Пособие рассчитано на учащихся средних школ, лицеев, гимназий, колледжей и студентов высших учебных заведе­ний всех, кто интересуется английским языком и увлека­ется компьютером. Удк 811. 111(07) ббк81. 2Англ-9 icon

Пособие рассчитано на учащихся средних школ, лицеев, гимназий, колледжей и студентов высших учебных заведе­ний всех, кто интересуется английским языком и увлека­ется компьютером. Удк 811. 111(07) ббк81. 2Англ-9


1 чел. помогло.
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Participle I и
Participle II, в функции обстоятельства.


1. When entering the Internet, I always find a lot of inter­esting information. 2. Though never built Babbage's analytical engine was the basis for designing today's computers. 3. When written in a symbolic language programs require the translation into the machine language. 4. While operating on the basis of analogy analog computers simulate physical systems. 5. When used voltage represents other physical quantities in analog com­puters. 6. Being discrete events commercial transactions are in

Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 60

a natural form for a digital computer. 7. As contrasted with the analyst, the computer system architect designs computers for many different applications. 8. While dealing with discrete quan­tities digital computers count rather than measure. 9. When using a microcomputer you are constantly making choice — to open a file, to close a file, and so on. 10. As known all comput­er systems perform the functions of inputting, storing, process­ing, controlling, and outputting.

7. Ознакомьтесь с терминами текста 2.

hardware ['hcudwes] — аппаратное обеспечение; аппара­тура; оборудование

software ['softwea] — программное обеспечение; про­граммные средства

system software — системное программное обеспечение

application software — прикладное программное обеспе­чение

firmware ['faimwea] — встроенное /микропроцессорное программное обеспечение

visible units ['vizibl 'jirnits] — видимый блок, устройство procedure [pra'SKd&d] — процедура, процесс; метод, ме­тодика; алгоритм

to associate [s'soujieit] — соединять; объединять; связы­вать

associated documentation — соответствующая докумен­тация

to execute applications programs — выполнять приклад­ные программы

payroll ['peiroul] — платежная ведомость

inventory control [m'ventsn ksn'troul] — инвентаризация; переучет

investment analyses [s'nsehsiz] — анализ инвестиций (ка­питаловложений)

to protect [pfa'tekt] — защищать

read-only memory (ROM) — постоянное запоминающее устройство (ПЗУ)

to refer to [лТэ:] — относиться к; ссылаться на

61 Unit 5. Computer Systems: An Overview

to substitute ['sAbstitjmt] — заменять; замещать

to cause ['ko:z] — заставлять, вынуждать; причина, осно­вание

to accomplish [s'komplij] — завершать, заканчивать; вы­полнять, осуществлять

performance [ps'foimans] — производительность; быстро­действие; рабочая характеристика

8. Прочтите текст 2 и объясните, как вы понимаете тер­мины «аппаратное обеспечение» и «программное обес­печение». Переведите текст.

Text 2. ^ HARDWARE, SOFTWARE, AND FIRMWARE

The units that are visible in any computer are the physical components of a data processing system, or hardware. Thus, the input, storage, processing and control devices are hardware. Not visible is the software — the set of computer programs, proce­dures, and associated documentation that make possible the effective operation of the computer system. Software programs are of two types: systems software and applications software.

Systems software are the programs designed to control the operation of a computer system. They do not solve specific problems. They are written to assist people in the use of the computer system by performing tasks, such as controlling all of the operations required, to move data into and out of a com­puter and all of the steps in executing an application program. The person who prepares systems software is referred to as a systems programmer. Systems programmers are highly trained specialists and important members of the architectural team.

^ Applications software are the programs written to solve spe­cific problems (applications), such as payroll, inventory control, and investment analysis. The word program usually refers to an application program, and the word programmer is usually a person who prepares applications software.

Often programs, particularly systems software, are stored in an area of memory not used for applications software. These protected programs are stored in an area of memory called read­only memory (ROM), which can be read from but not written on.

Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 62

Firmware is a term that is commonly used to describe cer­tain programs that are stored in ROM. Firmware often refers to a sequence of instructions (software) that is substituted for hard­ware. For example, in an instance where cost is more impor­tant than performance, the computer system architect might decide not to use special electronic circuits (hardware) to mul­tiply two numbers, but instead write instructions (software) to cause the machine to accomplish the same function by repeat­ed use of circuits already designed to perform addition.

9. Ответьте на вопросы, используя информацию текста.

1. What is hardware? 2. Give the definition of software. 3. What are the types of software? 4. What are systems software? 5. What kind of tasks do systems software perform? 6. Who pre­pares systems software? 7. What are applications software? 8. What problems do applications software solve? 9. What is firm­ware? 10. How can a computer system architect use firmware?

^ 10. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих
словосочетаний:


Видимые устройства; система обработки данных; аппа­ратное обеспечение; набор компьютерных программ; со­ответствующая документация; эффективная работа; систем­ное программное обеспечение; прикладное программное обеспечение; системный программист; платежная ведо­мость; переучет; анализ инвестиций; прикладная програм­ма; работающий только в режиме чтения; постоянное за­поминающее устройство; последовательность команд; в случае; производительность; электронная цепь; умножать числа; заставить машину выполнять ту же функцию; вы­полнять сложение.

^ 11. Вспомните значение новых слов и попытайтесь пере­
вести словосочетания, употребляемые с этими словами.


Architecture: communication architecture; computer archi­tecture; disk architecture; microprocessor architecture; network architecture; security architecture; system architecture; virtual architecture.

Software: system software; application software; database software; disk software; educational software; game software; management software; simulation software.

