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Unit V

Political Parties




WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS TO BE REMEMBERED





candidate

power

change

term of office

equal rights

to belong

government

to establish social programs

local elections

to limit

member

to oppose

military spending

to support

party

to vote

politician

to win

Exercise 1. Give Russian equivalents to the following words and

expressions:


To support military spending; Republican candidate; to oppose slavery; government; to support big business; to establish social programs; member of the Republican party; to have equal rights; to oppose change; to limit the power of the national government; democratic politicians; to belong to the Democratic party; to win local elections; term of office.


Exercise 2. Give English equivalents to the following words and

expressions:


Одобрять перемены, член демократической партии, одержать победу на президентских выборах, республиканская партия, ограничить власть, политик, кандидат от Демократической партии, правительство, принадлежать к Республиканской партии.


Exercise 3. Make pairs of synonyms:


1. reform

a. institute

2. favour

b. change

3. establish

c. problem

4. issue

d. support



Exercise 4. Complete the text with the words and word combinations

from the box:


Politicians, oppose, the major parties, to limit, equal rights, federal government, favour





  1. The Federalists wanted a strong _____.

  2. The democrats wanted _____ the power of the national government.

  3. Liberal _____ usually _____ change.

  4. Conservative politicians usually _____ change.

  5. Both _____ have liberal and conservative members.

  6. The Democrats say they believe in _____ for women and minorities.



Exercise 5. Make up word expressions and translate them:





military spending

to support

politician




candidate

to limit

government




party

to oppose

power




rights



Exercise 6. Match each word on the left with the correct definition

on the right:


1. politician


a. a person who belongs to a club, political

party, etc

2. government


b. the executive policy-making body of a

political unit, community, etc.; ministry or

administration

3. party


c. political, financial, social, etc., force or

influence

4. candidate


d. a person seeking or nominated for election

to a position of authority

5. member


e. a person actively engaged in politics

6. power


f. a group of people organized together to

further a common political aim, such as the

election of its candidates to public office



Exercise 7. Read and translate the text.


Political Parties


The U.S. Constitution does not talk about political parties, but they began during George Washington’s term of office. On one side were the Federalists. They wanted a strong federal government. Their leader was Tomas Jefferson, and their group later became the Democratic Party.

Some of the political parties, such as the Federalists and the Wings, no longer exist. Since 1864, the two major parties have been the Democrats and the Republicans. Smaller parties have lasted for only a short time. “Third parties” have won in the local elections, but their candidates have never won a presidential election.

Many people say that there is not much difference between the Republican and Democratic parties. “Liberal” politicians usually favour reform (change) and progress. “Conservative” politicians usually oppose change. But both political parties and their ideas often change with the time and the issues.

The Democratic Party is the oldest party in the United States. In 1829 Andrew Jackson became the first Democratic President. Since that time, the issues of the nation and the ideas of the party have changed. Both the major parties have liberal and conservative members, but in general people consider the Democrats today more liberal than the Republicans. Democrats often want the government to establish social programs for people in need, such as the poor, the unemployed and the elderly. They usually say they believe in equal rights for women and minorities, and they oppose nuclear weapons and too much military spending. The symbol of the Democratic Party is the donkey.

The Republican Party began in 1854 over the issue of slavery. Republicans opposed slavery. The first Republican candidate to become President was Abraham Lincoln. After the Civil War, Republicans got interested in farm, land and business issues. In general, Republicans vote more conservatively than Democrats. They want the government to support big business but not to control the lives of citizens. They often oppose government spending for social programs but support military spending. The party symbol is the elephant.

Exercise 8. Answer the following questions:


  1. Is Russia two-party country?

  2. What Russian political parties do you know?

  3. What major political parties of US do you know?

  4. What is the difference between the Democratic Party and the Republican Party?

  5. What party opposes too much military spending?

  6. What party was against slavery?

  7. What do you know about symbols of American political Parties?

  8. Are there any other political parties besides the Democratic and the Republican Parties in the USA?



Exercise 9. React to the following statements using the phrases from

ex. 6, Unit I.


  1. The Republican Party is older than the Democratic Party.

  2. The Democratic Party opposes nuclear weapons.

  3. Abraham Lincoln belonged to the Democratic Party.

  4. The Republican Party support military spending.

  5. The Democratic Party opposed slavery.

  6. The symbol of the Democratic Party is the fox.

  7. There are other political parties besides the Democratic and the Republican Parties.



Exercise 10. Make up dialogues on the following topics:


  1. the history of American political parties;

  2. political goals of American political parties;

  3. political parties of Russia.


Exercise 11. Imagine you create your own party. Describe it according

to the following plan:


  1. name of the party;

  2. political goals (objectives);

  3. symbol of the party.




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