Environment: application environment; communication environment; execution environment; external environment; hardware environment; interface invironment; management environment; multimedia environment; network environment; processing environment; security environment; software environment; user environment.
Interface: channel interface; common interface; data interface; database interface; display interface; external interface; flexible interface; floppy-disk interface; general-purpose interface; hardware interface; low-level interface.