63 Unit 5. Computer Systems: An Overview

Hardware: computer hardware; device hardware; display hardware; memory hardware; mouse hardware; network hard­ware; system hardware; video hardware.

Procedure: accounting procedure; computational procedure; control procedure; data-processing procedure; decision proce­dure; error-correcting procedure; formatting procedure; instal­lation procedure; management procedure; solution procedure.

Protection: computer protection; data protection; device pro­tection; display protection; error protection; hardware protec­tion; software protection; resource protection; security protec­tion; system protection; virus protection.

12. Озаглавьте каждый компонент текста и составьте не­большой реферат к нему (по вариантам).

^ STEPS IN THE DEVELOPING OF COMPUTERS

1. In 1948 due to the invention of transistors there appeared
the possibility to replace vacuum tubes. The transistor occupied
an important place on the way to computer development. The
potential advantage of the transistor over the vacuum tube was
almost as great as that of the vacuum tube over the relay. A tran­
sistor can switch flows of electricity as fast as the vacuum tubes
used in computers, but the transistors use much less power than
equivalent vacuum tubes, and are considerably smaller. Transis­
tors are less expensive and more reliable.They were mechani­
cally rugged, had practically unlimited life and could do some
jobs better than electronic tubes. Transistors were made of crys-
tallic solid material called semiconductor.

With the transistor came the possibility of building computers with much greater complexity and speed.

2. The integrated circuit constituted another major step in
the development of computer technology. Until 1959 the
fundamental logical components of digital computers were the
individual electrical switches, first in the form of relays, then
vacuum tubes, then transistors. In the vacuum tubes and relay
stages, additional discrete components, such as resistors,
inductors, and capacitors were required in order to make the
whole system work. These components were generally each
about the same size as packaged transistors. Integrated circuit

Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 64

technology permitted the elimination of some of these components and integration of most of the others on the same chip of semiconductor that contains the transistor. Thus the basic logic element — the switch, or "flip-flop', which required two separate transistors and some resistors and capacitors in the early 1950s, could be packaged into a single small unit in 1960. The chip was an important achievement in the accelerating step of computer technology.

3. In 1974 a company in New Mexico, called Micro Instrumentation Telemetry System (MITS) developed the Altair 8800, a personal computer (PC) in a kit. The Altair had no keyboard, but a panel of switches with which to enter the information. Its capacity was less than one per cent that of the 1991 Hewlett-Packard handheld computer. But the Altair led to a revolution in computer electronics that continues today. Hardware manufacturers soon introduced personal computers, and software manufacturers began developing software to allow the computers to process words, manipulate data, and draw. During the 1980s computers became progressively smaller, better and cheaper.

Today the personal computer can serve as a work station for the individual. A wide array of computer functions are now accessible to people with no technical background.

13. Поменяйтесь вариантами и выполните письменный перевод упр. 12.

TESTS

1. Подберите вместо пропусков подходящее по смыслу слово

1. Computers and their equipment are designed by

a computer system architect.

a) engineering;^)! accessory: c) specific

2. Digital computers use numbers instead of analogous phys-

ical .

a) symbols; b) equipment; c) quantities

3. Systems are usualy stored in read-only memory.

a) hardware; b) software; c) firmware

65 Unit 5. Computer Systems: An Overview

4. A computer is a machine with a complex network of elec-

tronic that operate switches.

a) circuits; b) cores; c) characters

5. In modern electronic computers the is the device

that acts as a switch.

a) integrated circuit; b) diode; c) transistor

6. A number of actions that convert data into useful infor-

mation is defined as .

a) data; b) processing; c) data processing

7. Computers can store, organize and retrieve great amounts

of information, far beyond the of humans.

a) capacities; b) capabilities; c) accuracy

8. The analyst a computer for solving problems,

while the computer system architect computers.

a) requires; b) designs; c) uses

9. The use of computers will continue to increase

with the growth in applications of microprocessors and minicomputers.

a) analog; b) digital; c) hybrid

10. The development of third generation computers became
possible due to the invention of .

a) integrated circuits; b) electronic tubes; c) transistors

^ 2. Согласуйте слова в левой колонке с их интерпретаци­ей, предложенной справа.

1. Computer a) a combination of interconnected

circuit elements produced in a chip to perform a definite func­tion

2. Analog computer b) a sequence of instructions en-

abling the computer to solve a giv­en task

3. Digital computer c) a tiny piece of silicon containing

1 complex electronic circuits used

inside all computers

4. Hardware d) a system which processes and

stores great amount of data solv­ing problems of numerical com­putation

Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 66

5. Software e) a device which can carry out rou-

tine mental tasks by performing simple operations at high speed

6. Program f) electronic and mechanical equip-

ment in a computer system

7. Programming g) a set of programs, procedures and

associated documentation

8. Integrated circuit h) the process of preparation a set of

coded instructions for a computer

9. Chip i) a device that has input and output

represented in the form of physical quantities

10. Transistor j) a small piece of a semiconductor

that greatly reduced power con­sumption of a circuit

3. Раскройте скобки, употребляя:

Л. Правильную неличную форму глагола

1. Computing is a concept (embraced;embracing; for em­bracing) not only arithmetics, but also computer literacy. 2. We can make the computer do what we want (inputted; to input; by inputting) signals (turning; turned; without turning) switch­es on and off. 3. Computers have a means (by communicating; of communicating; communicated) with the user. 4. Comput­ers work according to the instructions (giving; given; to give) to it by users. 5. The transistor (inventing; invented; for inventing) in 1948 completely changed the vacuum tubes.

