WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS TO BE REMEMBERED
Exercise 1. Give Russian equivalent to the following words and
To write city character; local government; heads of department; mayor- council from; council-manager from; to administer the city; to be hired; to be fired; to be appointed; “strong”-mayor; to allow; “weak”-mayor; legislative and executive power; finance; public safety; social service; to be in charge; to carry out the project; members of the commission; to be popular among; to prohibit.
Exercise 2. Find the equivalents.
1. legislative power a. мэр
2. to fire b. правительство
3. judge c. принять на работу
4. mayor d. выполнять работу
5. executive power e. начальник отдела
6. public transport f. судья
7. to carry out g. устав
8. government h. исполнительная власть
9. charter i. уволить
10.to hire j. назначить на должность
11.head of the department k. общественный транспорт
12.to appoint l. законодательная власть
Exercise 3. Arrange the following words into pairs of antonyms.
1. to prohibit a. weak
2. public b. to love
3. to hate c. to fire
4. strong d. to allow
5. to hire e. private
Exercise 4. Read and translate the text.
Cities may not do anything the state prohibits. Every city is a creature of the state. A state allows cities to write their own charter, choose their own form of government: the commission form, mayor-council form, council-manager form and the city-manager form.
The council-manager form is very popular in middle sized cities. A city manager is appointed by a city council to administer the city.
In theory the council makes policy and the manager sees that these general directions are carried out by the city administration. The manager is hired by the council and can be fired at any time. The manager, in turn, hires the heads of departments who work for the city except judges and elected officials.
In the mayor-council form of city government there is no city manager. Mayor and council appoint department heads and coordinate their work. In a “weak”-mayor system, the council makes appointments, in a “strong”-mayor one, the mayor makes appointments.
The mayor-council system is most popular among very small and very large cities.
The commission form is not often used. The basic feature of commission government is its union of legislative and executive power: each member of the city commission also serves as head of a major city department. The typical city commission has five commissioners and five departments. Those five departments might be public safety, public works, finance, social service, and parks and recreation.
The advantage of this form is that the persons who make city policy (the commission) are also in charge of carrying it out. In this form there is, of course, a mayor, but usually a mayor in a commission system of government is elected by the commission. One of the commissioners is simply given the title of mayor by the other members.
The city-manager form is the most popular one among cities managing in population from 10,000 to 100,000.
Exercise 5. Answer the following questions.
1. What forms of city government are there?
2. What form of city government is the most popular in middle sized
3. What are the duties of city manager?
4. What form of city government has not city manager? What is the
essence of it?
5. What is the basic feature of commission government?
Exercise 6. Look at the charts and try to guess the form of city
government. Describe each of them.
Exercise 7. Fill in the following table.