|Participle I и|
Participle II, в функции обстоятельства.
1. When entering the Internet, I always find a lot of interesting information. 2. Though never built Babbage's analytical engine was the basis for designing today's computers. 3. When written in a symbolic language programs require the translation into the machine language. 4. While operating on the basis of analogy analog computers simulate physical systems. 5. When used voltage represents other physical quantities in analog computers. 6. Being discrete events commercial transactions are in
Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 60
a natural form for a digital computer. 7. As contrasted with the analyst, the computer system architect designs computers for many different applications. 8. While dealing with discrete quantities digital computers count rather than measure. 9. When using a microcomputer you are constantly making choice — to open a file, to close a file, and so on. 10. As known all computer systems perform the functions of inputting, storing, processing, controlling, and outputting.
7. Ознакомьтесь с терминами текста 2.
hardware ['hcudwes] — аппаратное обеспечение; аппаратура; оборудование
software ['softwea] — программное обеспечение; программные средства
system software — системное программное обеспечение
application software — прикладное программное обеспечение
firmware ['faimwea] — встроенное /микропроцессорное программное обеспечение
visible units ['vizibl 'jirnits] — видимый блок, устройство procedure [pra'SKd&d] — процедура, процесс; метод, методика; алгоритм
to associate [s'soujieit] — соединять; объединять; связывать
associated documentation — соответствующая документация
to execute applications programs — выполнять прикладные программы
payroll ['peiroul] — платежная ведомость
inventory control [m'ventsn ksn'troul] — инвентаризация; переучет
investment analyses [s'nsehsiz] — анализ инвестиций (капиталовложений)
to protect [pfa'tekt] — защищать
read-only memory (ROM) — постоянное запоминающее устройство (ПЗУ)
to refer to [лТэ:] — относиться к; ссылаться на
61 Unit 5. Computer Systems: An Overview
to substitute ['sAbstitjmt] — заменять; замещать
to cause ['ko:z] — заставлять, вынуждать; причина, основание
to accomplish [s'komplij] — завершать, заканчивать; выполнять, осуществлять
performance [ps'foimans] — производительность; быстродействие; рабочая характеристика
8. Прочтите текст 2 и объясните, как вы понимаете термины «аппаратное обеспечение» и «программное обеспечение». Переведите текст.
Text 2. ^
The units that are visible in any computer are the physical components of a data processing system, or hardware. Thus, the input, storage, processing and control devices are hardware. Not visible is the software — the set of computer programs, procedures, and associated documentation that make possible the effective operation of the computer system. Software programs are of two types: systems software and applications software.
Systems software are the programs designed to control the operation of a computer system. They do not solve specific problems. They are written to assist people in the use of the computer system by performing tasks, such as controlling all of the operations required, to move data into and out of a computer and all of the steps in executing an application program. The person who prepares systems software is referred to as a systems programmer. Systems programmers are highly trained specialists and important members of the architectural team.
^ are the programs written to solve specific problems (applications), such as payroll, inventory control, and investment analysis. The word program usually refers to an application program, and the word programmer is usually a person who prepares applications software.
Often programs, particularly systems software, are stored in an area of memory not used for applications software. These protected programs are stored in an area of memory called readonly memory (ROM), which can be read from but not written on.
Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 62
Firmware is a term that is commonly used to describe certain programs that are stored in ROM. Firmware often refers to a sequence of instructions (software) that is substituted for hardware. For example, in an instance where cost is more important than performance, the computer system architect might decide not to use special electronic circuits (hardware) to multiply two numbers, but instead write instructions (software) to cause the machine to accomplish the same function by repeated use of circuits already designed to perform addition.
9. Ответьте на вопросы, используя информацию текста.
1. What is hardware? 2. Give the definition of software. 3. What are the types of software? 4. What are systems software? 5. What kind of tasks do systems software perform? 6. Who prepares systems software? 7. What are applications software? 8. What problems do applications software solve? 9. What is firmware? 10. How can a computer system architect use firmware?
Видимые устройства; система обработки данных; аппаратное обеспечение; набор компьютерных программ; соответствующая документация; эффективная работа; системное программное обеспечение; прикладное программное обеспечение; системный программист; платежная ведомость; переучет; анализ инвестиций; прикладная программа; работающий только в режиме чтения; постоянное запоминающее устройство; последовательность команд; в случае; производительность; электронная цепь; умножать числа; заставить машину выполнять ту же функцию; выполнять сложение.
Architecture: communication architecture; computer architecture; disk architecture; microprocessor architecture; network architecture; security architecture; system architecture; virtual architecture.
Software: system software; application software; database software; disk software; educational software; game software; management software; simulation software.
63 Unit 5. Computer Systems: An Overview
Hardware: computer hardware; device hardware; display hardware; memory hardware; mouse hardware; network hardware; system hardware; video hardware.
