Пособие рассчитано на учащихся средних школ, лицеев, гимназий, колледжей и студентов высших учебных заведе­ний всех, кто интересуется английским языком и увлека­ется компьютером. Удк 811. 111(07) ббк81. 2Англ-9 icon

Пособие рассчитано на учащихся средних школ, лицеев, гимназий, колледжей и студентов высших учебных заведе­ний всех, кто интересуется английским языком и увлека­ется компьютером. Удк 811. 111(07) ббк81. 2Англ-9


1 чел. помогло.
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Participle I, Participle II, Perfect
Participle Active и Perfect Participle
Passive.

1. Electromechanical memories depend upon moving me­chanical parts for their operation. 2. The time required for the computer to locate and transfer data to and from a storage me­dium is called the access time. 3. Being not visible software makes possible the effective operation of computer system. 4. Having invented magnetic tapes the Germans used them as the secondary storage medium. 5. When properly programmed computers don't make computational errors. 6. Having been in­troduced in the early 1960s magnetic disc storage has replaced magnetic tape storage. 7. The control unit interpreting instruc­tions is one of the important parts of any computer system. 8. Data recorded in the form of magnetized dots can be arranged to represent coded patterns of bits. 9. As contrasted with mag­netic tapes magnetic discs can perform both sequential and ran­dom processing. 10. While having no moving mechanical parts electronic memories can transfer data at very high speed.

14. Выполните письменный перевод текста по вариантам.

^ DIGITAL COMPUTER OPERATION

1. A digital computer is a machine capable of performing operations on data represented in digital or number form. The individual operations performed by a digital computer are very simple arithmetic or logical processes involving the manipula­tion of the bits in words or characters of information. The great power of any digital computer rests in the ability to store large volumes of data and to perform these operations at extremely high speed.

In most electronic digital computers the method of number representation is based on the system of binary notation. The binary notation system is most widely used because of the con­venience in constructing logical circuits and storage devices ca­pable of handling data in this form. For example, a magnetic memory unit consists of many thousand individual magnetic cells, each of which can be energized in either of two ways to represent the binary digits 0 or 1. If these cells are grouped to form words or binary coded characters, information can be

Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 94

stored for processing in units of specified size. In the same way, digital data can be recorded as a series of magnetized spots on a magnetic tape or a magnetic disk.

2. The computer has pervaded most fields of human activity and is the most important innovation of our age. Born out of the technology of communication, it is capable of handling enormous amounts of information at tremendous speeds. What makes it so potent is the fact that a single mechanism can per­form any information-processing task. The same mechanism can control industrial processes, guide space vehicles or help to teach children. This diversity of tasks is made possible by the simple idea of the stored program.

A program is the enumeration of determining commands. It specifies the method used for the solution of a problem in de­tail. When the machine is. in operation, both the commands and the numbers to be processed are constantly being taken out of and put into a depository of information known as a memory.

It can be seen that the processes performed by a digital com­puter are essentially simple. These operations can be performed at extremely high speeds and with a high degree of coordina­tion between the different functional units of the hardware sys­tem, and this ability means that digital computers can under­take highly complex tasks.

15. Прочтите внимательно текст. Составьте на английском языке план текста, выделив основные его темы. План можно составить в вопросной, назывной или тезисной форме. Познакомьтесь с образцами планов, представ­ленными после текста; сравните со своим планом.

MEMORY

It is interesting to note that memory, one of the basic com­ponents of the computer, is often called storage. It stores cal­culation program, the calculation formulae, initial data, inter­mediate and final results. Therefore, the functions of the computer memory may be classified in the following way. Firstly, the computer memory must store the information transmitted from the input and other devices. Secondly, memory should produce the information needed for the computation process to all other devices of the computer.

95 Unit 7. Storage

Generally, memory consists of two main parts called the main, primary or internal, memory and the secondary, or ex­ternal memory. The advantage of the primary memory is an extremely high speed. The secondary memory has a compara­tively low speed, but it is capable of storing far greater amount of information than the main memory. The primary storage takes a direct part in the computational process. The second­ary storage provides the information necessary for a single step in the sequence of computation steps.

The most important performance characteristics of a stor­age unit are speed, capacity and reliability. Its speed is measured in cycle time. Its capacity is measured by the number of ma­chine words or binary digits. Its reliability is measured by the number of failures (отказ) per unit of time.

План в вопросной форме.

