Методические разработки по английскому языку для студентов I курса стоматологического факультета icon

Методические разработки по английскому языку для студентов I курса стоматологического факультета



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Министерство здравоохранения

и социального развития Российской Федерации

Государственное образовательное учреждение высшего

профессионального образования

МОСКОВСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ

МЕДИКО-СТОМАТОЛОГИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ

Кафедра иностранных языков

Кузнецова О.В., Ковшило Д.Ф., Берзегова Л.Ю.


МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ РАЗРАБОТКИ

ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ

ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТОВ I КУРСА

СТОМАТОЛОГИЧЕСКОГО ФАКУЛЬТЕТА

Утверждено Центральной методической комиссией лингвистических дисциплин


Москва 2009


ББК 81.2 p. 30+81.2 АНГЛ.-923

К 89 УДК 802.0 (075.85)

К-89 Кузнецова О.В., Ковшило Д.Ф., Берзегова Л.Ю. Методические разработки по английскому языку для студентов I курса стоматологического факультета - М.: МГМСУ, 2009.

Корректура выполнена доц. Соломенцевой Л.Н.

Методические разработки предназначены для студентов 1 курса, продолжающих изучение английского языка на стоматологическом факультете. Их цель - привить студентам определенные навыки по технике перевода специальных текстов, а также развитие навыков устной речи.

Данные методические разработки входят в состав комплексного пособия для студентов I курса стоматологического факультета.

МГМСУ, 2007, 2009 (стереотипное издание) Кузнецова О. В., Ковшило Д.ф., Берзегова Л.Ю., 2009


^ THE INSTITUTE

Wordbuilding

-ist - суффикс существительного, обозначающего профессию

science - наука a scientist - ученый

Anatomy - анатомия an anatomist - анатом

1. Guess the meaning and translate:
Physiology - a physiologist
Biology - a biologist
Stomatology - a stomatologist

2.Translate the international words and the words of Latin origin:
a doctor and his patients

medicine and a medical man

social

laboratory

3.You'll come across these word combinations in the text:

to enter the Institute - поступить в институт

named after Semashko - имени Семашко

to treat the patients - лечить пациентов

to take examinations - сдавать экзамены

to attend lectures - посещать лекции

a hearty attitude - сердечное отношение

to perform laboratory - выполнять лабораторные

works - работы


4. Study the grammar-table Nos 1, 2, 3, 4.

5. Read the text and be able to answer the questions given below:

Many young people who care for medicine enter Medical Institutes and become students. We have entered the Moscow Medical Stomatological Institute named after Semashko. For two years the students learn the so-called pre-clinical subjects such as Anatomy, Physics, Chemistry, Physiology, Biology. We study the social sciences and foreign languages. The medical students must work hard at all the subjects. They have practical classes in numerous theoretical and special subjects. To be a medical student means to spend afternoons in laboratories and evenings in the libraries. The students perform different laboratory works and attend lectures.

Medicine is more than science. All the doctors always treat the patients with great attention and care. Such a hearty attitude of the doctors to the patients helps much in their recovery.

We know that we shall need deep knowledge of Anatomy in our future work. Only hard work in the dissecting room will give us the possibility to gain this knowledge. That is why there are always many students in the dissecting room. There are two terms in the first year. Each of them lasts for about 16-18 weeks. At the end of the winter term we shall take examinations in Physics and Chemistry.

The winter holidays last from the end of January till the middle of February. It is necessary for us to work hard during the whole academic year if we want to pass our first examination session successfully.

  1. What Institute must you enter if you want to become a stomatologist?

2. What subjects do students study at a Medical Institute?

3. What is the most human profession in the world?

4. Who enteers Medical Institute?

5. Where do medical students work?

6. How must students study to be a doctor?

EXERCISES

Ex. 1. Listen to the tape-recording of the text and prepare the reading of it.

Ex. 2. Give English equivalents: анатомия, предмет, лечить пациента, медицина, наука, пациент, общественные науки, медицинский, стоматологический, лаборатория, здоровье, биология, химия, физиология, сердечное отношение, думать, понимать, поступать в институт.