Procedure: accounting procedure; computational procedure; control procedure; data-processing procedure; decision procedure; error-correcting procedure; formatting procedure; installation procedure; management procedure; solution procedure.
Protection: computer protection; data protection; device protection; display protection; error protection; hardware protection; software protection; resource protection; security protection; system protection; virus protection.
12. Озаглавьте каждый компонент текста и составьте небольшой реферат к нему (по вариантам).
1. In 1948 due to the invention of transistors there appeared
the possibility to replace vacuum tubes. The transistor occupied
an important place on the way to computer development. The
potential advantage of the transistor over the vacuum tube was
almost as great as that of the vacuum tube over the relay. A tran
sistor can switch flows of electricity as fast as the vacuum tubes
used in computers, but the transistors use much less power than
equivalent vacuum tubes, and are considerably smaller. Transis
tors are less expensive and more reliable.They were mechani
cally rugged, had practically unlimited life and could do some
jobs better than electronic tubes. Transistors were made of crys-
tallic solid material called semiconductor.
With the transistor came the possibility of building computers with much greater complexity and speed.
2. The integrated circuit constituted another major step in
the development of computer technology. Until 1959 the
fundamental logical components of digital computers were the
individual electrical switches, first in the form of relays, then
vacuum tubes, then transistors. In the vacuum tubes and relay
stages, additional discrete components, such as resistors,
inductors, and capacitors were required in order to make the
whole system work. These components were generally each
about the same size as packaged transistors. Integrated circuit
Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 64
technology permitted the elimination of some of these components and integration of most of the others on the same chip of semiconductor that contains the transistor. Thus the basic logic element — the switch, or "flip-flop', which required two separate transistors and some resistors and capacitors in the early 1950s, could be packaged into a single small unit in 1960. The chip was an important achievement in the accelerating step of computer technology.
3. In 1974 a company in New Mexico, called Micro Instrumentation Telemetry System (MITS) developed the Altair 8800, a personal computer (PC) in a kit. The Altair had no keyboard, but a panel of switches with which to enter the information. Its capacity was less than one per cent that of the 1991 Hewlett-Packard handheld computer. But the Altair led to a revolution in computer electronics that continues today. Hardware manufacturers soon introduced personal computers, and software manufacturers began developing software to allow the computers to process words, manipulate data, and draw. During the 1980s computers became progressively smaller, better and cheaper.
Today the personal computer can serve as a work station for the individual. A wide array of computer functions are now accessible to people with no technical background.
13. Поменяйтесь вариантами и выполните письменный перевод упр. 12.
1. Подберите вместо пропусков подходящее по смыслу слово
1. Computers and their equipment are designed by
a computer system architect.
a) engineering;^)! accessory: c) specific
2. Digital computers use numbers instead of analogous phys-
a) symbols; b) equipment; c) quantities
3. Systems are usualy stored in read-only memory.
a) hardware; b) software; c) firmware
65 Unit 5. Computer Systems: An Overview
4. A computer is a machine with a complex network of elec-
tronic that operate switches.
a) circuits; b) cores; c) characters
5. In modern electronic computers the is the device
that acts as a switch.
a) integrated circuit; b) diode; c) transistor
6. A number of actions that convert data into useful infor-
mation is defined as .
a) data; b) processing; c) data processing
7. Computers can store, organize and retrieve great amounts
of information, far beyond the of humans.
a) capacities; b) capabilities; c) accuracy
8. The analyst a computer for solving problems,
while the computer system architect computers.
a) requires; b) designs; c) uses
9. The use of computers will continue to increase
with the growth in applications of microprocessors and minicomputers.
a) analog; b) digital; c) hybrid
10. The development of third generation computers became
possible due to the invention of .
a) integrated circuits; b) electronic tubes; c) transistors
1. Computer a) a combination of interconnected
circuit elements produced in a chip to perform a definite function
2. Analog computer b) a sequence of instructions en-
abling the computer to solve a given task
3. Digital computer c) a tiny piece of silicon containing
1 complex electronic circuits used
inside all computers
4. Hardware d) a system which processes and
stores great amount of data solving problems of numerical computation
Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 66
5. Software e) a device which can carry out rou-
tine mental tasks by performing simple operations at high speed
6. Program f) electronic and mechanical equip-
ment in a computer system
7. Programming g) a set of programs, procedures and
8. Integrated circuit h) the process of preparation a set of
coded instructions for a computer
9. Chip i) a device that has input and output
represented in the form of physical quantities
10. Transistor j) a small piece of a semiconductor
that greatly reduced power consumption of a circuit
3. Раскройте скобки, употребляя:
Л. Правильную неличную форму глагола
1. Computing is a concept (embraced;embracing; for embracing) not only arithmetics, but also computer literacy. 2. We can make the computer do what we want (inputted; to input; by inputting) signals (turning; turned; without turning) switches on and off. 3. Computers have a means (by communicating; of communicating; communicated) with the user. 4. Computers work according to the instructions (giving; given; to give) to it by users. 5. The transistor (inventing; invented; for inventing) in 1948 completely changed the vacuum tubes.