  1. What is memory?

  2. What is the function of memory?

  3. What are the main parts of memory?

  4. What are advantages and disadvantages of a storage unit?

  5. What are their functions?

  6. What are performance characteristics of the main and
    secondary memory?

  7. What units are performance characteristics measured by?

План в назывной форме

  1. The definition of memory.

  2. The main functions of memoiy.

  3. Classification of memory.

  4. Advantages and disadvantages of memory components.

  5. The functions of memory components.

  6. Performance characteristics of memory.

  7. The units for measuring the performance characteristics
    of memory.

План в тезисной форме.

  1. Memory is one of the basic components of the comput­
    er.

  2. Memory stores initial data, intermediate and final results.

  3. It produces the information needed to other devices of
    the computer.

Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 96

  1. Memory consists of the main (internal) and the second­
    ary (external) storage.

  2. The main memory has high speed, but small capacity; the
    secondary memory possesses lower speed but greater ca­
    pacity.

  3. The main memory performs computation; the secondary
    memory provides information sequentially, step by step.

  4. The performance characteristics — speed, capacity and
    reliability — are measured by cycles, binary digits and the
    number of failures per unit of time.

TESTS 1. Вставьте вместо пропусков необходимые слова.

1. The time required for the computer to locate and transfer
data in the storage device is called the data time.

a) sequence; b) access; c) value

2. memories have no moving parts.

a) electronic; b) mechanical; c) electromechanical

3. Magnetic were the main elements used for pri­
mary memory in digital computers for many years.

a) cores; b) tapes; c) disks

4. is more commonly used for memory at present.

a) bipolar semiconductor; b) MOS; c) field-effect tran­sistor

5. Magnetic disks constitute the storage media.

a) internal; b) primary; c)secondary

6. Data are stored in codes in primary as well as in

secondary storage.

a) digital; b) binary; c) numerical

7. Data access time is in electronic memories than

that in electromechanical memories.

a) longer; b) much longer; c) shorter

8. Electronic memories have capacities for data stor-

age.

a) more; b) larger; c) less

97 Unit 7. Storage

2. Согласуйте слова левой колонки с их интерпретацией, предложенной справа.

1. Primary a) one of the performance characteris-

tics of storage measured in binary digits;

2. Secondary b) memory that has random access to

the information;

  1. Magnetic disc c) combination of units of information;

  2. Binary codes d) the main method of secondary stor-

age performing both sequential and random storage;

5. RAM e) area of memory where protected pro-

grams can be read from but not writ­ten on;

6. Bit f) a fixed number of consecutive bits

representing a character;

7. Byte g) the principal flexible second storage

circuit element;

8. ROM h) part of memory having lower speed

but greater capacity;

9. Floppy i) a unit of information or binary digit;

10. Capacity . j) the most expensive part of memory

having the least capacity and the fast­est access time.

Unit 8 ^ CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT

1 Ознакомьтесь с терминами текста 1.

central processing unit (CPU) - центральный процессор

(ЦП)

interchangeably [,mt3'tfemd33bli] - взаимозаменяемым

образом

precisely [pn'saish] — точно

internal memory - внутренняя память; внутреннее ЗУ activity [sk'tiviti] - деятельность; работа; действия опе­рации to issue ['isju:] - посылать (сигнал); выводить, выдавать

(сообщение) response [n'spons] - ответ; отклик; реакция; отвечать;

реагировать

to interprete [m'tspnt] - интерпретировать; истолковы­вать;

according to [a'bdin ts] - согласно; в соответствии с level - уровень; степень; мера; выравнивать input-output port - порт ввода-вывода control unit (CU) [bn'troul 'ju:nit] - устройство управ­ления arithmetic-logical unit (ALU) - арифметико-логическое

устройство

switch ['switJl - переключатель; коммутатор; переклю­чать; переходить direct [di'rekt] - направлять; адресовать; указывать;

прямой; непосредственный step-by-step operations - пошаговые операции to select [ss'lekt] - выбирать; выделять (на экране) on the other hand - с другой стороны exponentiation [ekspe'nenji'eifn] - возведение в степень

99 Unit 8. Central Processing Unit

call for — требовать; предусматривать

to load ['loud] — загружать; выполнять загрузку

2. Прочтите текст и скажите, какой компонент составля­ет сердце компьютерной системы и в чем заключается его функция.

