8. Переведите текст. Ответьте на вопросы, используя ин
1. What is a computer? 2. What are the two possible states of the switches? 3. What are the main functions of a computer? 4. In what way can we make the computer do what we want? 5. What is the basic task of a computer? 6. In what form does a computer accept information? 7. What is a program? 8. What are data? 9. What is memory? 10. What three basic capabilities have computers? 11. What are the ways of inputting information into the computer? 12. What is the function of an input device? 13. What devices are used for outputting information? 14. What decisions can the computer make? 15. What are the computer's achievements limited by?
9. Найдите в тексте 2 английские эквиваленты следующих
Сложная сеть электронных цепей; управлять (приводить в действие) переключателями; возможные состояния; хранить (запоминать) числа; обрабатывать символы; посредством ввода сигналов; включать; выключать; размагничивать сердечники; обработка информации; информация в виде команд; символы, называемые данными; выполнять математические операции; выдавать результаты; обеспечивать необходимую информацию; иметь замечательные возможности; основные свойства; сложение, вычитание, деление, умножение; возведение в степень; средства для общения с пользователем; устройство ввода; дисковод; считывать информацию; вывод информации; катоднолучевая трубка; принимать решения; выполнять тысячи логических операций; без устали; находить реше-
Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 16
ние задачи; значительно меньший промежуток времени; человек; нудная рутинная работа; в соответствии с введенной программой; вырабатывать свои суждения; возможности ограничены программой, заложенной в него человеком; дать требуемую информацию; электрические импульсы; со скоростью света; мгновенно производить огромное количество математических операций; человеку может не хватить всей жизни, чтобы закончить работу.
10. Составьте пары или группы близких по значению слов
из перечня, приведенного ниже.
Например: A. to perform, to exercise, to carry out; B. a man, a person, a human being;
Verbs: to turn on, to provide, to type, to accept, to help, to learn, to observe, to call, to tell, to keep, to feed, to solve, to relate, to switch off, to communicate, to receive, to supply, to switch on, to assist, to print, to study, to input, to turn off, to decide, to store, to say, to name, to watch.
Nouns: work, machine, fundamentals, display, application, capabilities, job, storage, screen, state, basics, use, concept, specialist, journal, character, memory, idea, expert, magazine, position, symbol, command, data, solution, device, instruction, powers, information, decision.
Adjectives: basic, tiny, common, small, main, significant, routine, general, remarkable, uninterested, intricate, important, wonderful, complex, little.
Adverbs: rapidly, probably, instantaneously, in a moment, quickly, perhaps.
11. Выполните письменный перевод текста 3 по вариантам.
1. At present a great deal of the work force of most countries is engaged in creating, processing, storing, communicating and just working with information. Computers have become commonplace in homes, offices, stores, schools, research institutes, plants.
The use of computers in business, industry and communication services is widespread today. Computer-controlled robots are able to improve the quality of manufactured products and
17 Unit 1. Information-Dependent Society
to increase the productivity of industry. Computers can control the work of power stations, plants and docks. They help in making different decisions and in management of economy.
The work of banks depends upon computer terminals for millions of daily operations. Without these terminals, records of deposits and withdrawals would be difficult to maintain, and it would be impossible to make inquiries about the current status of customer accounts.
Computers form a part of many military systems including communication and fire control. They are applied for automatic piloting and automatic navigation. Space exploration depends on computers for guidance, on-board environment and research.
2. Computers find application in astronomy and upper atmosphere research. Weather forecasting, library information services can benefit from computers too.
It is interesting to note that computers are widely used in medicine. They became valuable medical diagnostic tools. Computers are used for optical scanning and image processing, ranging from pattern recognition to image processing. Technicians can operate computer tomography scanners which combine x-rays with computer technology to give sectional views of the body of patients. The views then can be combined into a single image shown on the screen.
It should be noticed that learning on a computer can be fun. Students spend more time with computer-aided instruction performing the assigned task, as compared with conventional classroom.
At last air traffic control is impossible without computer application. It fully depends upon computer-generated information.
Many other uses of computers that we cannot imagine at present will become commonplace in the transition from an industrial to post industrial, or information society.
to maintain records — вести учет
deposits and withdrawal — вклады и изъятие (выемка)
guidance — наведение (на цель); управление; руководство
on-board environment — бортовое окружение pattern recognition — распознавание образов
a) Computers are devices that accept information in the form of instructions.