Б. Глагол в действительном или страдательном залоге
1. Computers (applied; are applied; are applying) for automatic piloting and automatic navigation. 2. The programs (write; have written; are written) to help people in the use of the computer system. 3. As digital computers (count; counted; are counted) quickly, they widely (use; used; are used) in business data processing. 4. Once data (entered; have entered; have been entered) correctly into the data processing system, the possibility of error (reduced; is reduced; are reduced). 5. It is known that an analyst (use; uses; is used) a computer to solve specific problems.
67 Unit 5. Computer Systems: An Overview
4. Прочтите текст и выберите правильные ответы на поставленные ниже вопросы к тексту.
As it is well known, Russian scientists made great contribution into the development of computers. Russian mathematician P. Chebyshev who lived in the 19th century was interested in calculators. Among many other mechanisms invented by him there was an arithmometer designed in 1876. It was one of the most unique calculating machines of the time. At the beginning of the 20th century Academic A.Krylov constructed a mechanical integrator for solving differential equations.
The first Soviet computer, a small-size computing machine (MESM) was tested in 1950 under Academician S.Lebedev. Next year it was put into operation. In a year MESM was followed by BESM, a large-size electronic computing machine, with 8000 operations per second.
Serial production of computers in the USSR has been started since 1953. That year U.Basilevsky headed the design and manufacture of computer STRELA. 1958 witnessed the production of Ы-.20, computers of the first generation under the guidance of S.Lebedev. The first generation of electron tube computers was followed by the second generation of foto transistor computers, using magnetic logic elements.
Starting with 1964 semiconductor computers —
Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 68
URAL, BESM-4 and M-220 were produced. Under Academician Glushkov small-size computers MIR, MIR-2 and DNEPR were designed and tested at the Institute of Cybernetics.
In the late 60s together with other members of the Council of Mutual Economic Assistance the Soviet Union started on the program of Unified Computer System, the program concerned with the third generation of computers with high-speed performance and program compatibility (совместимость).
1. What was one of the first achievements in the sphere of
calculating in Russia?
a) calculator; b) arithmometer; c) mechanical integrator
a) A.Krylov; b) S.Lebedev; c) U. Basilevsky
4. Which machine was the first in the development of the first
a) MESM; b) STRELA; с) М-20
5. When did the production of the third generation comput-
a) late 60s; b) early 70s; c) late 70s
I. Quiz-game "What do you know about computers?" (Who is the first to give the right answers to the questions below?)
69 Unit 5. Computer Systems: An Overview
9. What is the essence of the integrated circuit?
15. Who gave the ideas for producing logarithm tables? 16.. Who invented the first calculating machine?
20- In what fields were the first computers used? 2JU When was the first analog computer build? 22^ What was the name of the first digital computer? f3T)Who built the first digital computer? 24Г What is ENIAC? Decode it.
30. What is the basis of the fourth computer generation?
5T) What is a computer?
"32. What are the main junciiom-of the computers?
$f& Name four advantages of computer data processing.
Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 70
II. Lexical games
Fill in the squares with nouns upon the models
71 Unit 5. Computer Systems: An Overview
1. A more favourable position; gain or benefit. 2. The fol
lowing one thing after another. 3. Examination, experiment or
trial. ^. The process opposite to multiplication. 5. The heart,
the central part of anything. 6. The science dealing with micro-
circuits. 7. Thickness, compactness; example: packing .
8. Application. 9. The doing smth; state of being in motion. 10. To put in writing, to print for future use. 11. Goal, purpose. 12. Memory. 13. Advantage, help; anything contributing to an improvement in condition. 14. Intelligence, mental ability. 15. Method or manner of doing something. 16. Display. 17. A tiny crystall, containing an integrated circuit.
1. Information. 2. Help. 3. Reply, answer or reaction. 4. A group of elements. 5. A unit keeping information. 6. Approach; means of approaching, getting. 7. A style or design; imitation of an existing object. 8. Different form of some thing; condition or quality. 9. A mistake.10. A switch. 11. A fitting together of parts to make a whole. 12. Rate. 13. A model; cliche; standard. 14. A system of symbols used for entering data into the computer. 15. A branch of systematized knowledge of nature. 16. An attempt; a hard try. 17. A device. 18. An example, a sample, a model.