Б. Глагол в действительном или страдательном залоге

1. Computers (applied; are applied; are applying) for auto­matic piloting and automatic navigation. 2. The programs (write; have written; are written) to help people in the use of the computer system. 3. As digital computers (count; counted; are counted) quickly, they widely (use; used; are used) in busi­ness data processing. 4. Once data (entered; have entered; have been entered) correctly into the data processing system, the possibility of error (reduced; is reduced; are reduced). 5. It is known that an analyst (use; uses; is used) a computer to solve specific problems.

67 Unit 5. Computer Systems: An Overview

4. Прочтите текст и выберите правильные ответы на по­ставленные ниже вопросы к тексту.

^ FROM THE HISTORY OF COMPUTER DEVELOPMENT IN RUSSIA

As it is well known, Russian scientists made great contribu­tion into the development of computers. Russian mathemati­cian P. Chebyshev who lived in the 19th century was interested in calculators. Among many other mechanisms invented by him there was an arithmometer designed in 1876. It was one of the most unique calculating machines of the time. At the beginning of the 20th century Academic A.Krylov constructed a mechan­ical integrator for solving differential equations.

The first Soviet computer, a small-size computing machine (MESM) was tested in 1950 under Academician S.Lebedev. Next year it was put into operation. In a year MESM was fol­lowed by BESM, a large-size electronic computing machine, with 8000 opera­tions per second.

Serial production of computers in the USSR has been started since 1953. That year U.Basilevsky headed the design and man­ufacture of computer STRELA. 1958 witnessed the production of Ы-.20, computers of the first gen­eration under the guidance of S.Lebedev. The first gen­eration of electron tube computers was followed by the second generation of foto transistor computers, using magnetic logic ele­ments.

Starting with 1964 semi­conductor computers —

Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 68

URAL, BESM-4 and M-220 were produced. Under Academi­cian Glushkov small-size computers MIR, MIR-2 and DNEPR were designed and tested at the Institute of Cybernetics.

In the late 60s together with other members of the Council of Mutual Economic Assistance the Soviet Union started on the program of Unified Computer System, the program concerned with the third generation of computers with high-speed perfor­mance and program compatibility (совместимость).

1. What was one of the first achievements in the sphere of
calculating in Russia?

a) calculator; b) arithmometer; c) mechanical integrator

  1. When was the first Soviet computer put into operation?
    a) in 1950; b) in 1951; c) in 1952

  2. Who headed the serial production of computers in the
    USSR?

a) A.Krylov; b) S.Lebedev; c) U. Basilevsky

4. Which machine was the first in the development of the first

generation computers?

a) MESM; b) STRELA; с) М-20

5. When did the production of the third generation comput-

ers begin?

a) late 60s; b) early 70s; c) late 70s

^ ENJOY YOURSELF

I. Quiz-game "What do you know about computers?" (Who is the first to give the right answers to the questions below?)

  1. What does "a computer-literate" person mean?

  2. What is the role of computers in our society?
    v?. What is electronics?




  1. Where are electronic devices used?

  2. What jnvention contributed to the appearance of
    electronics?

  3. When and where was the transistor invented?

  4. What advantages did the transistor have over the vacuum
    tube?

  5. When was the integrated circuit discovered?

69 Unit 5. Computer Systems: An Overview

9. What is the essence of the integrated circuit?

  1. What is microelectronics?

  2. What techniques does microelectronics use?

  3. What scales of integration are known to you?

  4. What do you understand by microminiaturization?

  5. What was the very first calculating device?

15. Who gave the ideas for producing logarithm tables? 16.. Who invented the first calculating machine?

  1. How was the first calculating machine called?

  2. What was the first means of coding data?

  3. What Business Corporation was the first to produce
    computers?

20- In what fields were the first computers used? 2JU When was the first analog computer build? 22^ What was the name of the first digital computer? f3T)Who built the first digital computer? 24Г What is ENIAC? Decode it.

  1. Who contributed the idea of storing data and instructions
    in binary code?

  2. What does binary code mean?

  3. What were computers of the first generation based on?

  4. What invention contributed to the appearance of the
    second generation computers?

  5. What was the essence of the third computer generation?

30. What is the basis of the fourth computer generation?
5T) What is a computer?

"32. What are the main junciiom-of the computers?

  1. What is a program?

  2. What are data?

  3. What is data processing?

$f& Name four advantages of computer data processing.

  1. What is capacity storage?

  2. What is hardware?

  3. What is software?

  4. Who designs computers?




Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 70

II. Lexical games

Fill in the squares with nouns upon the models

71 Unit 5. Computer Systems: An Overview

Crossword 1.



Horizontally

1. A more favourable position; gain or benefit. 2. The fol­
lowing one thing after another. 3. Examination, experiment or
trial. ^. The process opposite to multiplication. 5. The heart,
the central part of anything. 6. The science dealing with micro-
circuits. 7. Thickness, compactness; example: packing .

8. Application. 9. The doing smth; state of being in motion. 10. To put in writing, to print for future use. 11. Goal, purpose. 12. Memory. 13. Advantage, help; anything contributing to an im­provement in condition. 14. Intelligence, mental ability. 15. Method or manner of doing something. 16. Display. 17. A tiny crystall, containing an integrated circuit.

Vertically

1. Information. 2. Help. 3. Reply, answer or reaction. 4. A group of elements. 5. A unit keeping information. 6. Approach; means of approaching, getting. 7. A style or design; imitation of an existing object. 8. Different form of some thing; condi­tion or quality. 9. A mistake.10. A switch. 11. A fitting together of parts to make a whole. 12. Rate. 13. A model; cliche; stan­dard. 14. A system of symbols used for entering data into the computer. 15. A branch of systematized knowledge of nature. 16. An attempt; a hard try. 17. A device. 18. An example, a sam­ple, a model.