Text 1. ^ CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT

It is well known in computer science that the words 'com­puter' and 'processor' are used interchangeably. Speaking more precisely, 'computer* refers to the central processing unit (CPU) together with an internal memory. The internal memory, con­trol and processing components make up the heart of the com­puter system. Manufactures design the CPU to control and carry out basic instructions for their particular computer.

The CPU coordinates all the activities of the various com­ponents of the computer. It determines which operations should be carried out and in what order. The CPU controls the opera­tion of the entire system by issueing commands to other parts of the system and by acting on responses. When required it reads information from the memory, interprets instructions, performs operations on the data according to the instructions, writes the results back into the memory and moves information between memory levels or through the input-output ports.

In4igital computers the CPU can be divided into two func­tional units called the control unit (CU) and the arithmetic-log­ical unit (ALU). These two units are made up of electronic cir­cuits with millions of switches that can be in one of two states, either on or off.

The function of the CU within the central processor is to transmit coordinating control signals and commands. The con­trol unit is that part of the computer that directs the sequence of step-by-step operations of the system, selects instructions and data from memory, interprets the program instructions, and controls the flow between main storage and the arithmetic-log­ical unit.

The ALU, on the other hand, is that part of the computer in which the actual arithmetic operations, namely, addition, subtraction* multiplication, division and exponentiation, called for in the instructions are performed.





Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 100

Programs and the data on which the CU and the ALU op­erate, must be in internal memory in order to be processed. Thus, if located in secondary memory devices, such as disks or tapes, programs and data are first loaded into internal memory.

3. Просмотрите текст еще раз. Ответьте на вопросы, ис­
пользуя информацию текста.


1. What words in computer science are used interchangeably and why? 2. What components make up the heart of the com­puter system. 3. What is the function of the CPU? 4. In what way does the CPU control the operation of the whole system? 5. Name the sequence of operations the CPU performs (use five verbs). 6. What are the CPU functional units made of? 7. What is the function of the CU? 8. What operations are performed in the ALU? 9. Where are data processed? 10. Where are data to be processed loaded into?

^ 4. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих
словосочетаний:


Хорошо известно; к компьютеру относятся; внутренняя память; составлять суть; выполнять; координировать дея­тельность; определяя в каком порядке; управлять работой всей системы; при необходимости; в соответствии с ко­мандами; уровни памяти; порт ввода-вывода; переключа­тели; режим включения или выключения; передавать сиг­налы; указывать последовательность пошаговых операций; основная память; управлять ходом выполнения програм-

101 Unit 8. Central Processing Unit

мы; с другой стороны; выполнять вычитание, сложение, воз­ведение в степень, деление, умножение; для того чтобы.

^ 5. Вспомните значение новых слов и попытайтесь переве­сти словосочетания, употребляемые с этими словами.

Direction: backward direction; clockwise direction; counter­clockwise direction; data direction; forward direction; inverse / reverse direction; negative direction; positive direction; print­ing direction; transmission direction.

Level: access level; application level; data level; device level; difficulty level; error level; function level; hardware level; high level; input level; output level; performance level; presentation level; program level; protection level; resource level; security level; software level; structural level; system level; transmisson level.

Processor: arithmetic processor; central processor; command processor; control processor; data processor; error processor; general-purpose processor; special-purpose processor; image processor; language processor; mail processor; message proces­sor; numeric processor; parallel processor; peripheral processor; text processor.

Switch: to switch between programs; to switch between win­dows; to switch disks; to switch on; to switch off; to switch over; binary switch; command switch.

Step: conversion step; final step; procedure step; program step; programming step; step by step; one step at a time; to step down; to step out; to step up; to take steps.

^ 6. Переведите предложения, содержащие независимый
причастный оборот.


1. Data being accessed randomly, semiconductor memories are called random access memory (RAM). 2. The information capacity of a single bit being limited to two alternatives, codes are based on combination of bits. 3. Primary storage having similarity to a function of the human brain, the storage is also called mem­ory. 4. An electron leaving the surface, the metal becomes pos­itively charged. 5. Computer system architecture being organized around the primary storage unit, all instructions must pass through it. 6. Computer system architecture is organized around the primary storage unit, all instructions passing through it.

7. Electromechanical memories depend upon moving mechan-

Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 102

ical parts, their data access time being longer than is that of elec­tronic memories. 8. For this reason most computer systems use electronic memory for primary storage, electromechanical mem­ory being used for secondary storage. 9. Large capacity tape de­vices are used with large data processing systems, cassettes and cartridges being applied with small systems. 10. The CPU con­trols the operation of the entire system, commands being issued to other parts of the system.