Ex. 3. Put the verbs to be, to have in the correct form:

  1. My father ... a doctor. He ... many patients in a hospital.

2. We ... no books on chemistry.

3. He ... a student of a Medical Institute.

4. My grandmother ... 60 years old and she.. in good health.

5. My friend ... a large family.

6. We ... at the laboratory now.

7. We ... a good laboratory at our Institute.

8. I a stomatologist in five years.


Lesson 1

^ THE STUDENTS LIFE

Wordbuilding

-able - суффикс, образующий прилагательные от глагола со значением "способный подвергаться соответствующему действию"

to cure - вылечить curable - излечимый

dis-, un- префиксы, выражающие отрицание
to like - любить to dislike - не любить

real - реальный unreal - нереальный

1. Choose the right Russian equivalent:

1. съедобный

EATABLE 2. съедаемый

3. съестной


1. понятливый

UNDERSTANDABLE 2. понятный

3. понимающий


1. движущийся
MOVABLE 2. движимый

3. двигательный

DISAGREEABLE 1. неприятный

2. неприятнейший

^ 2. Guess the meanings of the words:

to organize - организовать to disorganize

belief - вера disbelief

ability - способность disability

agreeable - приятный disagreeable

happy - счастливый unhappy

achieved - достигнутый unachieved

born - рожденный unborn

boiled - кипяченый unboiled


^ 3. Try to remember these word combinations before reading the text:
for the benefit of the sick - ради блага больного
an oath - клятва

to acquire the knowledge - приобретать знания

to attend lectures on - посещать занятия по

to treat patients - лечить больных

twice a year - два раза в год

to graduate from the Institute - закончить институт

a repeated visit - повторное посещение

relationship - взаимоотношения

^ 4. Read the text and answer some questions given below:

"Into whatever house I may enter, I will go for the benefit of the sick," reads the physician's 2000-year-old Hippocratic oath and with it students begin their studies at medical Institutes and Medical faculties of our country.

There are many Medical Institutes in Russia and if you wish to become a physician, a stomatologist, a surgeon you must enter one of them. To acquire the necessary knowledge of the sturcture and functions of the human body the students have to dissect corpses and make experiments on animals. They must also attend lectures on Anatomy, Physiology, Biology, Histology, Microbiology, Surgery, social subjects, Latin and foreign languages.

With the knowledge acquired from books and laboratory work, the senior students are allowed to treat patients. In the hospital wards they are taught how to examine patients and they may do physical examinations on their own. Sometimes the students may even be asked to diagnose a difficult case.

After the 4th year the students must undertake a practical course during which they act as doctors' assistants. Treating the same patients on their repeated visits he can learn the importance of good doctor-patient relationship.

Twice a year in whiter and in spring time medical students must pass examinations. At the examination students may get excellent, good or satisfactory marks. It is very disagreeable to get an unsatisfactory mark, then the student must pass another examination in autumn. Those who study well get grants.

Aftere graduating from the Institute the undergraduate gets the diploma inscribed "Doctoris in Arte Medica" - "For a Doctor in the Art of Medicine." And with this diploma the undergraduate is no more a medical student, he becomes the life-time student of medicine.


  1. What Institute must a person enter if he wishes to become a stomatologist?

  2. What do students learn dissecting corpses?

  3. What subjects are medical students taught?

  4. What do senior students do during their practical work?

  5. What marks may a student get at an examination?


EXERCISES


Ex. 1. Listen to the tape-recording of the text and be ready to read the text aloud.

Ex. 2. Give English equivalents:

проводить эксперименты, посещать лекции по, студенты старших курсов, клятва Гиппократа, поступать в институт, закончить институт, лечить больных, делать физикальный осмотр, поставить диагноз, повторное посещение, хорошие взаимоотношения между врачом и больным, сдать экзамены, получать стипендию, выпускник.


Study Grammar-Table No. 4.