в) The switches are usualy in one of two states: magnetized or demagnetized.
c) Computers are remarkable devices serving for processing and storage the information and for solving problems.
1. Information is given into the computer in the form of
a) ideas; b) characters; c) rules
2. The basic function of a computer is information.
a) to switch; b) to keep; c) to process
3. The data needed for solving problems are kept in the
a) memory; b) input device; c) output device
4. Inputting information into the computer is realized by
means of .
a) a printer; b) letters; c) diskettes
5. A computer can carry out arithmetic-logical operations
a) quickly; b) instantaneously; c) during some minutes
6. Computers have become in homes, offices, research
a) commonwealth; b) commonplace; c) common room
7. Space uses computers widely.
a) information; b) production; c) exploration
8. Computers are used for image .
a) processing; b) operating; c) producing
9. Computers help in of economy.
a) invironment; b) management; c) government.
19 Unit 1. Information-Dependent Society
10. Air traffic control depends on computer- informa
a) generated; b) instructed; c) combined
1. Computer a) a machine by which information is re-
ceived from the computer;
2. Data b) a device capable of storing and manip-
ulating numbers, letters and characters;
3. Input device c) an electronic machine that processes
data under the control of a stored program;
4. Memory d) a disk drive reading the information
into the computer;
5. Output device e) information given in the form of char-
1. Ознакомьтесь с терминами текста 1.
applied physics — прикладная физика
generation [d33na'reijn] — создание, формирование, выработка
scientific research [saisn'tifik n'satj] — научные исследования
due to the efforts ['dju: ta дэ 'efsts] — благодаря усилиям
manipulation [msenipju'leijn] — управление; обработка;
to replace vacuum tubes — заменять электронные лампы a piece of semiconductor ['semiksn'dAkts] — полупроводниковый кристалл
reduced weight [ri'dju:st 'weit] — уменьшенный вес power consumption ['раиэ kan'sAmpJn] — потребление
to carry out ['keen aut] — выполнять; осуществлять solid body — твердое тело; кристалл; полупроводник to respond [n'spond] — отвечать; реагировать at a rate — со скоростью integrated circuit (1С) [mts'greitid 'sakit] — интегральная
batch processing ['bsetf prou'sesirj] — пакетная обработка to assemble [s'sembl] — собирать; монтировать
to lower manufacturing [Чоиэ manju'fasktfanr)] — снизить производительность
to increase reliability ['mkris nlais'bihti] — увеличить надежность
21 Unit 2. Development of Microelectronics
2. Прочтите текст и скажите, что изучает электроника и какие открытия способствовали ее развитию.
Text 1. ^
Electronics is a field of engineering and applied physics dealing with the design and application of electronic circuits. The operation of circuits depends on the flow of electrons for generation, transmission, reception and storage of information.
Today it is difficult to imagine our life without electronics. It surrounds us everywhere. Electronic devices ajre. widely used in scientific research and industrial designing, they control the work of plants and power stations, calculate the trajectories of space-ships and help the people discover new phenomena of nature. Automatization of production processes and studies on living organisms became possible due to electronics.
The invention of vacuum tubes at the beginning of the 20th century was, the starting point of the rapid growth of modern electronics. Vacuum tubes assisted in manipulation of signals. The development of a large variety of tubes designed for specialized functions made possible the progress in radio communication technology before the World Vfar II and in the creation of early computers during and shortly after the war.
The transistor invented by American scientists WShockly, J.Bardeen and WBrattain in 1948 completely replaced the vac-
Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 22
uum tube. The transistor, a small piece of a semiconductor with three electrodes, had great advantages over the best vacuum tubes. It provided the same functions as the vacuum tube but at reduced weight, cost, power consumption, and with high reliability. With the invention of the transistor all essential circuit functions could be carried out inside solid bodies. The aim of creating electronic circuits with entirely solid-state components had finally been realized. Early transistors could respond at a rate of a few million times a second. This was fast enough to serve in radio circuits, but far below the speed needed for highspeed computers or for microwave communication systems.
The progress in semiconductor technology led to the development of the integrated circuit (1С), which was discovered due to the efforts of John Kilby in 1958. There appeared a new field of science — integrated electronics. The essence of it is batch processing. Instead of making, testing and assembling descrete components on a chip one at a time, large groupings of these components together with their interconnections were made all at a time. 1С greatly reduced the size of devices, lowered manufacturing costs and at the same time they provided high speed and increased reliability.