Unit 6

^ FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATION OF THE COMPUTER

1. Ознакомьтесь с терминами текста 1.

operation [apa'reifn] — операция; работа; действие; сра­батывание

to relate [n'leit] — связывать; устанавливать отношения a broad view ['bro:d 'vju:] — широкий взгляд, обзор

unit I'jumit] — устройство; модуль, блок; узел; элемент; ячейка

input — ввод; устройство ввода; вводить; подавать на вход

to insert [m'sa:t] — вставлять; вносить; включать storage memory — память; запоминающее устройство available [a'veibbl] — доступный; имеющийся в наличии at the appropriate time — в нужное время

arithmetic-logical unit — арифметико-логическое устрой­ство

output — вывод; устройство вывода; выводить; подавать на выход

to remove [n'mu:v] — удалять; устранять; вынимать; ис­ключать

control unit — блок управления

cause ['ko:z]— заставлять; вынуждать; быть причиной; причина; основание

to feed (fed, fed) — подавать; питать; вводить (данные)

to interpret [m'tapnt] — интерпретировать; истолковы­вать

to issue commands ['isju: ka'marndz] — выдавать команды pulse — no-pulse — (есть) импульс — холостой импульс

73 Unit 6. Functional Organization of the Computer

2. Прочтите текст и назовите основные функциональные блоки компьютера и их назначение.

Text 1. ^ FUNCTIONAL UNITS OF DIGITAL COMPUTERS

As we know, all computer operations can be grouped into five functional categories. The method in which these five functional categories are related to one another represents the functional organization of a digital computer. By studying the functional organization, a broad view of the computer is received.

The five major functional units of a digital computer are:

  1. Input— to insert outside information into the machine;

  2. Storage or memory — to store information and make it avail­
    able at the appropriate time; 3) Arithmetic-logical unit — to
    perform the calculations; 4) Output — to remove data from the
    machine to the outside world and 5) Control unit — to cause
    all parts of a computer to act as a team.

Figure 5 shows how the five functional units of the comput­er act together. A complete set of instructions and data are usu­ally fed through the input equipment to the memory where they are stored. Each instruction is then fed to the control unit. The control unit interprets the instructions and issues commands to the other functional units to cause operations to be performed on the data. Arithmetic operations are performed in the arith­metic-logical unit, and the results are then fed back to the mem-

Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 74

огу. Information may be fed from either the arithmetic unit or the memory through the output equipment to the outside world. The five units of the computer must communicate with each other. They can do this by means of a machine language which uses a code composed of combinations of electric pulses. These pulse combinations are usually represented by zeros and ones, where the one may be a pulse and the zero — a no-pulse. Num­bers are communicated between one unit and another by means of these one-zero or pulse — no-pulse combinations. The in­put has the additional job of converting the information fed in by the operator into machine language. In other words, it tran-saltes from our language into the pulse — no-pulse combinations understandable to the computer. The output's additional job is converting the pulse — no-pulse combinations into a form un­derstandable to us, such as a printed report.

^ 3. Просмотрите текст еще раз. Дайте ответы на вопросы, используя информацию текста.

1. What represents the functional organization of a comput­er? 2. What can we get by studying the functional organization?

3. What is the function of the input device? 4. What does mem­
ory serve for? 5. What is the task of the arithmetic-logical unit?
6. What is the function of the output? 7. What is the main pur­
pose of the control unit? 8. How do all units of the computer
communicate with each other? 9. What is the additional job of
the input? 10. What is the additional function of the output?

4. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих
словосочетаний:

Функциональная организация; действия компьютера; связывать друг с другом; вводить информацию извне; де­лать информацию доступной; выполнять вычисления; выводить информацию; блок управления; выдавать коман­ды; заставлять выполнять команды; выходное устройство; внешний мир; связываться друг с другом; комбинация электрических импульсов; холостой импульс; импульсы, распознаваемые компьютером.

75 Unit 6. Functional Organization of the Computer

5. Разделите приведенные ниже слова на три группы, оп­
ределяя по суффиксу часть речи
существительное,
прилагательное или наречие. Переведите слова.


Organization, functional, available, equipment, processor,-Cbmpletely, architectural, converter, convertible, controller, re­movable, logical, addition, additional, usually, accomplishment, operator, operation, mainly, communication, insertion, elec­tronic, digital, instruction, generally, arithmetic, daily", develop­ment, central, lately, visible, substitution, understandable.

^ 6. Вспомните значение новых слов и попытайтесь переве­
сти словосочетания, употребляемые с этими словами.


Computer, analog computer; digital computer; hybrid com­puter; all-purpose computer; general-purpose computer; fifth-generation computer; game computer; handheld computer; mobile computer; multimedia computer; notebook computer; pocket computer; portable computer.

Unit: unit of memory; unit of data; unit of measurement; arithmetic unit; arithmetic-logical unit; central processing unit; computing unit; control unit; functional unit; input unit; out­put unit; network unit; system unit.

Function: arithmetic function; checking function; complex function; computer function; continuous function; conversion function; distribution function; encoding function; logical func­tion; numeric function; output function; program function; search function; software function; support function; utility function; variable function.

Control: access control; batch control; coding control; dis­tance / remote control; error control; execution control; hard­ware control; input/output control; memory control; power control; production control; program control; rate control; self-acting control; software control; system control.

^ 7. Вспомните значение следующих прилагательных и пре­
образуйте их в сравнительную и превосходную степени.


