Пособие рассчитано на учащихся средних школ, лицеев, гимназий, колледжей и студентов высших учебных заведе­ний всех, кто интересуется английским языком и увлека­ется компьютером. Удк 811. 111(07) ббк81. 2Англ-9 icon

Пособие рассчитано на учащихся средних школ, лицеев, гимназий, колледжей и студентов высших учебных заведе­ний всех, кто интересуется английским языком и увлека­ется компьютером. Удк 811. 111(07) ббк81. 2Англ-9


1 чел. помогло.
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8. Переведите текст. Ответьте на вопросы, используя ин­
формацию
текста.

1. What is a computer? 2. What are the two possible states of the switches? 3. What are the main functions of a computer? 4. In what way can we make the computer do what we want? 5. What is the basic task of a computer? 6. In what form does a computer accept information? 7. What is a program? 8. What are data? 9. What is memory? 10. What three basic capabilities have computers? 11. What are the ways of inputting informa­tion into the computer? 12. What is the function of an input device? 13. What devices are used for outputting information? 14. What decisions can the computer make? 15. What are the computer's achievements limited by?

9. Найдите в тексте 2 английские эквиваленты следующих
словосочетаний:


Сложная сеть электронных цепей; управлять (приво­дить в действие) переключателями; возможные состояния; хранить (запоминать) числа; обрабатывать символы; по­средством ввода сигналов; включать; выключать; размаг­ничивать сердечники; обработка информации; информа­ция в виде команд; символы, называемые данными; выполнять математические операции; выдавать результа­ты; обеспечивать необходимую информацию; иметь заме­чательные возможности; основные свойства; сложение, вычитание, деление, умножение; возведение в степень; средства для общения с пользователем; устройство ввода; дисковод; считывать информацию; вывод информации; катоднолучевая трубка; принимать решения; выполнять тысячи логических операций; без устали; находить реше-

Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 16

ние задачи; значительно меньший промежуток времени; человек; нудная рутинная работа; в соответствии с введен­ной программой; вырабатывать свои суждения; возможно­сти ограничены программой, заложенной в него челове­ком; дать требуемую информацию; электрические импульсы; со скоростью света; мгновенно производить огромное количество математических операций; человеку может не хватить всей жизни, чтобы закончить работу.

10. Составьте пары или группы близких по значению слов
из перечня, приведенного ниже.

Например: A. to perform, to exercise, to carry out; B. a man, a person, a human being;

Verbs: to turn on, to provide, to type, to accept, to help, to learn, to observe, to call, to tell, to keep, to feed, to solve, to relate, to switch off, to communicate, to receive, to supply, to switch on, to assist, to print, to study, to input, to turn off, to decide, to store, to say, to name, to watch.

Nouns: work, machine, fundamentals, display, application, capabilities, job, storage, screen, state, basics, use, concept, specialist, journal, character, memory, idea, expert, magazine, position, symbol, command, data, solution, device, instruction, powers, information, decision.

Adjectives: basic, tiny, common, small, main, significant, routine, general, remarkable, uninterested, intricate, important, wonderful, complex, little.

Adverbs: rapidly, probably, instantaneously, in a moment, quickly, perhaps.

11. Выполните письменный перевод текста 3 по вариантам.

Text3. ^ APPLICATION OF COMPUTERS

1. At present a great deal of the work force of most coun­tries is engaged in creating, processing, storing, communicat­ing and just working with information. Computers have become commonplace in homes, offices, stores, schools, research insti­tutes, plants.

The use of computers in business, industry and communi­cation services is widespread today. Computer-controlled robots are able to improve the quality of manufactured products and

17 Unit 1. Information-Dependent Society

to increase the productivity of industry. Computers can control the work of power stations, plants and docks. They help in mak­ing different decisions and in management of economy.

The work of banks depends upon computer terminals for millions of daily operations. Without these terminals, records of deposits and withdrawals would be difficult to maintain, and it would be impossible to make inquiries about the current sta­tus of customer accounts.

Computers form a part of many military systems including communication and fire control. They are applied for automatic piloting and automatic navigation. Space exploration depends on computers for guidance, on-board environment and re­search.

2. Computers find application in astronomy and upper at­mosphere research. Weather forecasting, library information services can benefit from computers too.

It is interesting to note that computers are widely used in medicine. They became valuable medical diagnostic tools. Computers are used for optical scanning and image processing, ranging from pattern recognition to image processing. Techni­cians can operate computer tomography scanners which com­bine x-rays with computer technology to give sectional views of the body of patients. The views then can be combined into a single image shown on the screen.

It should be noticed that learning on a computer can be fun. Students spend more time with computer-aided instruction per­forming the assigned task, as compared with conventional class­room.

At last air traffic control is impossible without computer ap­plication. It fully depends upon computer-generated informa­tion.

Many other uses of computers that we cannot imagine at present will become commonplace in the transition from an industrial to post industrial, or information society.