3. Просмотрите текст еще раз. Ответьте на вопросы, ис
пользуя информацию текста.
1. What is electronics? 2, Can you imagine modern life without electronics? 3. Where are electronic devices used? 4. What was the beginning of electronics development? 5. What made the progress in radio communication technology possible? 6. What is the transistor? 7. When w?s the transistor invented?
4. Догадайтесь о значении следующих интернациональных
слов и словосочетаний:
Electronics; electrons; physics; information; microelectronics; industrial design; to calculate trajectories; phenomena of nature; automatization of production processes; organisms; vacuum tubes; specialized functions; progress in radio communication technology; transistor; electrode; components; to real-
23 Unit 2. Development of Microelectronics
ize; communication system; technology; descrete components; chip.
5. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих
Прикладная физика; передача и прием информации; поток электронов; трудно представить; научные исследования; промышленное проектирование; вычислять траекторию космических кораблей; обнаруживать явления природы; благодаря электронике; отправная точка; способствовать управлению сигналами; быстрый рост; разнообразие ламп; создание первых компьютеров; полностью заменил; полупроводниковый кристалл; уменьшить вес; сократить стоимость; потребление электроэнергии; высокая надежность; твердотельные компоненты; довольно быстро... но гораздо ниже; высокоскоростной компьютер; микроволновые системы связи; полупроводниковая технология; область науки; интегральная схема; пакетная обработка; сборка дискретных компонентов на кристалле; снизить производственные затраты; обеспечить высокую скорость.
6. Переведите следующие «цепочки существительных».
Запомните, что переводить ряд существительных, не
связанных предлогами, следует, как правило, с конца.
Power consumption; power consumption change; signals manipulation; transistor invention; circuit functions; communication systems, data processing system; integrated circuits development; science field; process control; automatization processes control; circuit components; size reduction; electronics development; communication means; problem solution; space exploration; pattern recognition; customers accounts; air traffic control.
7. Ознакомьтесь с терминами текста 2.
performance [ps'focrnans] — рабочая характеристика; параметры; производительность; быстродействие
to predict [pra'dikt] — прогнозировать capability [keips'bihti] — способность; возможность branch of science ['braintf sv 'saisns] — область науки to embrace [imijreis] — охватывать
Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 24
circuit assembly ['sakit s'sembh] — сборка схемы
film technique ['film tgk'mk] — пленочная технология
(метод, способ) invisible to unaided eye — невидимый невооруженному
to react [n'askt] — реагировать
speed of response — скорость реакции (отклика)
advantage / disadvantage [3d'va:ntid3] — достоинство, преимущество / недостаток
benefit ['benefit] — выгода, польза; помогать, приносить пользу
to result from [п'глИ fram] — возникать, происходить в результате
packing density ['psekirj 'densiti]— плотность упаковки
small-scale integrated circuit — малая интегральная схема (МИС)
medium-scale 1С — средняя интегральная схема (СИС) large-scale 1С — большая интегральная схема (БИС)
very-large-scale 1С — сверхбольшая интегральная схема (СБИС)
fineline ['fainlam] — прецизионный; с элементами уменьшенных размеров
transmission line — линия передачи
waveguide ['weivgaid] — волновод
to emerge [i'mad3] — появляться, возникать
to displace — перемещать, смещать
mode — вид, метод, способ; режим работы
pattern — шаблон, образец; образ, изображение
power ['раиэ] — мощность, энергия, питание; производительность, быстродействие; способность, возможность
25 Unit 2. Development of Microelectronics
8. Прочтите текст 2 и скажите, как вы понимаете термины «микроэлектроника» и «микроминиатюризация». Переведите текст.
Text 2. ^
The intensive effort of electronics to increase the reliability and performance of its products while reducing their size and cost led to the results that hardly anyone could predict. The evolution of electronic technology js sometimes called a revolution: a quantitative change in technology gave rise to qualitative change in human capabilities. There appeared a new branch of science — microelectronics.
Microelectronics embraces electronics connected with the realization of electronic circuits, systems and subsystems from very small electronic devices. NJicxaelfifitrQnics jaLa-name ft* extremely small electronic components and circuit assemblies, made by film or semiconductor techniques. A microelectronic technology reduced transistors and other circuit elements to dimensions almost invisible to unaided eye. The point of this extraordinary miniaturization is to make circuits long-lasting, low in cost, and capable of performing electronic functions at extremely high speed. It is_ known that the speed of response depends on the size of transistor: the smaller the transistor, the faster it is. The smaller the computer, the faster it can work.