A. Small; fast; new; long; late; wide; young; easy; great; dull;
rich; bulky; large; vast; early; old; broad.

B. Frequent; reliable; approximate; significant; intricate;
possible; basic; remarkable; common; modern; dependent; gen­
eral; necessary; successful; scientific; universal.

С Good; bad; little; many.





77 Unit 6. Functional Organization of the Computer

Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 76

^ 8. Ознакомьтесь с терминами текста 2.

large-scale — большой; крупномасштабный flip-flop — триггер circuit ['ss:kit] — цепь; контур; схема employ [im'ploi] — использовать; употреблять; приме­нять

logic gates — логический элемент; схема пропускания (сигналов); проход

feasible — возможный; выполнимый; осуществимый

interpret orders — интерпретировать, истолковывать ко­манды

operate switches — приводить в действие переключате­ли

convey [kan'vei] — передавать; сообщать

in response to — в ответ на

correct operand — нужный операнд

original input data — исходная вводимая информация

proceed [pra'si:d] — продолжать(ся); возобновлять(ся); действовать

room — (свободное) место; свободная память

9. Прочтите текст 2 и скажите, какую дополнительную
информацию вы узнали о действии основных устройств
компьютера.


Text 2. ^ SOME FEATURES OF A DIGITAL COMPUTER

It should be noticed that even in a large-scale digital system, such as in a computer, or in a data-processing, control or digi­tal-communication system, there are only a few basic operations which must be performed. These operations may be operated many times. The four circuits most commonly employed in such systems are known as the OR, AND, NOT and FLIP-FLOP. They are called logic gates or circuits.

An electronic digital computer is a system which processes and stores very large amount of data and which solves scientific

problems of numerical computations of such complexity and with such speed that solution by human calculation is not fea­sible. So the computer as a system can perform numerical com­putations and follow instructions with extreme speed but it can­not program itself.

\\fe know that the numbers and the instructions which form the program, the computer is to follow, are stored in an essen­tial part of the computer called the memory. The second im­portant unit of the computer is the control whose function is to interpret orders. The control must convert the command into an appropriate set of voltages to operate switches and carry out the instructions conveyed by the order. The third basic element of a computer is the arithmetic device, which contains the cir­cuits performing the arithmetic computations: addition, subtrac­tion, etc. The control and arithmetic components are called the central processor. Finally a computer requires appropriate in­put-output devices for inserting numbers and orders into the memory and for reading the final result.

Suppose a command to perform an addition or division has been transmitted to the central processor. In response to this order the control must select the correct operands from the memory, transmit them to the arithmetic unit and return to the

Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 78



memory the result of the computation. The memory serves for storing not only the original input data, but also the partial re­sults which will have to be used again as the computation pro­ceeds.

Lastly, if the computation doesn't stop with the execution of this instruction and the storage of the partial result, the control unit must automatically pass on to the next instruction. The connection of the control unit back to the input permits inser­tion of more data when there is room in the memory.

79 Unit & Functional Organization of the Computer

^ 10. Просмотрите текст еще раз. Ответьте на вопросы, ис­
пользуя информацию
текста.

1. What are the most commonly used circuits in any com­puter? 2. How are they called? 3. What kind of a system is a digital computer? 4. Is there anything that a computer cannot do itself? What is it? 5. Where are the instructions and digits stored? 6. What is the function of the control? 7. What does the arithmetic device serve for? 8. What components form the cen­tral processor? 9. What other devices in addition to the above-mentioned ones does a computer require? 10. How are com­putations performed in a computer?

^ 11. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих
сочетаний:

Крупномасштабная цифровая система; система обра­ботки данных; система цифровой связи; наиболее широ­ко распространенные схемы; логические схемы; решать научные проблемы; выполнять числовые вычисления; ин­терпретировать команды; приводить в действие переклю­чатели; выполнять команды; нуждаться (требовать) в не­обходимом устройстве ввода-вывода; введение чисел и команд; считывание конечных результатов; передавать команду в центральный процессор; в ответ на; хранение частичных результатов; позволить введение новых данных; свободное место в памяти.

^ 12. Подберите пары или группы близких по значению слов из
предложенных ниже. Переведите слова на русский
язык.

\ferbs: relate, employ, insert, perform, remove, operate, show, interpret, select, issue, use, receive, perform, cause, print, make, compute, connect, execute, take away, require, act, convert, carry out, demand, permit, demonstrate, choose, transmit, type, store, get, calculate, proceed, continue, keep, allow.

Nouns: response, unit, component, computation, storage, gate, amount, digit, element, memory, instruction, device, equipment, connection, circuit, order, command, information, relation, quantity, answer, calculation, number, data.

Adjectives: broad, complete, each, appropriate, every, basic, essential, digital, original, full, wide, initial, major, large, nu­merical, common, necessary, usual, important, general, great.


Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 80

13. Согласуйте слова в левой колонке с их интерпретаци­
ей, предложенной справа.

1. Functional organization a) processes and stores large
of a computer amount of data and solves

problems of numerical com­putations;

2. Input b) circuits used in large-scale

digital systems;

3. Memory c) method of interrelation of the

main units of a computer

4. Control unit d) removing data from the de-

vice to the outside world;

5. Output e) inserting information into

the computer;

6. Arithmetic unit f) a code of combinations of

electric pulses;

7. Machine language g) performs addition, subtrac-

tion, multiplication, etc;

8. Logic gates h) stores original data as well as

partial results;

9. Digital computer i) causes all parts of the com-

puter to act as a team.

14. Расскажите о действии функциональных устройств
компьютера, пользуясь приведенной ниже схемой.

Central processing unit

81 Unit 6. Functional Organization of the Computer

15. Составьте аннотации на русском языке к следующим текстам по вариантам, используйте упр. 14 на с. 52.