Notes

to maintain records — вести учет

deposits and withdrawal — вклады и изъятие (выемка)

guidance — наведение (на цель); управление; руковод­ство

^ Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 18

on-board environment — бортовое окружение pattern recognition — распознавание образов

TESTS

^ 1. Выберите вариант, который лучше всего выражает глав­
ную идею текста 2.


a) Computers are devices that accept information in the form of instructions.

в) The switches are usualy in one of two states: magne­tized or demagnetized.

c) Computers are remarkable devices serving for process­ing and storage the information and for solving problems.

^ 2. Вставьте необходимые слова вместо пропусков.

1. Information is given into the computer in the form of

a) ideas; b) characters; c) rules

2. The basic function of a computer is information.

a) to switch; b) to keep; c) to process

3. The data needed for solving problems are kept in the

a) memory; b) input device; c) output device

4. Inputting information into the computer is realized by
means of .

a) a printer; b) letters; c) diskettes

5. A computer can carry out arithmetic-logical operations

a) quickly; b) instantaneously; c) during some minutes

6. Computers have become in homes, offices, research

institutes.

a) commonwealth; b) commonplace; c) common room

7. Space uses computers widely.

a) information; b) production; c) exploration

8. Computers are used for image .

a) processing; b) operating; c) producing

9. Computers help in of economy.

a) invironment; b) management; c) government.

19 Unit 1. Information-Dependent Society

10. Air traffic control depends on computer- informa­
tion.
a) generated; b) instructed; c) combined

^ 3. Подберите к терминам, данным в левой колонке, опре­деления, представленные справа.

1. Computer a) a machine by which information is re-

ceived from the computer;

2. Data b) a device capable of storing and manip-

ulating numbers, letters and charac­ters;

3. Input device c) an electronic machine that processes

data under the control of a stored pro­gram;

4. Memory d) a disk drive reading the information

into the computer;

5. Output device e) information given in the form of char-

acters.



Unit 2

^ DEVELOPMENT OF MICROELECTRONICS

1. Ознакомьтесь с терминами текста 1.

applied physics — прикладная физика

generation [d33na'reijn] — создание, формирование, вы­работка

scientific research [saisn'tifik n'satj] — научные исследо­вания

due to the efforts ['dju: ta дэ 'efsts] — благодаря усилиям

manipulation [msenipju'leijn] — управление; обработка;

преобразование

to replace vacuum tubes — заменять электронные лампы a piece of semiconductor ['semiksn'dAkts] — полупровод­никовый кристалл

reduced weight [ri'dju:st 'weit] — уменьшенный вес power consumption ['раиэ kan'sAmpJn] — потребление

(расход) электроэнергии

to carry out ['keen aut] — выполнять; осуществлять solid body — твердое тело; кристалл; полупроводник to respond [n'spond] — отвечать; реагировать at a rate — со скоростью integrated circuit (1С) [mts'greitid 'sakit] — интегральная

схема

batch processing ['bsetf prou'sesirj] — пакетная обработка to assemble [s'sembl] — собирать; монтировать

to lower manufacturing [Чоиэ manju'fasktfanr)] — снизить производительность

to increase reliability ['mkris nlais'bihti] — увеличить на­дежность

21 Unit 2. Development of Microelectronics

2. Прочтите текст и скажите, что изучает электроника и какие открытия способствовали ее развитию.

Text 1. ^ DEVELOPMENT OF ELECTRONICS

Electronics is a field of engineering and applied physics deal­ing with the design and application of electronic circuits. The operation of circuits depends on the flow of electrons for gen­eration, transmission, reception and storage of information.

Today it is difficult to imagine our life without electronics. It surrounds us everywhere. Electronic devices ajre. widely used in scientific research and industrial designing, they control the work of plants and power stations, calculate the trajectories of space-ships and help the people discover new phenomena of nature. Automatization of production processes and studies on living organisms became possible due to electronics.

The invention of vacuum tubes at the beginning of the 20th century was, the starting point of the rapid growth of modern electronics. Vacuum tubes assisted in manipulation of signals. The development of a large variety of tubes designed for spe­cialized functions made possible the progress in radio commu­nication technology before the World Vfar II and in the creation of early computers during and shortly after the war.

The transistor invented by American scientists WShockly, J.Bardeen and WBrattain in 1948 completely replaced the vac-

Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 22

uum tube. The transistor, a small piece of a semiconductor with three electrodes, had great advantages over the best vacuum tubes. It provided the same functions as the vacuum tube but at reduced weight, cost, power consumption, and with high reli­ability. With the invention of the transistor all essential circuit functions could be carried out inside solid bodies. The aim of creating electronic circuits with entirely solid-state components had finally been realized. Early transistors could respond at a rate of a few million times a second. This was fast enough to serve in radio circuits, but far below the speed needed for high­speed computers or for microwave communication systems.

The progress in semiconductor technology led to the devel­opment of the integrated circuit (1С), which was discovered due to the efforts of John Kilby in 1958. There appeared a new field of science — integrated electronics. The essence of it is batch processing. Instead of making, testing and assembling descrete components on a chip one at a time, large groupings of these components together with their interconnections were made all at a time. 1С greatly reduced the size of devices, lowered man­ufacturing costs and at the same time they provided high speed and increased reliability.