1. Ознакомьтесь с терминами текста 1.
operation [apa'reifn] — операция; работа; действие; срабатывание
to relate [n'leit] — связывать; устанавливать отношения a broad view ['bro:d 'vju:] — широкий взгляд, обзор
unit I'jumit] — устройство; модуль, блок; узел; элемент; ячейка
input — ввод; устройство ввода; вводить; подавать на вход
to insert [m'sa:t] — вставлять; вносить; включать storage memory — память; запоминающее устройство available [a'veibbl] — доступный; имеющийся в наличии at the appropriate time — в нужное время
arithmetic-logical unit — арифметико-логическое устройство
output — вывод; устройство вывода; выводить; подавать на выход
to remove [n'mu:v] — удалять; устранять; вынимать; исключать
control unit — блок управления
cause ['ko:z]— заставлять; вынуждать; быть причиной; причина; основание
to feed (fed, fed) — подавать; питать; вводить (данные)
to interpret [m'tapnt] — интерпретировать; истолковывать
to issue commands ['isju: ka'marndz] — выдавать команды pulse — no-pulse — (есть) импульс — холостой импульс
73 Unit 6. Functional Organization of the Computer
2. Прочтите текст и назовите основные функциональные блоки компьютера и их назначение.
Text 1. ^
As we know, all computer operations can be grouped into five functional categories. The method in which these five functional categories are related to one another represents the functional organization of a digital computer. By studying the functional organization, a broad view of the computer is received.
The five major functional units of a digital computer are:
Figure 5 shows how the five functional units of the computer act together. A complete set of instructions and data are usually fed through the input equipment to the memory where they are stored. Each instruction is then fed to the control unit. The control unit interprets the instructions and issues commands to the other functional units to cause operations to be performed on the data. Arithmetic operations are performed in the arithmetic-logical unit, and the results are then fed back to the mem-
Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 74
огу. Information may be fed from either the arithmetic unit or the memory through the output equipment to the outside world. The five units of the computer must communicate with each other. They can do this by means of a machine language which uses a code composed of combinations of electric pulses. These pulse combinations are usually represented by zeros and ones, where the one may be a pulse and the zero — a no-pulse. Numbers are communicated between one unit and another by means of these one-zero or pulse — no-pulse combinations. The input has the additional job of converting the information fed in by the operator into machine language. In other words, it tran-saltes from our language into the pulse — no-pulse combinations understandable to the computer. The output's additional job is converting the pulse — no-pulse combinations into a form understandable to us, such as a printed report.
1. What represents the functional organization of a computer? 2. What can we get by studying the functional organization?
3. What is the function of the input device? 4. What does mem
ory serve for? 5. What is the task of the arithmetic-logical unit?
6. What is the function of the output? 7. What is the main pur
pose of the control unit? 8. How do all units of the computer
communicate with each other? 9. What is the additional job of
the input? 10. What is the additional function of the output?
4. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих
Функциональная организация; действия компьютера; связывать друг с другом; вводить информацию извне; делать информацию доступной; выполнять вычисления; выводить информацию; блок управления; выдавать команды; заставлять выполнять команды; выходное устройство; внешний мир; связываться друг с другом; комбинация электрических импульсов; холостой импульс; импульсы, распознаваемые компьютером.
75 Unit 6. Functional Organization of the Computer
5. Разделите приведенные ниже слова на три группы, оп
ределяя по суффиксу часть речи — существительное,
прилагательное или наречие. Переведите слова.
Organization, functional, available, equipment, processor,-Cbmpletely, architectural, converter, convertible, controller, removable, logical, addition, additional, usually, accomplishment, operator, operation, mainly, communication, insertion, electronic, digital, instruction, generally, arithmetic, daily", development, central, lately, visible, substitution, understandable.
Computer, analog computer; digital computer; hybrid computer; all-purpose computer; general-purpose computer; fifth-generation computer; game computer; handheld computer; mobile computer; multimedia computer; notebook computer; pocket computer; portable computer.
Unit: unit of memory; unit of data; unit of measurement; arithmetic unit; arithmetic-logical unit; central processing unit; computing unit; control unit; functional unit; input unit; output unit; network unit; system unit.
Function: arithmetic function; checking function; complex function; computer function; continuous function; conversion function; distribution function; encoding function; logical function; numeric function; output function; program function; search function; software function; support function; utility function; variable function.
Control: access control; batch control; coding control; distance / remote control; error control; execution control; hardware control; input/output control; memory control; power control; production control; program control; rate control; self-acting control; software control; system control.
A. Small; fast; new; long; late; wide; young; easy; great; dull;
rich; bulky; large; vast; early; old; broad.
B. Frequent; reliable; approximate; significant; intricate;
possible; basic; remarkable; common; modern; dependent; gen
eral; necessary; successful; scientific; universal.
С Good; bad; little; many.