^ 7. Ознакомьтесь с терминами текста 2.

to manage ['таешёз] — управлять; организовывать;

справляться to obtain [ab'tein] — получать; достигать; добиваться

to cause — заставлять; вынуждать; вызывать; быть при­чиной; причина, основание

flow ['flou] — поток; ход (выполнения программы); пос­ледовательность

counter ['kauntaj — счетчик

register [rred3isto] — регистр; устройство регистрации; счетчик; датчик

instruction register — регистр команд

storage register — регистр памяти; запоминающий ре­гистр

address register — адресный регистр

temporarily [ЧетрэгэпЬ] — временно

decoder [di'kouda] — дешифратор

operand address [ops'raind a'dres] — адрес (хранения) опе­ранда

mark ['mak] — отметка; маркер; знак; помечать; обозна­чать; выделять

timing mark — отметка времени

accumulate [s'kjimyuleit] — накапливать(ся); суммиро­вать; собирать(ся)

accumulator — сумматор; накапливающий регистр; ус­тройство суммирования

compare [кэт'рсэ] — сравнивать; соотноситься

^ 103 Unit & Central Processing Unit

comparer [кэт'реэгэ] — компаратор; устройство сравне­ния

content ['kontsnt]— содержимое; смысл; объем; количе­ство

involve [in'volv] — включать; содержать; заключать (в себе)

core ['ka] — суть; основная часть; ядро; оперативная память

add feed] — складывать; суммировать; прибавлять; при­соединять

added — добавочный; дополнительный adder — сумматор; блок суммирования at least — по крайней мере

8. Прочтите текст и скажите, о каких компонентах цент­рального процессора и их назначении вы узнали. Переведите текст.

Text 2. ^ THE CPU MAIN COMPONENTS

As it is known the two functional units of the CPU are the control unit (CU) and the arithmetic-logical unit (ALU). The control unit manages and coordinates the entire computer sys­tem. It obtains instructions from the program stored in main memory, interprets the instructions, and issues signals that cause other units of the system to execute them.

The control unit operates by reading one instruction at a time from memory and taking the action called for by each instruc­tion. In this way it controls the flow between the main storage and the arithmetic-logical unit.

The control unit has the following components: a counter that selects the instructions, one at a time, from memory; a reg­ister that temporarily holds the instructions read from memory while it is being executed; a decoder that takes the coded instruc­tion and breaks it down into individual commands necessary to carry it out; a clock, which produces marks at regular intervals. These timing marks are electronic and very rapid.

The sequence of control unit operations is as follows. The next instruction to be executed is read out from primary stor-




Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 104

age into the storage register. The instruction is passed from the storage register to the instruction register. Then the operation part of the instruction is decoded so that the proper arithmetic or logical operation can be performed. The address of the op­erand is sent from the instruction register to the address regis­ter. At last the instruction counter register provides the address register with the address of the next instruction to be executed.

^ The arithmetic-logical unit (AL U) executes the processing op­erations called for by the instructions brought from main mem­ory by the control unit. Binary arithmetic, the logical operations and some special functions are performed by the arithmetical-logical unit.

Data enter the ALU and return to main storage through the storage register. The accumulator serving as a register holds the results of processing operations. The results of arithmetic op­erations are returned to the accumulator for transfer to main storage through the storage register. The comparer performs log­ical comparisons of the contents of the storage register and the accumulator. Typically, the comparer tests for conditions such as "less than", "equal to", or "greater than".

So as you see the primary components of the arithmetic-log­ical unit are banks of bistable devices, which are called regis­ters. Their purpose is to hold the numbers involved in the cal­culation and hold the results temporarily until they can be tranferred to memory. At the core of the ALU is a very high-

105 Unit 8. Central Processing Unit

speed binary adder, which is used to carry out at least the four basic arithmetic functions (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division). The logical unit consists of electronic circuitry which compares information and makes decisions based upon the results of the comparison.

9. Ответьте на вопросы, используя информацию текста.

1. What are the functional units of CPU? 2. What is the func­tion of CU? 3. How does CU operate? 4. What is the function of a counter? 5. What role does a decoder play? 6. What is the sequence of CU operations? 7. What is the function of the arith­metic-logical unit? 8. What operations are performed by ALU?

