WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS TO BE REMEMBERED
Exercise 1. Give Russian equivalents to the following expressions.
To live in close proximity; municipal corporations; to be compared; to own property; to sell property; to borrow money; to serve the special needs; an instrumentality of the state; to obey state laws; to hate the city; to leave the city for...; shortage of parking places; traffic jam; to make the land available; to rehabilitate; apartments; a dense population; to earn a living.
Exercise 2. Find the equivalents.
Exercise 3. Arrange the following words into pairs of synonyms.
Exercise 4. Read and translate the text.
A city is a place where a large number of people live and work in close proximity.
Cities are municipal corporations created by state. Municipal corporations can be compared to private business corporations: they can own property, sell property, borrow money, loan money. Both are created to serve the special needs of their members. The members of a municipal corporation are the residents. But every city remains an instrumentality of the state and must obey state laws.
American sociologists formulated the zone theory of city growth. The essence of which is that cities tend to develop in zones from the center.
Usually there are five zones.
Zone I is the nucleus of city life, the heart of commercial activity.
Zone II. The business district is surrounded by an area known as the slum, which is characterized by low rents and a dense population.This area is a transitional area in the city because it is constantly but slowly changing.
Zone III. This is a world of working-men’s homes: two-flat or three-flat dwellings.
Zone IV. It is a far more pleasant district. Here are one-family and two-family dwellings, and there are small lawns and flower gardens in front of them. Here the middle-class family lives, where the husband earns a comfortable living.
Zone V. It is the residential zone of the extremely wealthy. The homes are separated by lawns and set back from the street.
Cities bring out the best and the worst in man. Cities bring out man’s most inventive talents. City man is also tolerant of different life styles. And he expects tomorrow to be different. But in many ways man hates the city. He often leaves it for more restful countryside.
Cities have many problems. Everybody can state them clearly: crimes in the streets, impure air and water, din of noise, breakdowns in public transportation, cities are burdened by high taxes and inflationary prices.
Housing and poor transportation are closely related problems. The rise in car ownership has brought many benefits, but it also created some problems. They are clogged streets, polluted air, shortage of parking places, traffic jams.
The housing problem is very much a space problem and the space problem can not be solved without transportation to provide access to building sites. The urban specialists say that there are two ways to make the land available. One is to rehabilitate and to renovate apartments and houses where possible. The other is to build outside the old cities in suburbs or further out.
The population of the world increases, so new plans for cities, which use space efficiently, will be developed.
Exercise 5. Answer the following questions:
Exercise 6. Make a list of city problems and make up dialogues on the
topic “How to solve the city problems”.
Exercise 7. Choose topics for oral and written practice:
Exercise 8. Try to describe zone-division of your native town.
Exercise 9. Translate the sentences from Russian into English.
1. Каждый город должен подчиняться законам страны.