Ex. 3. Fill in the blanks with the Modal verbs and their equivalents

Translate them:

  1. … I see patient Ivanov? No, you … not, as all the patients are sleeping now

  2. I ... to make this experiment twice.

  3. Professor N ... speak English fluently.

  4. In a short while we… … … to read medical texts without a dictionary.

  5. You ... take this book if you like.

  6. He said that he ... not be present at the meeting yesterday because he was ill

  7. You ... air the wards there three times a day.

  8. He ... perform this operation as he is an expert surgeon.

  9. Every Soviet citizen ... get medical treatment free of charge.




  1. You… … … to get a doctor's consultation on Friday.

  2. Now you ... stay in bed, in a week you… to get up.

  3. Nobody ... enter the operation room without the doctor's
    permission.

Ex. 4. Translate:

  1. Они должны были сдать экзамен вчера.

  2. Если Вы хотите стать хорошим врачом, Вы должны много работать в больнице.

  3. На 4-м курсе студенты-медики могут лечить больных сами.

  4. Он должен был сдать этот экзамен дважды.

  5. Можете вы перевести этот текст без словаря?

  6. Студенты должны посещать лекции по различным предметам.


Ex. 5. Fill in the blanks with prepositions:

  1. Medical students attend lectures ... Anatomy, Surgery, Biology, and other subjects.

  2. My friend gets … … 7 o'clock every day.

  3. She studied ... the Medical Institute last year.

  4. We go ... the Institute ... bus.

  5. Many students ... our Institute take part ... social life.

  6. He attends the circle ... surgery.

Listen to the dialogue

A. Hello, haven't seen you for ages. I am very glad to see you. Where are you going to?

B. I am going home. I like to walk after a busy day at the Institute. You know, my working day begins early. I always get up at 7 o'clock. After my morning exercises
and breakfast 1 leave home for the Institute.

A. How long does it take you to get to the Institute?

^ B. As I live far from the Institute I go there by bus or by metro. It usually takes me an hour to get there.

A. I see. And I live near the Institute. I often walk to the Institute. I am never late. I always come there in time. Our classes begin at 9 o'clock. Every day we have lessons and lectures on various subjects. I study Anatomy, Physics, Chemistry, Histology, the History of the Communist Party, foreign languages and others.

B. As a rule I also have three lectures or seminars a day. Sometimes I stay at the Institute till 7 o'clock as I have much social work to do. And what about you?

A. You see, there are many scientific circles at our
Institute. I am a member of the circle of Biology. Durng our studies we are discussing medical news, making experiments and so on. Such meetings are proving to be very useful.

B. When do you return home?

A. 1 come back home at 6 o'clock in the evening. After supper and a short rest I prepare my lessons. Then I read books or watch TV. At 11 o'clock 1 go to bed.

B. The same with me. But sometimes if I have time I go to the cinema or to the theatre. By the way, are you going to do anything tomorrow? Let's go to the cinema together.

A.Oh, no. At 6 I'll be making a report on Biology. Let's meet at 8.

B. All right. So long, see you tomorrow.

A. So long


Ex. 6. Listen to the dialogue once more. Take part in it.

  1. speak as B;

  2. speak as A.

Ex. 7. Put the verb "to be" in a correct form.

  1. Where ... the patient lying?

  2. My friends ... standing at the window.

  3. Tom ... sitting in the back row.

  4. We ... writing sentences now.

  5. He ... making a report now at the conference.

  6. What ... the girl reading?

  7. ... you discussing his report?

  8. I ... dissecting a corpse now.

  9. The doctor ... examining a patient.

  10. We ... working at the laboratory.

Ex. 8. Read the text as fast as you can and guess the meaning of the word "a hostel".

I am a medical student. I study at the Moscow Medical Stomatology Institute named after Semashko. My working day begins early. Every morning I get up at half past seven. First of all I do my morning exercises, then I go to a bathroom where I wash and dress. It doesn't take me long. In a quarter of an hour I am ready for breakfast. As a rule, I take a cup of tea or coffee with some sandwiches.

After breakfast I hurry to the Institute. I seldom go to the Institute by bus. I prefer the metro. The lectures begin at 9 o'clock sharp. I am a first-year student. Every day I have lessons and lectures on various subjects. I study Anatomy, Biology, Physics, Chemistry, the History of the Communist Party, English and Latin. The lessons and lectures are very interesting. Students learn a lot of new things every day. There are intervals between lectures. We are resting or go to the dining room to have lunch.