9. What primary components does ALU consist of? 10. What is
the function of an accumulator / comparer?

10. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих
словосочетаний:

Функциональные блоки; устройство управления; ариф­метико-логическое устройство; управлять работой всей системы; получать команды; основная память; посылать сигналы; считывать команды поэтапно; таким образом; временно сохранять информацию; производить пометки через равные промежутки времени; последовательность операций; регистр памяти; регистр команд; адресный ре­гистр; счетчик; датчик; дешифратор; адрес операнда; ад­ресный регистр, высокоскоростной двоичный сумматор; по крайней мере; вычитание; сложение; умножение; деле­ние; принимать решения; результаты сравнения.

П. Вспомните значение новых слов и попытайтесь пере­вести словосочетания, употребляемые с этими словами.

Register, address register; base register; clock register; com­mand / instruction register; counter register; CPU register; hard­ware register; input / output register; memory register; operand register; general-purpose register; special-purpose register.

Counter binary counter; character counter; data counter; instruction counter; pulse counter; sequence counter; storage counter; software counter; time-out counter.

Selection: color selection; directory selection; drive selection; file selection; function selection; keyboard selection; menu se­lection; security selection.

Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 106

Management: data management; database management; disk management; error management; information management; memory management; network management; resource manage­ment; task management; window management.

12. Найдите в текстах 1 и 2 слова, близкие по значению
следующим:

Verbs: to work; to control; to receive; to keep; to send; to perform; to demand; to choose; to supply; to pass; to name; to include; to apply; to come back; to found; to explain; to form; to define; to arrange.

Nouns: computer; answer; commands; memory; element; device; information; state; aim; heart; solution; computation.

Adjectives: main; whole; separate; quick; correct; large; main (storage); following; every; following; specific; different; real.

13. Сравните и проанализируйте предложения, содержа­
щие зависимый и независимый причастные обороты.
Переведите их.

  1. Having returned to the accumulator the results of arith­
    metic operations are transferred to main storage. The results of
    arithmetic operations are returned to the accumulator, the stor­
    age register transfering them to main mamory. The results of
    arithmetic operations being returned to the accumulator, the
    storage register transfer them to main memory. Being returned
    to the accumulator the results of arithmetic operations are trans­
    ferred to main memory.

  2. When passing through a conductor free electrons form an
    electric current. Free electrons passing through a conductor, an
    electric current is generated. Free electrons pass through a con­
    ductor, an electric current being generated. Free electrons pass­
    ing through a conductor form an electric current.

3 Instructions being obtained, the control unit causes other units to perform the necessary operations. Instructions are ob­tained, the control unit causes other units to perform the oper­ations. Having obtained the instructions the control unit caus­es other units to perform the operations. Obtaining the instructions the control unit causes other units to perform the operations.

4. The elements having unknown properties cannot be used for experiments. The elements have unknown properties, exper-

107 Unit 8. Central Processing Unit

iments with these elements being impossible. Having unknown properties the elements cannot be used for experiments. The elements having unknown'properties, experiments with them are impossible.

5. When moving in a material charged particles (заряженные частицы) produce magnetic properties (свойства) of this ma­terial. Charged particles moving in a material produce magnet­ic properties. Charged particles moving in a material, magnetic properties of this material are produced. Charged particles move in a material, magnetic properties of the material being pro­duced.

14. Прочтите внимательно текст и составьте к нему план в назывной форме. Прочтите текст еще раз, разверни­те пункты плана и составьте реферат на английском языке, озаглавьте текст.

*•* cjK

It is known that one of the fundamental parts of the com­puter is a control unit. This unit controls the computation pro­cess automatically, without man's participation. It sends signals to all other parts of the computer to specify what they must do. First of all, the control unit tells the main memory what data must be transferred to the arithmetic-logical unit and other de­vices. Then it enables the arithmetic-logical unit to perform the required operation. Finally, it places the obtained results in the main memory.

It is important to note that the control unit operation is de­termined by an algorithm of a problem solution. The algorithm is a sequence of arithmetic and logical operations. These oper­ations must be performed on the initial data for solving the prob­lem.

Description of an algorithm in a form acceptable by a com­puter is called a program. A program is a list of sequential com­puter instructions enabling a computer to solve a problem. In order to be acceptable by the computer instructions must be encoded into a digital form.

In conclusion it should be pointed out that the main feature of a computer is automatic control of the problem solution pro­cess. It is based on the programmed-control principle.

Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 108

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