One more advantage of microelectronics is that smaller devices consume less power. In space satellites and spaceships this is a very important factor.
Another benefit resulting from microelectronics is the reduction of distances between circuit components. Packing density increased with the appearance of small-scale integrated circuit, medium-scale 1С, large-scale 1С and very-large-scale 1С. The change in scale was pieasured_by the number of transistors on a chip. There appeared a new type of integrated circuits, microwave integrated circuit. The evolution of microwave 1С began with the development of planar transmission lines.Then new 1С components in a fineline transmission line appeared. Other more exotic techniques, such as dielectric waveguide integrated circuits emerged.
Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 26
Microelectronic technique is continuing to displace other modes. Circuit patterns are being formed with radiation having wavelength shorter than those of light.
Electronics has extended man's intellectual power. Microelectronics extends that power still further.
9. Просмотрите текст еще раз и ответьте на вопросы, ис
пользуя информацию текста.
1. What would you say about electronics? 2. Why is the development of electronics called a revolution? 3. What is microelectronics? 4. What techniques does microelectronics use?
10. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих
Интенсивные усилия; увеличить надежность; увеличить параметры; уменьшить размер и стоимость; вряд ли кто-нибудь мог прогнозировать; количественные и качественные изменения; область науки; пленочная технология; полупроводниковый метод; сокращать элементы схемы; суть миниатюризации в том, что; создать схемы с долгим сроком службы; чрезвычайно высокая скорость реакции; чем меньше, тем быстрее; преимущество; расходовать энергию; польза; уменьшение расстояния между элементами схемы; большая интегральная схема; микроволновая интегральная схема; волновод; линия передач; смещать; изображение схем; расширять возможности человека.
11. Переведите следующие слова. Обратите внимание на
то, что префиксы dis-, in-, un-y поп-, *г- придают сло
вам отрицательное значение.
dis-: disadvantage; disconnect; disappear, disclose; discomfort; discontinue; discount; discredit; discriminate; disintegrate.
in-: invisible; inaccurate; inactive; incapable; incompact; insignificant; inhuman; informal; ineffective; indifferent; indecisive; inconsumable; incorrect.
27 Unit 2. Development of Microelectronics
ил-; uncontrollable; unbelievable; unable; unchanged; uncomfortable; uncommunicative; undisciplined; unexpected; unfavourable; unforgettable; unkind.
поп-: non-effective; non-aggressive; noncomparable; non-computable; nonconstant; noncontrollable; nondigital; nondi-mensional; nonprogrammable; nonusable.
//•-; irregular; irrelative; irresponsive; irrational; irreplaceable; irrecognizable.
12. Вспомните образование страдательного залога — to be
(в нужном времени) + 3-я форма глагола.
^ те предложения.
Б. Преобразуйте следующие предложения действительного залога в страдательный по образцу:
People widely use electronic devices-Electronic devices are widely used by people.
1. Electronic devices control the work of power stations. 2. They calculate the trajectories of spaceships. 3. People discover new phenomena of nature due to electronic devices.
13. Прочтите текст (по вариантам) и озаглавьте его. Вы
полните письменный перевод текста по вариантам.
* * *
1. It is well known that the quick development of electronics began with the invention of transistors. They replaced electronic tubes due to their numerous advantages. One of the main advantages of the transistors in comparison with the vacuum tube is absence of filament power loss. One of the principal caus-
Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 28
es of damages in electronic circuitry is high temperature. The heat causes breakdown of tubes and other circuit elements that are very sensitive to this influence. The transistor, on the other hand, does not heat its surroundings.
Another advantage of the transistor is its long life. The life of the average transistor is more than ten thousand operating hours. Because of its long lifetime and raggedness, the transistor is very reliable and has much better efficiency in professional equipment.
2. As we know, transistors replaced electronic tubes due to their numerous advantages. One of the advantages of the transistor is its small dimensions. Because of their small size, the absence of heating and other properties, transistors make it possible to produce compact, small-dimensioned electronic devices which consume very little power.
In conclusion it is important to note that transistors revolutionized many fields of technology. They are successfully used for direct transformation of heat energy by means of thermal elements. They are also used to convert radiant energy into electricity with the help of photocells or solar batteries. Light sources and lasers are built on the basis of transistors. They find wide application in computers, automatic devices, aviation, communication, etc.