77 Unit 6. Functional Organization of the Computer
Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 76
large-scale — большой; крупномасштабный flip-flop — триггер circuit ['ss:kit] — цепь; контур; схема employ [im'ploi] — использовать; употреблять; применять
logic gates — логический элемент; схема пропускания (сигналов); проход
feasible — возможный; выполнимый; осуществимый
interpret orders — интерпретировать, истолковывать команды
operate switches — приводить в действие переключатели
convey [kan'vei] — передавать; сообщать
in response to — в ответ на
correct operand — нужный операнд
original input data — исходная вводимая информация
proceed [pra'si:d] — продолжать(ся); возобновлять(ся); действовать
room — (свободное) место; свободная память
9. Прочтите текст 2 и скажите, какую дополнительную
информацию вы узнали о действии основных устройств
Text 2. ^
It should be noticed that even in a large-scale digital system, such as in a computer, or in a data-processing, control or digital-communication system, there are only a few basic operations which must be performed. These operations may be operated many times. The four circuits most commonly employed in such systems are known as the OR, AND, NOT and FLIP-FLOP. They are called logic gates or circuits.
An electronic digital computer is a system which processes and stores very large amount of data and which solves scientific
problems of numerical computations of such complexity and with such speed that solution by human calculation is not feasible. So the computer as a system can perform numerical computations and follow instructions with extreme speed but it cannot program itself.
\\fe know that the numbers and the instructions which form the program, the computer is to follow, are stored in an essential part of the computer called the memory. The second important unit of the computer is the control whose function is to interpret orders. The control must convert the command into an appropriate set of voltages to operate switches and carry out the instructions conveyed by the order. The third basic element of a computer is the arithmetic device, which contains the circuits performing the arithmetic computations: addition, subtraction, etc. The control and arithmetic components are called the central processor. Finally a computer requires appropriate input-output devices for inserting numbers and orders into the memory and for reading the final result.
Suppose a command to perform an addition or division has been transmitted to the central processor. In response to this order the control must select the correct operands from the memory, transmit them to the arithmetic unit and return to the
Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 78
memory the result of the computation. The memory serves for storing not only the original input data, but also the partial results which will have to be used again as the computation proceeds.
Lastly, if the computation doesn't stop with the execution of this instruction and the storage of the partial result, the control unit must automatically pass on to the next instruction. The connection of the control unit back to the input permits insertion of more data when there is room in the memory.
79 Unit & Functional Organization of the Computer
1. What are the most commonly used circuits in any computer? 2. How are they called? 3. What kind of a system is a digital computer? 4. Is there anything that a computer cannot do itself? What is it? 5. Where are the instructions and digits stored? 6. What is the function of the control? 7. What does the arithmetic device serve for? 8. What components form the central processor? 9. What other devices in addition to the above-mentioned ones does a computer require? 10. How are computations performed in a computer?
Крупномасштабная цифровая система; система обработки данных; система цифровой связи; наиболее широко распространенные схемы; логические схемы; решать научные проблемы; выполнять числовые вычисления; интерпретировать команды; приводить в действие переключатели; выполнять команды; нуждаться (требовать) в необходимом устройстве ввода-вывода; введение чисел и команд; считывание конечных результатов; передавать команду в центральный процессор; в ответ на; хранение частичных результатов; позволить введение новых данных; свободное место в памяти.
\ferbs: relate, employ, insert, perform, remove, operate, show, interpret, select, issue, use, receive, perform, cause, print, make, compute, connect, execute, take away, require, act, convert, carry out, demand, permit, demonstrate, choose, transmit, type, store, get, calculate, proceed, continue, keep, allow.
Nouns: response, unit, component, computation, storage, gate, amount, digit, element, memory, instruction, device, equipment, connection, circuit, order, command, information, relation, quantity, answer, calculation, number, data.
Adjectives: broad, complete, each, appropriate, every, basic, essential, digital, original, full, wide, initial, major, large, numerical, common, necessary, usual, important, general, great.
Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 80
13. Согласуйте слова в левой колонке с их интерпретаци
ей, предложенной справа.
1. Functional organization a) processes and stores large
of a computer amount of data and solves
problems of numerical computations;
2. Input b) circuits used in large-scale
3. Memory c) method of interrelation of the
main units of a computer
4. Control unit d) removing data from the de-
vice to the outside world;
5. Output e) inserting information into
6. Arithmetic unit f) a code of combinations of
7. Machine language g) performs addition, subtrac-
tion, multiplication, etc;
8. Logic gates h) stores original data as well as
9. Digital computer i) causes all parts of the com-
puter to act as a team.
14. Расскажите о действии функциональных устройств
компьютера, пользуясь приведенной ниже схемой.
Central processing unit
81 Unit 6. Functional Organization of the Computer
15. Составьте аннотации на русском языке к следующим текстам по вариантам, используйте упр. 14 на с. 52.
1. Logical circuit elements
As it is known, any digital calculation — whether it is performed by 'pencil and paper' methods or with the aid of an automatic computer— must first be broken down into a sequence of elementary arithmetical operations, such as addition, or multiplication. Each such arithmetical operation may be converted into a sequence of simple logical operations. It should be noted that a binary digit may take only two values — "zero" and "one". A logical proposition may be either true or false.