1. Logical circuit elements

As it is known, any digital calculation — whether it is per­formed by 'pencil and paper' methods or with the aid of an automatic computer— must first be broken down into a se­quence of elementary arithmetical operations, such as addition, or multiplication. Each such arithmetical operation may be con­verted into a sequence of simple logical operations. It should be noted that a binary digit may take only two values — "zero" and "one". A logical proposition may be either true or false.

A symbolism and a set of rules suitable for manipulating 'yes or no' logical propositions was developed by George Boole, a self-educated genius who became Professor of Mathematics at Cork University in the middle of the 19lh century. The tech­niques of Boolean algebra are now extensively used by electri­cal engineers for the design and analysis of switching circuits. Both the arithmetic and control units of a computer consist of sets of switching circuits for directing and manipulating elec­trical pulse signals.

The process of combining a number of electronic circuits of known logical properties into an integrated system capable of performing special arithmetical or control functions is known as logical design.

2. The definition of mechanical brain

Let's imagine a railroad line with four stations marked in­put, storage, computer and output. These stations are joined by little gates or switches to the main railroad line. We can imag­ine that numbers and other information move along this rail­road line, loaded (погруженные) in cars. Input and output are stations where numbers or other information go in and come out respectively. Storage is a station where there are many plat­forms and where information can be stored. The computer is a special station, somewhat like a factory. When two numbers are loaded on platforms 1 and 2 of this station and the command is loaded on platform 3, then another number is produced on plat­form^

There is a tower, marked control.This tower runs a telegraph line to each of its little watchmen standing by the gates. The





Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 82

tower tells them when to open and when to shut which gates. Now we can see that as soon as the right gates are shut, cars loaded with information can move between stations. So by clos­ing the right gates, we can flash (отражать) numbers and in­formation through the system and perform operations of rea­soning. Thus we receive a mechanical brain.

In general, a mechanical brain is made up of: a quantity of registers where information can be stored; channels along which information can be sent; mechanisms that carry out arithmetic and logical operations; a control, which guides the machine to perform a sequence of operations; input and output devices, where information can go into and out of the machine; and at last electricity, which provides energy.

16. Поменяйтесь вариантами и выполните письменный перевод текстов, приведенных выше.

TESTS

1. Подберите вместо пропусков подходящие по смыслу слова.

I. The method of all functional categories to one

another represents the functional organization of a com­puter, a) showing; b) relating; c) performing

83 Unit 6. Functional Organization of the Computer

2. Instructions and data are fed through the equip-

ment to the .

a) output; b) memory; c) input; d) control

3. The main units of the computer communicate with each

other a machine language.

a) in spite of; b) because of; c) by means of

4. The input also the information into the pulse —

no-pulse combinations understandable to the computer, a) converts; b) removes; c) accomplishes

5. The four are used to perform basic operations

in a computer.

a) basics; b) circuits; c) equipment

6. A computer can solve very complex numerical .

a) communication; b) computations; c) instructions

7. Numbers and instructions forming the program are
in the memory.

a) solved; b) stored; c) simulated

8. The control unit serves for orders.

a) reading; b) interpreting; c) inputting

9. The function of memory is to store the origi-

nal input data the partial results.

a) not only ... but also; b) either ... or; c) no sooner ... than

10. The includes the control and arithmetic-logi­
cal units.

a) flip-flop; b) digital computer; c) central processor

2. Заполните пропуски, выбрав правильную грамматичес­кую форму.

1. The simplest digital device is any device which [a) can;

b) could; c) must] count.

  1. In ancient days man [a) learns; b) learned; c) has learned]
    to substitute beads for fingers to help him count.

  2. The ancient Chinese simplified the [a) counted; b) to
    count; c) counting] board into abacus.

  3. The Japanese improved the abacus making it [a)more ef­
    ficient; b)much efficient; c) efficienter].

Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 84

  1. The tremendous speeds of computers and the flexibility
    [a) building; b) built; c) to build] into them [a) because
    of; b) according to; c) due to] the logical control make
    modern computers more powerful than mechanical cal­
    culators.

  2. The big problem in understanding digital computers is the
    logic which relates the logical elements into a unit [a)
    performed; b) performing; c) having performed] arith­
    metic and logical operations.

  3. Arithmetic operations [a) converted; b) are converted;
    c) was converted] into a sequence of simple logical oper­
    ations.

  4. Any digital calculation is usually [a) breaking; b) broken;
    c) being broken] down into a sequence of elementary
    operations.

  5. A computer is a device [a) to accept; b) has accepted;
    c) accepts] a set of instructions and [a) executes; b) exe­
    cuted; c) to execute] them in the appropriate sequence.

lO.The flip-flop [a) is; b) was; c) has been] a storage cell with two inputs and two outputs.

Unit 7 STORAGE

1. Ознакомьтесь с терминами текста 1.

primary / secondary storage — первичное / вторичное за­поминающее устройство

main storage — основная память; оперативное запоми­нающее устройство

internal storage [in'tanal] — внутреннее ЗУ sequence ['sikwans] — последовательность; порядок сле­дования

intermediate results [,mte'midrat nsAlts] — промежуточные результаты

ongoing process ['ongoing 'prousss] — продолжающие­ся), постоянный процесс

similarity [simi'lseriti] — сходство; подобие to retain [п Чет] — сохранять; удерживать to locate [lou'keit] — размещать(ся); располагать(ся) value ['vaeljir.] — значение, величина; значимость, цен­ность; оценка binary digit ['Ьатэп 'did^it] — двоичная цифра; двоичный

знак

adjacent [э'йзевэШ] — смежный; соседний; примыкаю­щий

strings of characters — последовательность символов consecutive [ksn'sekjutiv] — последовательный; смеж­ный; соседний

2. Прочтите текст и скажите, что такое запоминающее
устройство в компьютере и о каких его
типах вы узна­
ли из текста.