Filament power loss — отсутствие энергии на нити накала
TESTS 1. Вставьте необходимые слова вместо пропусков.
1. Transistors have many over vacuum tubes.
a) patterns; b) advantages; c) scales
2. They very little power.
a) consume; b) generate; c) embrace
3. An integrated circuit is a group of elements connected
together by some circuit technique.
a) processing; b) assembly; c) manipulation
29 Unit 2. Development of Microelectronics
4. The transistor consists of a small piece of a with
a) diode; b) conductor; c) semiconductor.
5. Modern began in the early 20th century with the
invention of electronic tubes.
a) miniaturization; b) electronics; c) microelectronics
6. John Fleming was the of the first two-electrode
a) generator; b) receiver; c) inventor
7. One of the transistor advantages was lower power ,
in comparison with vacuum tubes.
a) consumption; b) reception; c) transmission.
8. Microelectronics greatly extended man's intellectual
a) subsystems; b) capabilities; c) dimensions
2. Раскройте скобки и выберите глагол в требуемом залоге: действительном или страдательном.
1. Electronic devices (help; are helped) people discover new phenomena of nature. 2. The transistor (replaced; was replaced) by vacuum tubes thanks to its numerous advantages. 3. Due to transistors all circuit functions (carried out; were carried out) inside semiconductors. 4. Electronic devices (use; are used) in scientific research. 5. Before the invention of the transistor its function (performed; was performed) by vacuum tubes. 6. The reliability of electronic systems (connect; is connected) with the number of descrete components. 7. Semiconductor integrated circuits (helped; were helped) to increase reliability of devices. 8. New types of integrated circuits (have developed; have been developed) lately.
HISTORY OF COMPUTERS
calculating device [ksllcjiK'leitin di'vais] — вычислительное
multiple ['nultiplj — кратный
abacus ['aebakss] — счеты
slide rule ['slaid 'nil] — логарифмическая линейка
logarithm table ['Ьдэпбт 'teibl] — логарифмическая таблица
calculus pkaelkjidas] — исчисление; математический анализ
general-purpose ['4зепэгэ1 'p3:pas] — общего назначения, универсальный
to cut out the human being altogether — полностью исключить человека
to manipulate [ms'nipjuleit] — обрабатывать, преобразовывать; управлять
data processing ['deits pre'sesin] — обработка данных (информации)
tabulate the census — занести данные по переписи (населения) в таблицу
means of coding ['mi:nz sv 'koudin] — средства кодирования (шифровки)
to punch the holes ['pAntf 5э 'houlz] — пробивать отверстия
punched card ['рлШ(1 'kaid] — перфокарта
to perform [рэТэ:т] — выполнять, производить (действие); осуществлять;
unit of data ['jitnit sv 'deita] — единица информации keyboard terminals — терминал (вывод) с клавишным управлением
31 Unit 3. History of Computers
proliferation [pr3,hf3'reijh] — размножение, быстрое увеличение
2. Прочтите текст и скажите, о каких первых вычислительных приборах рассказывается в нем.
Let us take a look at the history of computers that we know today. The very first calculating device used was the ten fingers of a man's hands. This, in fact, is why today we still count in tens and multiples of tens.
Then the abacus was invented. People went on using some form of abacus well into the 16th century, and it is still being used in some parts of the world because it can be understood without knowing how to read.
During the 17th and I8lh centuries many people tried to find easy ways of calculating. J.Napier, a Scotsman, invented a mechanical way of multiplying and dividing, which is now the modern slide rale works. Henry Briggs used Napier's ideas to • produce logarithm tables which all mathematicians use today.
Calculus, another branch of mathematics, was independently invented by both Sir Isaak Newton, an Englishman, and Leibnitz, a German mathematician. The first real calculating machine appeared in 1820 as the result of several people's experiments.
In 1830 Charles Babbage, a gifted English mathematician, proposed to build a general-purpose problem-solving machine that he called "the analytical engine". This machine, which Babbage showed at the Paris Exhibition in 1855, was an attempt to cut out the human being altogether, except for providing the machine with the necessary facts about the problem to be solved. He never finished this work, but many of his ideas were the basis for building today's computers.
By the early part of the twentieth century electromechanical machines had been developed and were used for business data processing. Dr. Herman Hollerith, a young statistician from the US Census Bureau successfully tabulated the 1890 census. Hollerith invented a means of coding the data by punching holes into cards. He built one machine to punch the holes and others — to tabulate the collected data. Later Hollerith left the Census
Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 32
Bureau and established his own tabulating machine company. Through a series of merges the company eventually became the IBM Corporation.