3. Просмотрите текст еще раз. Ответьте на вопросы, ис­
пользуя информацию текста.

1. What is electronics? 2, Can you imagine modern life with­out electronics? 3. Where are electronic devices used? 4. What was the beginning of electronics development? 5. What made the progress in radio communication technology possible? 6. What is the transistor? 7. When w?s the transistor invented?

  1. What aim was realized with the invention of the transistor?

  2. When were integrated circuits discovered? 10. What advan­
    tages did the transistors have over the vacuum tubes?

4. Догадайтесь о значении следующих интернациональных

слов и словосочетаний:

Electronics; electrons; physics; information; microelectron­ics; industrial design; to calculate trajectories; phenomena of nature; automatization of production processes; organisms; vac­uum tubes; specialized functions; progress in radio communi­cation technology; transistor; electrode; components; to real-

23 Unit 2. Development of Microelectronics

ize; communication system; technology; descrete components; chip.

5. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих
словосочетаний:

Прикладная физика; передача и прием информации; по­ток электронов; трудно представить; научные исследования; промышленное проектирование; вычислять траекторию кос­мических кораблей; обнаруживать явления природы; благо­даря электронике; отправная точка; способствовать управ­лению сигналами; быстрый рост; разнообразие ламп; создание первых компьютеров; полностью заменил; полу­проводниковый кристалл; уменьшить вес; сократить сто­имость; потребление электроэнергии; высокая надеж­ность; твердотельные компоненты; довольно быстро... но гораздо ниже; высокоскоростной компьютер; микроволно­вые системы связи; полупроводниковая технология; об­ласть науки; интегральная схема; пакетная обработка; сборка дискретных компонентов на кристалле; снизить производственные затраты; обеспечить высокую скорость.

6. Переведите следующие «цепочки существительных».
Запомните, что переводить ряд существительных, не
связанных предлогами, следует, как правило, с конца.

Power consumption; power consumption change; signals manipulation; transistor invention; circuit functions; commu­nication systems, data processing system; integrated circuits development; science field; process control; automatization pro­cesses control; circuit components; size reduction; electronics development; communication means; problem solution; space exploration; pattern recognition; customers accounts; air traf­fic control.

7. Ознакомьтесь с терминами текста 2.

performance [ps'focrnans] — рабочая характеристика; па­раметры; производительность; быстродействие

to predict [pra'dikt] — прогнозировать capability [keips'bihti] — способность; возможность branch of science ['braintf sv 'saisns] — область науки to embrace [imijreis] — охватывать

Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 24

circuit assembly ['sakit s'sembh] — сборка схемы

film technique ['film tgk'mk] — пленочная технология

(метод, способ) invisible to unaided eye — невидимый невооруженному

глазу

to react [n'askt] — реагировать

speed of response — скорость реакции (отклика)

advantage / disadvantage [3d'va:ntid3] — достоинство, пре­имущество / недостаток

benefit ['benefit] — выгода, польза; помогать, приносить пользу

to result from [п'глИ fram] — возникать, происходить в результате

packing density ['psekirj 'densiti]— плотность упаковки

small-scale integrated circuit — малая интегральная схе­ма (МИС)

medium-scale 1С — средняя интегральная схема (СИС) large-scale 1С — большая интегральная схема (БИС)

very-large-scale 1С — сверхбольшая интегральная схема (СБИС)

fineline ['fainlam] — прецизионный; с элементами уменьшенных размеров

transmission line — линия передачи

waveguide ['weivgaid] — волновод

to emerge [i'mad3] — появляться, возникать

to displace — перемещать, смещать

mode — вид, метод, способ; режим работы

pattern — шаблон, образец; образ, изображение

power ['раиэ] — мощность, энергия, питание; произво­дительность, быстродействие; способность, возмож­ность

25 Unit 2. Development of Microelectronics

8. Прочтите текст 2 и скажите, как вы понимаете терми­ны «микроэлектроника» и «микроминиатюризация». Переведите текст.

Text 2. ^ MICROELECTRONICS AND MICROMINIATURIZATION

The intensive effort of electronics to increase the reliability and performance of its products while reducing their size and cost led to the results that hardly anyone could predict. The evolution of electronic technology js sometimes called a revo­lution: a quantitative change in technology gave rise to qualita­tive change in human capabilities. There appeared a new branch of science — microelectronics.

Microelectronics embraces electronics connected with the realization of electronic circuits, systems and subsystems from very small electronic devices. NJicxaelfifitrQnics jaLa-name ft* extremely small electronic components and circuit assemblies, made by film or semiconductor techniques. A microelectronic technology reduced transistors and other circuit elements to dimensions almost invisible to unaided eye. The point of this extraordinary miniaturization is to make circuits long-lasting, low in cost, and capable of performing electronic functions at extremely high speed. It is_ known that the speed of response depends on the size of transistor: the smaller the transistor, the faster it is. The smaller the computer, the faster it can work.