When the lessons and lectures are over I usually go to the different laboratories of our Institute where I carry out experiments and do my practical work. Sometimes I stay to prepare my lessons at the reading hall or our Institute. I often visit the dissecting hall and study Anatomy there. I usually have a great deal of work to do.

I take an active part in social life. 1 am the komsomol organizer of our group. We attend conferences and discussions which take place at our Institute. As I am from Rostov, I live in a hostel with my friends. 1 come back to the hostel in the evening. I have supper and then I have a short rest.

Sometimes I go to the theatre or to the cinema. I also go in for sports and if I have some free time I go to the skating-rink or to the swimming-pool. After a good rest I go to bed.


Ex. 9. Prepare the topics of your own:

  1. My studies at the Institute.

  2. My working day.

  3. My first day at the Institute.

Ex. 10. Read the text and answer the questions:

^ A.I. EVDOKIMOV

Founder of Soviet stomatology, a famous scientist Alexander Ivanovich Evdokimov was born in a peasant's family in 1883. He experienced a difficult life of a poor student. The Great October Socialist Revolution made it possible to fulfil his dream to organize a stomatological service to the population in our country.

It was A.I. Evdokimov who founded stomatology departments and clinics in Voronezh (1932) and Moscow (1934-1936). He created the basis of higher stomatological education in our country.

Being a professor he devoted more than 50 years to medical education and training the students in dentistry. He headed the department of surgical dentistry in the Moscow Stomatology Institute and delivered lectures not only to the students of this Institute but also to the dentists at the Central Medical Institute for doctors advanced training.

His classification of inflammatory processes in oral cavity and their treatment are used in modern textbooks on oral surgery now. His works on rehabilitation after maxillo-facial surgery are also well known.

During the Great Patriotic War A.I. Evdokimov worked at specialized departments and clinics of military hospitals where soviet soldiers and officers with severe injuries to the jaws were treated.

A.I. Evdokimov was a great public figure. He took an active part in different congresses in dentistry and was a worthy representative of the Soviet Academy of Medical Sciences. The soviet government highly appreciated his activity and awarded him 4 orders of Lenin and the gold medal of the Hero of Socialist Labour.

A.I. Evdokimov died in 1979 but thousands of his pupils continue to develop his research in dentistry, the science he devoted all his life to.

  1. What was A. I. Evdokimov?

  2. When was he born?

  3. What medical service did he organize in our country?

  4. What works in dentistry was he famous for.



Lesson 2

^ THE STRUCTURE OF THE HUMAN BODY

Wordbuilding

-tion - суффикс, образующий существительные от глагола
to dictate- диктовать a dictation - диктант

to combine- комбинировать a combination - комбинация, сочетание


1. Guess the meanings and translate:

to contract - сокращаться a contraction

to dissect - препарировать a dissection

to digest - переваривать digestion

to respire - дышать respiration

to form - формироваться a formation

to correlate - устанавливать соотношение a correlation

to regulate - регулировать a regulation

to constitute - составлять a constitution

to examine - экзаменовать an examination

2.Translate the international words and the words of Latin origin:

a muscle and muscular

a nerve and nervous

the respiratory system

the skeletal system

the organism and its structure

the structure and the functions

the elements of the muscular system

a cappillary

3. You'll come across these word combinations in the text:

to spend much time проводить много времени

to dissect corpses препарировать трупы

skin layers кожный покров

cells and tissues клетки и ткани

in turn в свою очередь

the motive and supporting опорно-двигательный аппарат

apparatus

to consist of состоять из

the mouth cavity ротовая полость


4. Study grammar-table No. I on page 51 and make the grammar analysis of the following sentences. Translate them:

1. Tissues, combining in different proportions, form organs.

2. The organism is a single system consisting of cells, tissues and organs.

3. Organs, filling the body's chest and abdominal cavity and called "the viscera", belong to the respiratory and the digestive system.

4. Made up of the brain, the spinal cord and nerves, the nervous
system regulate all the body's activities.

5. Read the text and answer the questions given below.

In this first year of a Medical Institute the medical student studies Anatomy, Phisiology, Biology. The student spends much of his time in the anatomy hall. There he dissects corpses and learns Anatomy beginning from the bone structure of the head to the skin layers of the foot.