Until the middle of the twentieth century machines designed to manipulate punched card data were widely used for business data processing. These early electromechanical data processors were called unit record machines because each punched card contained a unit of data.
In the mid—1940s electronic computers were developed to perform calculations for military and scientific purposes. By the end of the 1960s commercial models of these computers were widely used for both scientific computation and business data processing. Initially these computers accepted their input data from punched cards. By the late 1970s punched cards had been almost universally replaced by keyboard terminals. Since that . time advances in science have led to the proliferation of computers throughout our society, and the past is but the prologue that gives us a glimpse of the nature.
1. What was the very first calculating device? 2. What is the abacus? 3. What is the modern slide rule? 4. Who gave the ideas for producing logarithm tables? 5. How did Newton and Leibnitz contribute to the problem of calculation? 6. When did the first calculating machine appear? 7. What was the main idea of . Ch.Babbage's machine? 8. How did electromechanical machines appear and what were they used for? 9. What means of
33 Unit 3. History of Computers
coding the data did Hollerith devise? 10. How were those electromechanical machines called and why? 11. What kind of computers appeared later? 12. What new had the computers of 1970s?
Вычислительное устройство; легкий способ вычисления; поэтому (вот почему); кратное десяти; изобрести механический способ умножения и деления; логарифмическая линейка; составить таблицы логарифмов; математический анализ; изобрести независимо (друг от друга); в результате; полностью исключить человека; кроме (за исключением); обработка деловой информации; средство кодирования информации; перфокарты; пробивать отверстия; оформить собранные данные в таблицу; работать с данными на перфокарте; устройство, записывающее информацию блоками; единица информации; выполнять вычисления; для научных целей; клавишный терминал
To compute, to invent, to know, to multiply, to divide, to depend, to solve, to provide, to process, to code, to punch, to collect, to design, to store, to contribute, to use, to manipulate, to assemble, to connect, to consume, to rely, to divide, to multiply, to inform, to instruct, to discover, to operate.
А. Причастие I— Participle I
Computers using vacuum tubes; the machine calculating mathematical problems; the computer keeping instructions in its memory; binary code storing data and instructions; the vacuum tube controlling and amplifying -electronic signals; computers performing computations in milliseconds; electronic . pulses moving at the speed of light; students coding the information by using a binary code; devices printing the information; keyboard terminals replacing vacuum tubes.
Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 34
Б. Причастие II— Participle II
The given information; the name given to the machine; the coded data; the device used in World War II; the invention named ENIAC; the machine called EDVAC; instructions kept in the memory; the engine designed for storing data; data stored in a binary code; vacuum tubes invented by J. Neumann; the general-purpose machine proposed by Ch. Babbage; the machine provided with the necessary facts.
7. Ознакомьтесь с терминами текста 2.
analog computer [э'па?1эд kam'pjuta] — аналоговый компьютер
digital computer [fdid3rt3l kam'pjata] — цифровой компьютер
to aim guns ['eim 'длпг] — наводить орудия на цель
to figure out ['пдэг aut] — вычислять
at a fast rate [at э 'fa:st 'reit] — с высокой скоростью
memory / storage ['тетэп /'stond3] — запоминающее устройство
to store data and instructions — запоминать информацию и команды
stored program computer — компьютер с занесенной в память программой
binary code ['Ьатэп 'koud] — двоичный код condition [kan'difn] — режим, состояние, условие
vacuum tube ['vsekjuam tju:b] — электронная (вакуумная) трубка (лампа)
to amplify ['asmphfai] — усиливать
to perform computations [рэТэ:т ksmpju'teijh] — выполнять вычисления
8, Прочтите текст 2 и скажите, что вы узнали о первых циф
ровых и аналоговых компьютерах. Переведите текст.
Text 2. ^
In 1930 the first analog computer was built by American named Vannevar Bush. This device was used in Wbrld W&r II to help aim guns.
35 Unit 3. History of Computers
Many technical developments of electronic digital computers took place in the 1940s and 1950s. Mark I, the name given to the first digital computer, was completed in 1944. The man responsible for this invention was Professor Howard Aiken. This was the first machine that could figure out long lists of mathematical problems at a very fast rate.
In 1946 two engineers at the University of Pennsilvania, J.Eckert and J.Maushly, built their digital computer with vacuum tubes. They named their new invention ENIAC (the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator).