One more advantage of microelectronics is that smaller de­vices consume less power. In space satellites and spaceships this is a very important factor.

Another benefit resulting from microelectronics is the reduc­tion of distances between circuit components. Packing density increased with the appearance of small-scale integrated circuit, medium-scale 1С, large-scale 1С and very-large-scale 1С. The change in scale was pieasured_by the number of transistors on a chip. There appeared a new type of integrated circuits, micro­wave integrated circuit. The evolution of microwave 1С began with the development of planar transmission lines.Then new 1С components in a fineline transmission line appeared. Other more exotic techniques, such as dielectric waveguide integrat­ed circuits emerged.

Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 26

Microelectronic technique is continuing to displace other modes. Circuit patterns are being formed with radiation having wavelength shorter than those of light.

Electronics has extended man's intellectual power. Micro­electronics extends that power still further.

9. Просмотрите текст еще раз и ответьте на вопросы, ис­
пользуя информацию текста.

1. What would you say about electronics? 2. Why is the de­velopment of electronics called a revolution? 3. What is micro­electronics? 4. What techniques does microelectronics use?

  1. What is the benefit of reducing the size of circuit elements?

  2. What do you understand by the term of microminiaturiza­
    tion? 7. What does the speed of the signal response depend on?
    8. What advantages of microelectronics do you know? 9. What
    scales of integration are known to you? 10. How are microelec­
    tronics techniques developing?

10. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих
словосочетаний:

Интенсивные усилия; увеличить надежность; увеличить параметры; уменьшить размер и стоимость; вряд ли кто-нибудь мог прогнозировать; количественные и качествен­ные изменения; область науки; пленочная технология; полупроводниковый метод; сокращать элементы схемы; суть миниатюризации в том, что; создать схемы с долгим сроком службы; чрезвычайно высокая скорость реакции; чем меньше, тем быстрее; преимущество; расходовать энергию; польза; уменьшение расстояния между элемен­тами схемы; большая интегральная схема; микроволновая интегральная схема; волновод; линия передач; смещать; изображение схем; расширять возможности человека.

11. Переведите следующие слова. Обратите внимание на
то, что префиксы dis-, in-, un-y поп-, *г- придают сло­
вам отрицательное значение.

dis-: disadvantage; disconnect; disappear, disclose; discom­fort; discontinue; discount; discredit; discriminate; disintegrate.

in-: invisible; inaccurate; inactive; incapable; incompact; insignificant; inhuman; informal; ineffective; indifferent; inde­cisive; inconsumable; incorrect.

27 Unit 2. Development of Microelectronics

ил-; uncontrollable; unbelievable; unable; unchanged; un­comfortable; uncommunicative; undisciplined; unexpected; unfavourable; unforgettable; unkind.

поп-: non-effective; non-aggressive; noncomparable; non-computable; nonconstant; noncontrollable; nondigital; nondi-mensional; nonprogrammable; nonusable.

//•-; irregular; irrelative; irresponsive; irrational; irreplaceable; irrecognizable.

12. Вспомните образование страдательного залога — to be
(в нужном времени) + 3-я форма глагола.

^ А. Найдите пять случаев употребления страдательного залога в тексте 1 и четыре случая — в тексте 2. Переведи-те предложения.

Б. Преобразуйте следующие предложения действительно­го залога в страдательный по образцу:

People widely use electronic devices-Electronic devices are widely used by people.

1. Electronic devices control the work of power stations. 2. They calculate the trajectories of spaceships. 3. People dis­cover new phenomena of nature due to electronic devices.

  1. Scientists designed a variety of tubes for specialized functions.

  2. American scientists invented the transistor in 1948. 6. Inte­
    grated circuits greatly reduced the size of devices. 7. New types
    of integrated circuits increased packing density. 8. Electronics
    has extended man's intellectual power. 9. Scientists are looking
    for new ways for the improvement of integrated circuits tech­
    nology. 10. Jack Kilby developed the concept of integrating de­
    vice and built the first 1С in 1958.

13. Прочтите текст (по вариантам) и озаглавьте его. Вы­
полните письменный перевод текста по вариантам.

* * *

1. It is well known that the quick development of electron­ics began with the invention of transistors. They replaced elec­tronic tubes due to their numerous advantages. One of the main advantages of the transistors in comparison with the vacuum tube is absence of filament power loss. One of the principal caus-

Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 28

es of damages in electronic circuitry is high temperature. The heat causes breakdown of tubes and other circuit elements that are very sensitive to this influence. The transistor, on the other hand, does not heat its surroundings.

Another advantage of the transistor is its long life. The life of the average transistor is more than ten thousand operating hours. Because of its long lifetime and raggedness, the transis­tor is very reliable and has much better efficiency in professional equipment.