Text 1. ^ STORAGE UNITS

Computer system architecture is organized around the pri­mary storage unit because all data and instructions used by the





Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 86

computer system must pass through primary storage. Our dis­cussion of computer system units will begin with the functions of the primary and secondary storage units. This leads to the examination of the central processing unit and from there to the consideration of the input and output units. Therefore, the se­quence in which we'll describe the functional units of a digital computer is: 1) storage units, primary and secondary; 2) cen­tral processing unit; 3) input and output units.

As you know, there are primary and secondary storage units. Both contain data and the instructions for processing the data. Data as well as instructions must flow into and out of primary storage.

Primary storage is also called main storage or internal stor­age. The specific functions of internal storage are to hold (store): 1) all data to be processed; 2) intermediate results of process­ing; 3) final results of processing; 4) all the instructions required for ongoing process. Another name for primary storage is mem­ory, because of its similarity to a function of the human brain. However, computer storage differs from human memory in im­portant respects. Computer memory must be able to retain very large numbers of symbol combinations, without forgetting or changing any details. It must be able to locate all its contents quickly upon demand. The combinations of characters, that is, the letters, numbers, and special symbols by which we usually

87 Unit 7. Storage

communicate, are coded. The codes used by computer design­ers are based upon a number system that has only two possible values, 0 and 1 .'A number system with only two digits, 0 and I, is called a binary number system. Each binary digit is called a bit, from Binary digiT. As the information capacity of a single bit is limited to 2 alternatives, codes used by computer design­ers are based upon combinations of bits. These combinations are called binary codes. The most common binary codes are 8-bit codes because an 8-bit code provides for 2/8, or 256 unique combinations of l's ans O's, and this is more than adequate to represent all of the characters by which we communicate.

Data in the form of coded characters are stored in adjacent storage locations in main memory in two principal ways : 1) as "strings" of characters — in bytes; and 2) within fixed-size "box­es" — in words. A fixed number of consecutive bits that repre­sent a character is called a byte. The most common byte size is 8-bit byte. Words are usually 1 or more bytes in length.

^ Secondary storage. Primary storage is expensive because each bit is represented by a high-speed device, such as a semicon­ductor. A million bytes (that is, 8 million bits) is a large amount of primary storage. Often it is necessary to store many millions, sometimes billions, of bytes of data. Therefore slower, less ex­pensive storage units are available for computer systems. These units are called secondary storage. Data are stored in them in the same binary codes as in main storage and are made avail­able to main storage as needed.

^ 3. Просмотрите текст еще раз. Ответьте на вопросы, ис­пользуя информацию текста.

1. What are the functional units of a digital computer? 2. What units make up the central processing unit? 3. How is computer system organized? 4. What are the two main types of storage units? 5. What do they contain? 6. What is the function of a primary storage? 7. Why is primary storage often called memory? 8. In what respect does computer memory differ from human memory? 9. What are codes based on? 10. What is Sec­ondary storage and what is it used for?

Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 88

4. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих
словосочетаний:


Функциональный блок; цифровой компьютер; устрой­ство ввода; устройство управления; арифметико-логичес­кое устройство; центральный процессор; структура компь­ютерной системы; первичное запоминающее устройство; вторичное ЗУ; рассмотрение; поэтому последовательность; оперативное ЗУ; внутренняя память; промежуточные ре­зультаты; подобие функции человеческого мозга; разме­шать содержимое по требованию; система счисления; дво­ичная система счисления; возможные величины; объем информации; двоичный код; смежные ячейки памяти; последовательность символов; быстродействующее уст­ройство; полупроводник; доступный.

^ 5. Вспомните значение новых слов и попытайтесь переве­
сти словосочетания, употребляемые с этими словами.


Storage: available storage; buffer storage; computer storage; data storage; magnetic disk storage; magnetic tape storage; in­put storage; intermediate storage; internal storage; laser storage; main storage; primary storage; secondary storage; sequential-access storage; variable storage; virtual storage.

Value: absolute value; acceptable value; additional value; bi­nary value; byte value; character value; constant value; correct value; data value; digit value; discrete values; invalid value; neg­ative value; numerical value; output value; valid value.

Digit: binary digit; binary-coded digit; check digit; informa­tion digit; input digit; nonsignificant digit; significant digit; dig­it-by-digit.

Sequence: out of sequence; alphabetic sequence; arithmetic se­quence; binary sequence; character sequence; code sequence; in­struction sequence;data sequence; digital sequence; historical se­quence; increasing sequence; program sequence; string sequence.

^ 6. Найдите в тексте слова, близкие по значению следующим:

Memory; element; information; command; examination; character; quantity; number; place; computer architect; likeness.

To apply; to form; to move; to hold; to demand; to connect; to supply; to place; to name; to start; to examine.

Continuous; significant; consecutive; usual; enough; main; initial; general.

89 Unit 7. Storage

7. Переведите предложения, содержащие Perfect Participle
Active и Perfect Participle Passive.


1. Having finished the research the scientists made the anal­ysis of the data obtained. 2. The designer left the office having looked through all the documents. 3. Having discussed the func­tions of storage units we passed on to the consideration of con­trol processing unit. 4. Having limited the information capacity of a single bit to two alternatives the computer designers ex­pressed data by a combination of bits. 5. Having translated the program into machine language the computer architect put the program into the machine. 6. Having been coded the instruction was transmitted to the central processing unit. 7. Having been transmitted to the central processing unit the instruction made arithmetic-logical unit perform some computations. 8. Having been regulated by the operator the equipment operated well. 9. Data having been entered correctly into the computer com­ponent of a data processing system, the need for further manip­ulation by humans is eliminated. 10. Having been well prepared for the examination the pupils could answer all the questions the teacher asked them.