Another important achievement in developing computers came in 1947, when John von Neumann developed the idea of keeping instructions for the computer inside the computer's memory. The contribution of John von Neumann was particularly significant. As contrasted with Babbage's analytical engine, which was designed to store only data, von Neumann's machine, called the Electronic Discrete Variable Computer, or EDVAC, was able to store both data and instructions. He also contributed to the idea of storing data and instructions in a binary code that uses only ones and zeros. This simplified computer design. Thus computers use two conditions, high voltage, and low voltage, to translate the symbols by which we communicate into unique combinations of electrical pulses. Wfe refer to these combinations as codes.
Neumann's stored program computer as well as other machines of that time were made possible by the invention of the vacuum tube that could control and amplify electronic signals. Early computers, using vacuum tubes, could perform computations in thousandths of seconds, called milliseconds, instead of seconds required by mechanical devices.
9. Просмотрите текст еще раз и ответьте на вопросы, используя информацию текста.
1. When was the first analog computer built? 2. Where and how was that computer used? 3. When did the first digital computers appear? 4. Who was the inventor of the first digital computer? 5. What could that device do? 6. What is ENIAC? Decode the word. 7. What was J.Neumann's contribution into the development of computers? 8. What were the advantages of EDVAC in comparison with ENIAC? 9, What does binary coda
Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 36
mean? 10. Due to what invention could the first digital computers be built?
10. Найдите в тексте 2 английские эквиваленты следующих
Цифровые компьютеры; технические усовершенствования; совершенствование компьютеров; ответственный за изобретение; математические задачи; электронные трубки; важное достижение; запоминающее устройство; значительный вклад; двоичный код; высокое напряжение; низкое напряжение; электрические импульсы; тысячная доля секунды.
Происходить; завершать; вычислять; хранить команды внутри компьютера; запоминать информацию; запоминать команды; содействовать; использовать единицу и ноль; упрощать дизайн; усиливать сигналы; выполнять вычисления.
11. Составьте пары близких по значению слов из перечня,
Verbs: to name, to complete, to calculate, to develop, to keep, to interprete, to communicate, to fulfill, to apply, to translate, to improve, to build, to call, to store, to communicate, to figure out, to perform, to use, to finish, to construct, to connect.
Nouns: speed, aim, storage, information, machine, significance, computation, data, device, rate, calculation, purpose, memory, importance.
12. Заполните пропуски необходимыми словами.
1. The first digital computer could f< yV' a lot of mathematical problems at a fast Г '-'■ 2. Vannevar Bush built the firsts/'-7 '-; computer in 1930. 3. Babbage's analytical engine was designed to c '' ^data. 4. J.von Neumann invented a machine that was able to.' not only data but also . _______
invention of made computers possible to control
and electronic signals. 8. Due to comput
ers could perform much faster.
37 Unit 3. History of Computers
13. Переведите предложения или словосочетания, содер
А. Инфинитив в функции обстоятельства
1. Computers were designed to perform thousands of computations per second. 2. To make computers more reliable transistors were used. 3. They were applied to reduce computational time. 4. To integrate large numbers of circuit elements into a small chip, transistors should be reduced in size. 5. To use integrated circuit technology new computers were built. 6. Analytical engine was invented to store data.
Б. Инфинитив в функции определения
The problem to be solved; the work to be finished; the cards to be punched; calculations to be performed; the machine to be shown at the exhibition; the device to be provided with the necessary facts; computers to be used for data processing; efforts to increase reliability; electronics to connect systems and subsystems; the speed of response to depend on the size of transistor; computers to perform thousands of calculations per second; vacuum tubes to control and amplify electric signals; these are circuits to use a large number of transistors; operations to be performed.
14. Выполните письменно перевод текста 3 по вариантам.
1. Babbage's Analytical Engine
In 1832, an English inventor and mathematician Charles Babbage was commissioned by the British government to develop a system for calculating the rise and fall of the tides.
Babbage designed a device and called it an analytical engine. It was the first programmable computer, complete with punched cards for data input. Babbage gave the engine the ability to perform different types of mathematical operations. The machine was not confined to simple addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division. It had its own "memory", due to which the machine could use different combinations and sequences of operations to suit the purposes of the operator.