2. As we know, transistors replaced electronic tubes due to their numerous advantages. One of the advantages of the tran­sistor is its small dimensions. Because of their small size, the absence of heating and other properties, transistors make it pos­sible to produce compact, small-dimensioned electronic devices which consume very little power.

In conclusion it is important to note that transistors revolu­tionized many fields of technology. They are successfully used for direct transformation of heat energy by means of thermal elements. They are also used to convert radiant energy into elec­tricity with the help of photocells or solar batteries. Light sources and lasers are built on the basis of transistors. They find wide application in computers, automatic devices, aviation, commu­nication, etc.

Notes

Filament power loss — отсутствие энергии на нити нака­ла

TESTS 1. Вставьте необходимые слова вместо пропусков.

1. Transistors have many over vacuum tubes.

a) patterns; b) advantages; c) scales

2. They very little power.

a) consume; b) generate; c) embrace

3. An integrated circuit is a group of elements connected
together by some circuit technique.

a) processing; b) assembly; c) manipulation

29 Unit 2. Development of Microelectronics

4. The transistor consists of a small piece of a with

three electrods.

a) diode; b) conductor; c) semiconductor.

5. Modern began in the early 20th century with the

invention of electronic tubes.

a) miniaturization; b) electronics; c) microelectronics

6. John Fleming was the of the first two-electrode

vacuum tube.

a) generator; b) receiver; c) inventor

7. One of the transistor advantages was lower power ,

in comparison with vacuum tubes.

a) consumption; b) reception; c) transmission.

8. Microelectronics greatly extended man's intellectual

a) subsystems; b) capabilities; c) dimensions

2. Раскройте скобки и выберите глагол в требуемом зало­ге: действительном или страдательном.

1. Electronic devices (help; are helped) people discover new phenomena of nature. 2. The transistor (replaced; was replaced) by vacuum tubes thanks to its numerous advantages. 3. Due to transistors all circuit functions (carried out; were carried out) inside semiconductors. 4. Electronic devices (use; are used) in scientific research. 5. Before the invention of the transistor its function (performed; was performed) by vacuum tubes. 6. The reliability of electronic systems (connect; is connected) with the number of descrete components. 7. Semiconductor integrated circuits (helped; were helped) to increase reliability of devices. 8. New types of integrated circuits (have developed; have been developed) lately.

Unit3

HISTORY OF COMPUTERS

^ 1. Ознакомьтесь с терминами текста 1

calculating device [ksllcjiK'leitin di'vais] — вычислительное

устройство

multiple ['nultiplj — кратный

abacus ['aebakss] — счеты

slide rule ['slaid 'nil] — логарифмическая линейка

logarithm table ['Ьдэпбт 'teibl] — логарифмическая таб­лица

calculus pkaelkjidas] — исчисление; математический ана­лиз

general-purpose ['4зепэгэ1 'p3:pas] — общего назначения, универсальный

to cut out the human being altogether — полностью исклю­чить человека

to manipulate [ms'nipjuleit] — обрабатывать, преобразо­вывать; управлять

data processing ['deits pre'sesin] — обработка данных (ин­формации)

tabulate the census — занести данные по переписи (на­селения) в таблицу

means of coding ['mi:nz sv 'koudin] — средства кодиро­вания (шифровки)

to punch the holes ['pAntf 5э 'houlz] — пробивать отвер­стия

punched card ['рлШ(1 'kaid] — перфокарта

to perform [рэТэ:т] — выполнять, производить (дей­ствие); осуществлять;

unit of data ['jitnit sv 'deita] — единица информации keyboard terminals — терминал (вывод) с клавишным управлением

31 Unit 3. History of Computers

proliferation [pr3,hf3'reijh] — размножение, быстрое уве­личение

2. Прочтите текст и скажите, о каких первых вычисли­тельных приборах рассказывается в нем.

Text ^ У. THE FIRST CALCULATING DEVICES

Let us take a look at the history of computers that we know today. The very first calculating device used was the ten fingers of a man's hands. This, in fact, is why today we still count in tens and multiples of tens.

Then the abacus was invented. People went on using some form of abacus well into the 16th century, and it is still being used in some parts of the world because it can be understood with­out knowing how to read.

During the 17th and I8lh centuries many people tried to find easy ways of calculating. J.Napier, a Scotsman, invented a me­chanical way of multiplying and dividing, which is now the modern slide rale works. Henry Briggs used Napier's ideas to • produce logarithm tables which all mathematicians use today.

Calculus, another branch of mathematics, was independently invented by both Sir Isaak Newton, an Englishman, and Leib­nitz, a German mathematician. The first real calculating ma­chine appeared in 1820 as the result of several people's experi­ments.

In 1830 Charles Babbage, a gifted English mathematician, proposed to build a general-purpose problem-solving machine that he called "the analytical engine". This machine, which Babbage showed at the Paris Exhibition in 1855, was an attempt to cut out the human being altogether, except for providing the machine with the necessary facts about the problem to be solved. He never finished this work, but many of his ideas were the ba­sis for building today's computers.