A symbolism and a set of rules suitable for manipulating 'yes or no' logical propositions was developed by George Boole, a self-educated genius who became Professor of Mathematics at Cork University in the middle of the 19lh century. The techniques of Boolean algebra are now extensively used by electrical engineers for the design and analysis of switching circuits. Both the arithmetic and control units of a computer consist of sets of switching circuits for directing and manipulating electrical pulse signals.
The process of combining a number of electronic circuits of known logical properties into an integrated system capable of performing special arithmetical or control functions is known as logical design.
2. The definition of mechanical brain
Let's imagine a railroad line with four stations marked input, storage, computer and output. These stations are joined by little gates or switches to the main railroad line. We can imagine that numbers and other information move along this railroad line, loaded (погруженные) in cars. Input and output are stations where numbers or other information go in and come out respectively. Storage is a station where there are many platforms and where information can be stored. The computer is a special station, somewhat like a factory. When two numbers are loaded on platforms 1 and 2 of this station and the command is loaded on platform 3, then another number is produced on platform^
There is a tower, marked control.This tower runs a telegraph line to each of its little watchmen standing by the gates. The
Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 82
tower tells them when to open and when to shut which gates. Now we can see that as soon as the right gates are shut, cars loaded with information can move between stations. So by closing the right gates, we can flash (отражать) numbers and information through the system and perform operations of reasoning. Thus we receive a mechanical brain.
In general, a mechanical brain is made up of: a quantity of registers where information can be stored; channels along which information can be sent; mechanisms that carry out arithmetic and logical operations; a control, which guides the machine to perform a sequence of operations; input and output devices, where information can go into and out of the machine; and at last electricity, which provides energy.
16. Поменяйтесь вариантами и выполните письменный перевод текстов, приведенных выше.
1. Подберите вместо пропусков подходящие по смыслу слова.
I. The method of all functional categories to one
another represents the functional organization of a computer, a) showing; b) relating; c) performing
83 Unit 6. Functional Organization of the Computer
2. Instructions and data are fed through the equip-
ment to the .
a) output; b) memory; c) input; d) control
3. The main units of the computer communicate with each
other a machine language.
a) in spite of; b) because of; c) by means of
4. The input also the information into the pulse —
no-pulse combinations understandable to the computer, a) converts; b) removes; c) accomplishes
5. The four are used to perform basic operations
in a computer.
a) basics; b) circuits; c) equipment
6. A computer can solve very complex numerical .
a) communication; b) computations; c) instructions
7. Numbers and instructions forming the program are
in the memory.
a) solved; b) stored; c) simulated
8. The control unit serves for orders.
a) reading; b) interpreting; c) inputting
9. The function of memory is to store the origi-
nal input data the partial results.
a) not only ... but also; b) either ... or; c) no sooner ... than
10. The includes the control and arithmetic-logi
a) flip-flop; b) digital computer; c) central processor
2. Заполните пропуски, выбрав правильную грамматическую форму.
1. The simplest digital device is any device which [a) can;
b) could; c) must] count.
Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 84
lO.The flip-flop [a) is; b) was; c) has been] a storage cell with two inputs and two outputs.
Unit 7 STORAGE
1. Ознакомьтесь с терминами текста 1.
primary / secondary storage — первичное / вторичное запоминающее устройство
main storage — основная память; оперативное запоминающее устройство
internal storage [in'tanal] — внутреннее ЗУ sequence ['sikwans] — последовательность; порядок следования
intermediate results [,mte'midrat nsAlts] — промежуточные результаты
ongoing process ['ongoing 'prousss] — продолжающиеся), постоянный процесс
similarity [simi'lseriti] — сходство; подобие to retain [п Чет] — сохранять; удерживать to locate [lou'keit] — размещать(ся); располагать(ся) value ['vaeljir.] — значение, величина; значимость, ценность; оценка binary digit ['Ьатэп 'did^it] — двоичная цифра; двоичный
adjacent [э'йзевэШ] — смежный; соседний; примыкающий
strings of characters — последовательность символов consecutive [ksn'sekjutiv] — последовательный; смежный; соседний
2. Прочтите текст и скажите, что такое запоминающее
устройство в компьютере и о каких его типах вы узна
ли из текста.
Text 1. ^
Computer system architecture is organized around the primary storage unit because all data and instructions used by the
Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 86
computer system must pass through primary storage. Our discussion of computer system units will begin with the functions of the primary and secondary storage units. This leads to the examination of the central processing unit and from there to the consideration of the input and output units. Therefore, the sequence in which we'll describe the functional units of a digital computer is: 1) storage units, primary and secondary; 2) central processing unit; 3) input and output units.