The machine of his dream was never realized in his life. Yet Babbage's idea didn't die with him. Other scientists made at-
Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 38
tempts to build mechanical, general-purpose, stored-program computers throughout the next century. In 1941 a relay computer was built in Germany by Conrad Zuse. It was a major step toward the realization of Babbage's dream.
2. The Mark I Computer (1937-1944)
In 1944 in the United States, International Business Machines (IBM) built a machine in cooperation with scientists working at Harvard University under the direction of Prof. Aik-en. The machine, called Mark I Automatic Sequence-Controlled Calculator, was built to perform calculations for the Manhattan Project, which led to the development of atomic bomb. It was the largest electromechanical calculator ever built. It used over 3000 electrically actuated switches to control its operations. Although its operations were not controlled electronically, Aiken's machine is often classified as a computer because its instructions, which were entered by means of a punched paper tape, could be altered. The computer could create ballistic tables used by naval artillery.
The relay computer had its problems. Since relays are electromechanical devices, the switching contacts operate by means of electromagnets and springs. They are slow, very noisy and consume a lot of power.
3. The ABC (1939-1942)
The work on introducing electronics into the design of computers was going on.
The gadget that was the basis for the first computer revolution was the vacuum tube, an electronic device invented early in the twentieth century. The vacuum tube was ideal for use in computers. It had no mechanical moving parts. It switched flows of electrons off and on at rates far faster than possible with any mechanical device. It was relatively reliable, and operated hundreds of hours before failure. The first vacuum tube computer was built at Iowa University at about the same time as the Mark I. The computer, capable to perform thousands of related computations, was called ABC, the Atanasoff-Berry Computer, after Dr.John Atanasoff, a professor of physics and his assistant, Clifford Berry. It used 45 vacuum tubes for internal logic and capacitors for storage. From the ABC a number of vacuum-tube digital computers developed.
39 Unit 3. History of Computers
Soon the British developed a computer with vacuum tubes and used it to decode German messages.
Text 4, ^
The first vacuum tubes computers are referred to as first generation computers, and the approximate period of their use was from 1950 to 1959. UNIVAC 1 (UNF&rsal Automatic Computer) is an example of these computers which could perform thousands of calculations per second. Those devices were not only bulky, they were also unreliable. The thousands of vacuum tubes emitted large amounts of heat and burned out frequently.
The transistor, a smaller and more reliable successor to the vacuum tube, was invented in 1948. So-called second generation computers, which used large numbers of transistors were able to reduce computational time from milliseconds to microseconds, or millionths of seconds. Second-generation computers were smaller, faster and more reliable than first-generation computers.
Advances in electronics technology continued, and microelectronics made it possible to reduce the size of transistors and integrate large numbers of circuit elements into very small chips of silicon. The computers that were designed to use integrated circuit technology were called third generation computers, and the approximate time span of these machines was from 1960 to 1979. They could perform many data processing operations in nanoseconds, which are billionths of seconds.
Fourth generation computers have now arrived, and the integrated circuits that are being developed have been greatly reduced in size. This is due to microminiaturization, which means that the circuits are much smaller than before; as many as 100 tiny circuits are placed now on a single chip. A chip is a square or rectangular piece of silicon, usually from 1/10 to 1/4 inch, upon which several layers of an integrated circuit are etched or
Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 40
imprinted, after which the circuit is encapsulated in plastic or metal.
^ подходящее по смыслу слово.
1. British scientists invented a way of multiplying and
a) mechanical; b) electrical; c) optical
2. A new branch of mathematics, , was invented in
England and Germany independently.
a) mechanics; b) arithmetics; c) calculus
3. A young American clerk invented a means of coding
by punched cards.
a) letters; b) data; c) numbers
4. Soon punched cards were replaced by terminals.
a) printer; b) scanner; c) keyboard
5. Mark I was the first computer that could solve
a) analog; 1?) digital; c) mechanical
6. J. von Neumann simplified his computer by storing in
formation in a code.
a) analytical; b) numerical; c) binary
7. Vacuum tubes could control and electric signals.
a) calculate; b) amplify; c) generate
8. The first generation computers were and often
a) uncomfortable; b) uncommunicative; c) unreliable
9. Computers of the second generation used which
reduced computational time greatly.
a) transistors; b) integrated circuits; c) vacuum tubes
10. Due to the development of the fourth generation
computers became possible.
a) microelectronics; b) miniaturization; c) microminiaturization
41 Unit 3. History of Computers
2. Выберите правильный перевод предложений, содержащих неличные формы глагола (Infinitive, Gerund,