By the early part of the twentieth century electromechani­cal machines had been developed and were used for business data processing. Dr. Herman Hollerith, a young statistician from the US Census Bureau successfully tabulated the 1890 census. Hollerith invented a means of coding the data by punching holes into cards. He built one machine to punch the holes and others — to tabulate the collected data. Later Hollerith left the Census




Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 32

Bureau and established his own tabulating machine company. Through a series of merges the company eventually became the IBM Corporation.

Until the middle of the twentieth century machines designed to manipulate punched card data were widely used for business data processing. These early electromechanical data processors were called unit record machines because each punched card contained a unit of data.

In the mid—1940s electronic computers were developed to perform calculations for military and scientific purposes. By the end of the 1960s commercial models of these computers were widely used for both scientific computation and business data processing. Initially these computers accepted their input data from punched cards. By the late 1970s punched cards had been almost universally replaced by keyboard terminals. Since that . time advances in science have led to the proliferation of com­puters throughout our society, and the past is but the prologue that gives us a glimpse of the nature.

^ 3. Просмотрите текст еще раз. Ответьте на вопросы, ис­пользуя информацию текста.

1. What was the very first calculating device? 2. What is the abacus? 3. What is the modern slide rule? 4. Who gave the ideas for producing logarithm tables? 5. How did Newton and Leib­nitz contribute to the problem of calculation? 6. When did the first calculating machine appear? 7. What was the main idea of . Ch.Babbage's machine? 8. How did electromechanical ma­chines appear and what were they used for? 9. What means of

33 Unit 3. History of Computers

coding the data did Hollerith devise? 10. How were those elec­tromechanical machines called and why? 11. What kind of com­puters appeared later? 12. What new had the computers of 1970s?

^ 4. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих
словосочетаний:

Вычислительное устройство; легкий способ вычисления; поэтому (вот почему); кратное десяти; изобрести механи­ческий способ умножения и деления; логарифмическая линейка; составить таблицы логарифмов; математический анализ; изобрести независимо (друг от друга); в результа­те; полностью исключить человека; кроме (за исключени­ем); обработка деловой информации; средство кодирова­ния информации; перфокарты; пробивать отверстия; оформить собранные данные в таблицу; работать с данны­ми на перфокарте; устройство, записывающее информа­цию блоками; единица информации; выполнять вычисле­ния; для научных целей; клавишный терминал

^ 5. Вспомните значение следующих глаголов и подберите к
ним производные. Например: to calculate — calculating,
calculator, calculation.


To compute, to invent, to know, to multiply, to divide, to depend, to solve, to provide, to process, to code, to punch, to collect, to design, to store, to contribute, to use, to manipulate, to assemble, to connect, to consume, to rely, to divide, to mul­tiply, to inform, to instruct, to discover, to operate.

^ 6. Переведите словосочетания, содержащие:

А. Причастие IParticiple I

Computers using vacuum tubes; the machine calculating mathematical problems; the computer keeping instructions in its memory; binary code storing data and instructions; the vac­uum tube controlling and amplifying -electronic signals; com­puters performing computations in milliseconds; electronic . pulses moving at the speed of light; students coding the infor­mation by using a binary code; devices printing the information; keyboard terminals replacing vacuum tubes.

Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 34

Б. Причастие II— Participle II

The given information; the name given to the machine; the coded data; the device used in World War II; the invention named ENIAC; the machine called EDVAC; instructions kept in the memory; the engine designed for storing data; data stored in a binary code; vacuum tubes invented by J. Neumann; the general-purpose machine proposed by Ch. Babbage; the ma­chine provided with the necessary facts.

7. Ознакомьтесь с терминами текста 2.

analog computer [э'па?1эд kam'pjuta] — аналоговый ком­пьютер

digital computer [fdid3rt3l kam'pjata] — цифровой компь­ютер

to aim guns ['eim 'длпг] — наводить орудия на цель

to figure out ['пдэг aut] — вычислять

at a fast rate [at э 'fa:st 'reit] — с высокой скоростью

memory / storage ['тетэп /'stond3] — запоминающее ус­тройство

to store data and instructions — запоминать информацию и команды

stored program computer — компьютер с занесенной в память программой

binary code ['Ьатэп 'koud] — двоичный код condition [kan'difn] — режим, состояние, условие

vacuum tube ['vsekjuam tju:b] — электронная (вакуумная) трубка (лампа)

to amplify ['asmphfai] — усиливать

to perform computations [рэТэ:т ksmpju'teijh] — выпол­нять вычисления

8, Прочтите текст 2 и скажите, что вы узнали о первых циф­
ровых и аналоговых компьютерах. Переведите текст.

Text 2. ^ THE FIRST COMPUTERS

In 1930 the first analog computer was built by American named Vannevar Bush. This device was used in Wbrld W&r II to help aim guns.

35 Unit 3. History of Computers

Many technical developments of electronic digital comput­ers took place in the 1940s and 1950s. Mark I, the name given to the first digital computer, was completed in 1944. The man responsible for this invention was Professor Howard Aiken. This was the first machine that could figure out long lists of mathe­matical problems at a very fast rate.