^ 8. Ознакомьтесь с терминами текста 2.

medium (pi. media) — носитель; среда capacity — емкость; объем (памяти); пропускная спо­собность

media capacity — емкость носителя

data access time — время доступа к данным

per bit — на единицу информации

to transfer— передавать(ся); переносить(ся); пересы-лать(ся)

archival storage — архивное ЗУ; архивная память to depend — зависеть от; полагаться, рассчитывать на to rotate — вращать(ся); чередовать(ся); сменять(ся) reason — причина; основание; довод; обосновывать;

делать вывод

solid-state device — твердотельный прибор magnetic core — магнитный сердечник

Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 90

bipolar semiconductor — биполярный полупроводник

metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) — структура металл-оксид-полупроводник randomly — произвольно

random-access memory (RAM) — оперативное запомина­ющее устройство (ОЗУ)

sound recording — звукозапись

to arrange — размещать; располагать; устанавливать;

монтировать tape device — ЗУ на магнитной ленте

to range — классифицировать; располагать в порядке; лежать в диапазоне

magnetic disc storage — ЗУ на магнитном диске

moving-head device — устройство с двигающейся голов­кой

predominant — преобладающий; доминирующий flexible —гибкий; настраиваемый; изменяемый floppy (disk) — гибкий диск(ета); ЗУ на гибком диске to meet the demands — удовлетворять потребности

9. Прочтите текст 2 и скажите, как вы понимаете термин «запоминающая среда» и какие компоненты ее состав­ляют. Переведите текст.

Text 2. ^ STORAGE DEVICES

Storage media are classified as primary storage or secondary storage on the basis of combinations*of cost, capacity, and ac­cess time. The cost of storage devices is expressed as the cost per bit of data stored. The most common units of cost are cents, millicents (0.001 cents) and microcents (0.000001 cents). The time required for the computer to locate and transfer data to and from a storage medium is called the access time for that medi­um. Capacities range from a few hundred bytes of primary stor­age for very small computers to many billions of bytes of archi­val storage for very large computer systems.

Memories may be classified as electronic or electromechani­cal. Electronic memories have no moving mechanical parts, and

91 Unit 7. Storage

data can be transferred into and out of them at very high speeds. Electromechanical memories depend upon moving mechanical parts for their operation, such as mechanisms for rotating mag­netic tapes and disks. Their data access time is longer than is that of electronic memories; however they cost less per bit stored and have larger capacities for data storage. For these reasons most computer systems use electronic memory for primary storage and electromechanical memory for secondary storage.

^ Primary storage has the least capacity and is the most expen­sive; however, it has the fastest access time. The principal pri­mary storage circuit elements are solid-state devices: magnetic cores and semiconductors. For many years magnetic cores were the principal elements used in digital computers for primary storage. The two principal types of semiconductors used for memory are bipolar and metal-oxide semiconductors (MOS). The former is faster, the latter is more commonly used at present. Because data can be accessed randomly, semiconduc­tor memories are referred to as random-access memory, or RAM.

There is a wide range of secondary storage devices. Typical hardware devices are rotating electromechanical devices. Mag­netic tapes, disks, and drums are the secondary storage hardware most often used in computer systems for sequential processing. Magnetic tape, which was invented by the Germans during World War II for sound recording, is the oldest secondary stor­age medium in common use. Data are recorded in the form of small magnetized "dots" that can be arranged to represent coded patterns of bits.

Tape devices range from large-capacity, high-data-rate units used with large data processing systems to cassettes and cartridges used with small systems. Magnetic disk storage, introduced in the early 1960s, has replaced magnetic tape as the main meth­od of secondary storage. As contrasted with magnetic tapes, magnetic discs can perform both sequential and random pro­cessing. They are classified as moving-head, fixed-head, or com­bination moving-head and fixed-head devices. Magnetic discs are the predominant secondary storage media. They include flexible, or floppy discs, called diskettes. The "floppies" were introduced by IBM in 1972 and are still a popular storage me­dium to meet the demands of the microcomputer market.




Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 92

10. Ответьте на вопросы, используя информацию текста.

1. How are storage media classified? 2. How is the cost of storage devices expressed? 3. What is the access time for stor­age media? 4. How does the storage capacity range? 5. What are the two main types of storage devices? 6. What are electronic storage devices? 7. What are the principal primary storage cir­cuit elements? 8. What are the main secondary storage devic­es? 9. What is the oldest secondary medium and when was it invented? 10. What is a floppy?

^ 11. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих
словосочетаний
:

Запоминающие устройства; носители памяти; первич­ные ЗУ; вторичные ЗУ; время доступа; стоимость ЗУ; диа­пазон емкости памяти; архивная память; движущиеся ме­ханические части; вращающиеся магнитные ленты и диски; по этим причинам; твердотельные устройства; маг­нитные сердечники; полупроводники; оперативное ЗУ; аппаратное обеспечение вторичной памяти; звукозапись; . намагниченные точки; представлять зашифрованную ком­бинацию единиц информации; в отличие от магнитных лент; последовательная и произвольная обработка; устрой­ства с движущейся и фиксированной головкой; удовлет­ворять потребности; гибкий диск.

^ 12. Опишите схему.

93 Unit 7. Storage

13. Переведите предложения, содержащие всевозможные
формы причастий:




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