As you know, there are primary and secondary storage units. Both contain data and the instructions for processing the data. Data as well as instructions must flow into and out of primary storage.
Primary storage is also called main storage or internal storage. The specific functions of internal storage are to hold (store): 1) all data to be processed; 2) intermediate results of processing; 3) final results of processing; 4) all the instructions required for ongoing process. Another name for primary storage is memory, because of its similarity to a function of the human brain. However, computer storage differs from human memory in important respects. Computer memory must be able to retain very large numbers of symbol combinations, without forgetting or changing any details. It must be able to locate all its contents quickly upon demand. The combinations of characters, that is, the letters, numbers, and special symbols by which we usually
87 Unit 7. Storage
communicate, are coded. The codes used by computer designers are based upon a number system that has only two possible values, 0 and 1 .'A number system with only two digits, 0 and I, is called a binary number system. Each binary digit is called a bit, from Binary digiT. As the information capacity of a single bit is limited to 2 alternatives, codes used by computer designers are based upon combinations of bits. These combinations are called binary codes. The most common binary codes are 8-bit codes because an 8-bit code provides for 2/8, or 256 unique combinations of l's ans O's, and this is more than adequate to represent all of the characters by which we communicate.
Data in the form of coded characters are stored in adjacent storage locations in main memory in two principal ways : 1) as "strings" of characters — in bytes; and 2) within fixed-size "boxes" — in words. A fixed number of consecutive bits that represent a character is called a byte. The most common byte size is 8-bit byte. Words are usually 1 or more bytes in length.
^ Primary storage is expensive because each bit is represented by a high-speed device, such as a semiconductor. A million bytes (that is, 8 million bits) is a large amount of primary storage. Often it is necessary to store many millions, sometimes billions, of bytes of data. Therefore slower, less expensive storage units are available for computer systems. These units are called secondary storage. Data are stored in them in the same binary codes as in main storage and are made available to main storage as needed.
1. What are the functional units of a digital computer? 2. What units make up the central processing unit? 3. How is computer system organized? 4. What are the two main types of storage units? 5. What do they contain? 6. What is the function of a primary storage? 7. Why is primary storage often called memory? 8. In what respect does computer memory differ from human memory? 9. What are codes based on? 10. What is Secondary storage and what is it used for?
Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 88
4. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих
Функциональный блок; цифровой компьютер; устройство ввода; устройство управления; арифметико-логическое устройство; центральный процессор; структура компьютерной системы; первичное запоминающее устройство; вторичное ЗУ; рассмотрение; поэтому последовательность; оперативное ЗУ; внутренняя память; промежуточные результаты; подобие функции человеческого мозга; размешать содержимое по требованию; система счисления; двоичная система счисления; возможные величины; объем информации; двоичный код; смежные ячейки памяти; последовательность символов; быстродействующее устройство; полупроводник; доступный.
Storage: available storage; buffer storage; computer storage; data storage; magnetic disk storage; magnetic tape storage; input storage; intermediate storage; internal storage; laser storage; main storage; primary storage; secondary storage; sequential-access storage; variable storage; virtual storage.
Value: absolute value; acceptable value; additional value; binary value; byte value; character value; constant value; correct value; data value; digit value; discrete values; invalid value; negative value; numerical value; output value; valid value.
Digit: binary digit; binary-coded digit; check digit; information digit; input digit; nonsignificant digit; significant digit; digit-by-digit.
Sequence: out of sequence; alphabetic sequence; arithmetic sequence; binary sequence; character sequence; code sequence; instruction sequence;data sequence; digital sequence; historical sequence; increasing sequence; program sequence; string sequence.
Memory; element; information; command; examination; character; quantity; number; place; computer architect; likeness.
To apply; to form; to move; to hold; to demand; to connect; to supply; to place; to name; to start; to examine.
Continuous; significant; consecutive; usual; enough; main; initial; general.
89 Unit 7. Storage
7. Переведите предложения, содержащие Perfect Participle
Active и Perfect Participle Passive.
1. Having finished the research the scientists made the analysis of the data obtained. 2. The designer left the office having looked through all the documents. 3. Having discussed the functions of storage units we passed on to the consideration of control processing unit. 4. Having limited the information capacity of a single bit to two alternatives the computer designers expressed data by a combination of bits. 5. Having translated the program into machine language the computer architect put the program into the machine. 6. Having been coded the instruction was transmitted to the central processing unit. 7. Having been transmitted to the central processing unit the instruction made arithmetic-logical unit perform some computations. 8. Having been regulated by the operator the equipment operated well. 9. Data having been entered correctly into the computer component of a data processing system, the need for further manipulation by humans is eliminated. 10. Having been well prepared for the examination the pupils could answer all the questions the teacher asked them.