In 1946 two engineers at the University of Pennsilvania, J.Eckert and J.Maushly, built their digital computer with vacu­um tubes. They named their new invention ENIAC (the Elec­tronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator).

Another important achievement in developing computers came in 1947, when John von Neumann developed the idea of keeping instructions for the computer inside the computer's memory. The contribution of John von Neumann was particu­larly significant. As contrasted with Babbage's analytical engine, which was designed to store only data, von Neumann's ma­chine, called the Electronic Discrete Variable Computer, or EDVAC, was able to store both data and instructions. He also contributed to the idea of storing data and instructions in a bi­nary code that uses only ones and zeros. This simplified com­puter design. Thus computers use two conditions, high voltage, and low voltage, to translate the symbols by which we commu­nicate into unique combinations of electrical pulses. Wfe refer to these combinations as codes.

Neumann's stored program computer as well as other ma­chines of that time were made possible by the invention of the vacuum tube that could control and amplify electronic signals. Early computers, using vacuum tubes, could perform compu­tations in thousandths of seconds, called milliseconds, instead of seconds required by mechanical devices.

9. Просмотрите текст еще раз и ответьте на вопросы, ис­пользуя информацию текста.

1. When was the first analog computer built? 2. Where and how was that computer used? 3. When did the first digital computers appear? 4. Who was the inventor of the first digital computer? 5. What could that device do? 6. What is ENIAC? Decode the word. 7. What was J.Neumann's contribution into the development of computers? 8. What were the advantages of EDVAC in comparison with ENIAC? 9, What does binary coda

Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 36

mean? 10. Due to what invention could the first digital com­puters be built?

10. Найдите в тексте 2 английские эквиваленты следующих
словосочетаний.

Цифровые компьютеры; технические усовершенствова­ния; совершенствование компьютеров; ответственный за изобретение; математические задачи; электронные трубки; важное достижение; запоминающее устройство; значи­тельный вклад; двоичный код; высокое напряжение; низ­кое напряжение; электрические импульсы; тысячная доля секунды.

Происходить; завершать; вычислять; хранить команды внутри компьютера; запоминать информацию; запоминать команды; содействовать; использовать единицу и ноль; упрощать дизайн; усиливать сигналы; выполнять вычис­ления.

11. Составьте пары близких по значению слов из перечня,
представленного ниже.

Verbs: to name, to complete, to calculate, to develop, to keep, to interprete, to communicate, to fulfill, to apply, to trans­late, to improve, to build, to call, to store, to communicate, to figure out, to perform, to use, to finish, to construct, to con­nect.

Nouns: speed, aim, storage, information, machine, signifi­cance, computation, data, device, rate, calculation, purpose, memory, importance.

12. Заполните пропуски необходимыми словами.

1. The first digital computer could f< yV' a lot of mathe­matical problems at a fast Г '-'■ 2. Vannevar Bush built the firsts/'-7 '-; computer in 1930. 3. Babbage's analytical engine was designed to c '' ^data. 4. J.von Neumann invented a ma­chine that was able to.' not only data but also . _______

  1. Neumann the idea of storing data in a ^__ .

  2. Computers use two conditions for- symbols. 7. The

invention of made computers possible to control

and electronic signals. 8. Due to comput­
ers could perform much faster.

37 Unit 3. History of Computers

13. Переведите предложения или словосочетания, содер­
жащие:

А. Инфинитив в функции обстоятельства

1. Computers were designed to perform thousands of com­putations per second. 2. To make computers more reliable tran­sistors were used. 3. They were applied to reduce computation­al time. 4. To integrate large numbers of circuit elements into a small chip, transistors should be reduced in size. 5. To use in­tegrated circuit technology new computers were built. 6. Ana­lytical engine was invented to store data.

Б. Инфинитив в функции определения

The problem to be solved; the work to be finished; the cards to be punched; calculations to be performed; the machine to be shown at the exhibition; the device to be provided with the nec­essary facts; computers to be used for data processing; efforts to increase reliability; electronics to connect systems and sub­systems; the speed of response to depend on the size of transis­tor; computers to perform thousands of calculations per second; vacuum tubes to control and amplify electric signals; these are circuits to use a large number of transistors; operations to be performed.

14. Выполните письменно перевод текста 3 по вариантам.

ТезЛЗ. ^ SOME FIRST COMPUTER MODELS

1. Babbage's Analytical Engine

In 1832, an English inventor and mathematician Charles Babbage was commissioned by the British government to devel­op a system for calculating the rise and fall of the tides.

Babbage designed a device and called it an analytical engine. It was the first programmable computer, complete with punched cards for data input. Babbage gave the engine the ability to per­form different types of mathematical operations. The machine was not confined to simple addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division. It had its own "memory", due to which the machine could use different combinations and sequences of operations to suit the purposes of the operator.

The machine of his dream was never realized in his life. Yet Babbage's idea didn't die with him. Other scientists made at-

Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 38

tempts to build mechanical, general-purpose, stored-program computers throughout the next century. In 1941 a relay com­puter was built in Germany by Conrad Zuse. It was a major step toward the realization of Babbage's dream.

2. The Mark I Computer (1937-1944)

In 1944 in the United States, International Business Ma­chines (IBM) built a machine in cooperation with scientists working at Harvard University under the direction of Prof. Aik-en. The machine, called Mark I Automatic Sequence-Con­trolled Calculator, was built to perform calculations for the Manhattan Project, which led to the development of atomic bomb. It was the largest electromechanical calculator ever built. It used over 3000 electrically actuated switches to control its operations. Although its operations were not controlled elec­tronically, Aiken's machine is often classified as a computer because its instructions, which were entered by means of a punched paper tape, could be altered. The computer could cre­ate ballistic tables used by naval artillery.

The relay computer had its problems. Since relays are elec­tromechanical devices, the switching contacts operate by means of electromagnets and springs. They are slow, very noisy and consume a lot of power.

3. The ABC (1939-1942)

The work on introducing electronics into the design of com­puters was going on.

The gadget that was the basis for the first computer revolu­tion was the vacuum tube, an electronic device invented early in the twentieth century. The vacuum tube was ideal for use in computers. It had no mechanical moving parts. It switched flows of electrons off and on at rates far faster than possible with any mechanical device. It was relatively reliable, and operated hun­dreds of hours before failure. The first vacuum tube computer was built at Iowa University at about the same time as the Mark I. The computer, capable to perform thousands of related computations, was called ABC, the Atanasoff-Berry Comput­er, after Dr.John Atanasoff, a professor of physics and his assis­tant, Clifford Berry. It used 45 vacuum tubes for internal logic and capacitors for storage. From the ABC a number of vacu­um-tube digital computers developed.

39 Unit 3. History of Computers

Soon the British developed a computer with vacuum tubes and used it to decode German messages.

  1. Поменяйтесь вариантами, прочтите текст и выразите
    одним-двумя предложениями основную мысль текстов,
    предложенных выше.

  2. Прочтите текст 4 и передайте кратко его содержание
    а) на русском языке; б) на английском языке.

Text 4, ^ FOUR GENERATIONS OF COMPUTERS

The first vacuum tubes computers are referred to as first gen­eration computers, and the approximate period of their use was from 1950 to 1959. UNIVAC 1 (UNF&rsal Automatic Com­puter) is an example of these computers which could perform thousands of calculations per second. Those devices were not only bulky, they were also unreliable. The thousands of vacuum tubes emitted large amounts of heat and burned out frequently.

The transistor, a smaller and more reliable successor to the vacuum tube, was invented in 1948. So-called second genera­tion computers, which used large numbers of transistors were able to reduce computational time from milliseconds to microsec­onds, or millionths of seconds. Second-generation computers were smaller, faster and more reliable than first-generation com­puters.

Advances in electronics technology continued, and micro­electronics made it possible to reduce the size of transistors and integrate large numbers of circuit elements into very small chips of silicon. The computers that were designed to use integrated circuit technology were called third generation computers, and the approximate time span of these machines was from 1960 to 1979. They could perform many data processing operations in nanoseconds, which are billionths of seconds.

Fourth generation computers have now arrived, and the inte­grated circuits that are being developed have been greatly re­duced in size. This is due to microminiaturization, which means that the circuits are much smaller than before; as many as 100 tiny circuits are placed now on a single chip. A chip is a square or rectangular piece of silicon, usually from 1/10 to 1/4 inch, upon which several layers of an integrated circuit are etched or

Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 40

imprinted, after which the circuit is encapsulated in plastic or metal.

TESTS

^ 1. Подберите вместо пропусков подходящее по смыслу слово.

1. British scientists invented a way of multiplying and

dividing.

a) mechanical; b) electrical; c) optical

2. A new branch of mathematics, , was invented in

England and Germany independently.

a) mechanics; b) arithmetics; c) calculus

3. A young American clerk invented a means of coding
by punched cards.

a) letters; b) data; c) numbers

4. Soon punched cards were replaced by terminals.

a) printer; b) scanner; c) keyboard

5. Mark I was the first computer that could solve

mathematical problems.

a) analog; 1?) digital; c) mechanical

6. J. von Neumann simplified his computer by storing in­
formation in a code.

a) analytical; b) numerical; c) binary

7. Vacuum tubes could control and electric signals.

a) calculate; b) amplify; c) generate

8. The first generation computers were and often

burned out.

a) uncomfortable; b) uncommunicative; c) unreliable

9. Computers of the second generation used which

reduced computational time greatly.

a) transistors; b) integrated circuits; c) vacuum tubes

10. Due to the development of the fourth generation

computers became possible.

a) microelectronics; b) miniaturization; c) microminia­turization

41 Unit 3. History of Computers

2. Выберите правильный перевод предложений, содержа­щих неличные формы глагола (Infinitive, Gerund,




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