medium (pi. media) — носитель; среда capacity — емкость; объем (памяти); пропускная способность
media capacity — емкость носителя
data access time — время доступа к данным
per bit — на единицу информации
to transfer— передавать(ся); переносить(ся); пересы-лать(ся)
archival storage — архивное ЗУ; архивная память to depend — зависеть от; полагаться, рассчитывать на to rotate — вращать(ся); чередовать(ся); сменять(ся) reason — причина; основание; довод; обосновывать;
solid-state device — твердотельный прибор magnetic core — магнитный сердечник
Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 90
bipolar semiconductor — биполярный полупроводник
metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) — структура металл-оксид-полупроводник randomly — произвольно
random-access memory (RAM) — оперативное запоминающее устройство (ОЗУ)
sound recording — звукозапись
to arrange — размещать; располагать; устанавливать;
монтировать tape device — ЗУ на магнитной ленте
to range — классифицировать; располагать в порядке; лежать в диапазоне
magnetic disc storage — ЗУ на магнитном диске
moving-head device — устройство с двигающейся головкой
predominant — преобладающий; доминирующий flexible —гибкий; настраиваемый; изменяемый floppy (disk) — гибкий диск(ета); ЗУ на гибком диске to meet the demands — удовлетворять потребности
9. Прочтите текст 2 и скажите, как вы понимаете термин «запоминающая среда» и какие компоненты ее составляют. Переведите текст.
Text 2. ^
Storage media are classified as primary storage or secondary storage on the basis of combinations*of cost, capacity, and access time. The cost of storage devices is expressed as the cost per bit of data stored. The most common units of cost are cents, millicents (0.001 cents) and microcents (0.000001 cents). The time required for the computer to locate and transfer data to and from a storage medium is called the access time for that medium. Capacities range from a few hundred bytes of primary storage for very small computers to many billions of bytes of archival storage for very large computer systems.
Memories may be classified as electronic or electromechanical. Electronic memories have no moving mechanical parts, and
91 Unit 7. Storage
data can be transferred into and out of them at very high speeds. Electromechanical memories depend upon moving mechanical parts for their operation, such as mechanisms for rotating magnetic tapes and disks. Their data access time is longer than is that of electronic memories; however they cost less per bit stored and have larger capacities for data storage. For these reasons most computer systems use electronic memory for primary storage and electromechanical memory for secondary storage.
^ has the least capacity and is the most expensive; however, it has the fastest access time. The principal primary storage circuit elements are solid-state devices: magnetic cores and semiconductors. For many years magnetic cores were the principal elements used in digital computers for primary storage. The two principal types of semiconductors used for memory are bipolar and metal-oxide semiconductors (MOS). The former is faster, the latter is more commonly used at present. Because data can be accessed randomly, semiconductor memories are referred to as random-access memory, or RAM.
There is a wide range of secondary storage devices. Typical hardware devices are rotating electromechanical devices. Magnetic tapes, disks, and drums are the secondary storage hardware most often used in computer systems for sequential processing. Magnetic tape, which was invented by the Germans during World War II for sound recording, is the oldest secondary storage medium in common use. Data are recorded in the form of small magnetized "dots" that can be arranged to represent coded patterns of bits.
Tape devices range from large-capacity, high-data-rate units used with large data processing systems to cassettes and cartridges used with small systems. Magnetic disk storage, introduced in the early 1960s, has replaced magnetic tape as the main method of secondary storage. As contrasted with magnetic tapes, magnetic discs can perform both sequential and random processing. They are classified as moving-head, fixed-head, or combination moving-head and fixed-head devices. Magnetic discs are the predominant secondary storage media. They include flexible, or floppy discs, called diskettes. The "floppies" were introduced by IBM in 1972 and are still a popular storage medium to meet the demands of the microcomputer market.
Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 92
10. Ответьте на вопросы, используя информацию текста.
1. How are storage media classified? 2. How is the cost of storage devices expressed? 3. What is the access time for storage media? 4. How does the storage capacity range? 5. What are the two main types of storage devices? 6. What are electronic storage devices? 7. What are the principal primary storage circuit elements? 8. What are the main secondary storage devices? 9. What is the oldest secondary medium and when was it invented? 10. What is a floppy?
Запоминающие устройства; носители памяти; первичные ЗУ; вторичные ЗУ; время доступа; стоимость ЗУ; диапазон емкости памяти; архивная память; движущиеся механические части; вращающиеся магнитные ленты и диски; по этим причинам; твердотельные устройства; магнитные сердечники; полупроводники; оперативное ЗУ; аппаратное обеспечение вторичной памяти; звукозапись; . намагниченные точки; представлять зашифрованную комбинацию единиц информации; в отличие от магнитных лент; последовательная и произвольная обработка; устройства с движущейся и фиксированной головкой; удовлетворять потребности; гибкий диск.
93 Unit 7. Storage
13. Переведите предложения, содержащие всевозможные