The organism is a single system consisting of cells, tissues and organs. A cell is the simplest element of the human body. A group of cells forms tissue, like muscle tissue or dental one.

Tissues, in turn, combining in different proportions and correlations, Form organs. A system is a group of organs performing the same functions and having the same tissues. There are the following systems in the human body: nervous, digestive, respiratory, vascular, skeletal, muscular, visceral and so on.

Made up of the brain, the spinal cord and nerves, the nervous system regulates all the body's activities.

The digestive system consists of the alimentary tract starting from the mouth cavity.

Organs, filling the body's chest and abdominal cavity and called "the viscera", belong to the respiratory and digestive systems. They together provide the body with food and oxygen.

Muscles making up 40 per cent of the body's weight are the elements of the muscular system. Their function is contraction. The skeleton together with the muscles constitute the motive and supporting apparatus.

The heart, blood vessels and capillaries are the elements of the vascular system which covers some 600,000 miles of tubes carrying blood to every part of the body.

  1. What do medical students do in the anatomy hall?

  2. What does the human organism consist of?

  3. What do cells form?

  4. What are the elements of the motive and supporting apparatus?



EXERCISES

Ex. 1. Listen to the tape-recording of the text and repeat sentence by sentence.

Ex. 2. Give English equivalents: изучать строение тела человека, выполнять функция, клетки и ткани, зубные ткани, пищеварительная система, нервы, препарировать трупы, голова, слой кожи, мышцы, грудная клетка, скелет, кровь, состоять из, обеспечивать кислородом, кровеносные сосуды, ротовая полость, нервная система.

Ex. 3. Translate, paying attention to the attributes expressed by the Participles:

  1. The organs having different structure but performing the same functions form an apparatus.

  2. The organism is a single system made up of cells, tissues and organs.

  3. The student dissecting a corpse is our monitor.

  4. She looked happily at her saved son.

  5. The digestive system consists of the alimentary tract starting in the mouth cavity.

  6. In the abdominal cavity there are different organs called viscera.

  7. There are 4 types of bones according to their shape: long, short, flat and irregular.

  8. The motive and supporting apparatus made up of muscles and bones makes movement possible.

Ex. 4. Give the correct forms of the verbs in brackets:

  1. When you (to enter) the Institute?

  2. I (to work) in the anatomy theatre tomorrow.

  3. The skeleton (to support) and (to protect) viscera.

  4. Cells (to be) the simplest elements of the human body.

  5. The respiratory system (to provide) the body with oxygen.

  6. We (to study) the structure of the human body at the anatomy class yesterday.

Ex. 5. Translate:

  1. На занятиях по анатомии студенты изучают строение человеческого тела, препарируя трупы.

  2. Организм человека - это единая система, состоящая из клеток, тканей, органов.

  3. Комбинируясь в различных пропорциях и соотношениях, ткани образуют органы.




  1. Нервная система, состоящая из нервных клеток, регулирует деятельность человека.

Ex. 6. Answer the questions and check your answers:

  1. What does Anatomy study?

  2. What does the organism consist of?

  3. What is the simplest element of the human body?

  4. What does a system consist of?

  5. What systems are there in the human body?

  6. What is the function of the digestive system?

  7. What organs are there in the chest?

  8. What systems do the viscera belong to?

  9. What is their function?




  1. What are the elements of the muscular system?

  2. What is the function of the muscles?

  3. What are the elements of the vascular system?



Ex. 7. Find and show in the picture the following parts of the human body:




Head: the face, hair, the forehead, the eyes, the nose, the mouth, the chin, the cheek, the ears, the neck; Trunk: the chest, the stomach; Limbs: the shoulder, the arm, the elbow, the hand, the finger, the leg, the knee, the foot, the toe.


^ THE MUSCLES

In the adult the muscles form about 35 % - 40 % of the body weight. All the muscles are divided into the muscles of the trunk, head, and extremities.

Long, short and wide muscles form three basic groups. The long
muscles compose the free parts of the extremities. The wide muscles form
the walls of the body cavities. Some short muscles, of which stapedius
(стремечковая) is the smallest muscle in the human body, form facial musculature.

The structure of the muscular fibers is different in different groups of muscles. The muscles consist of a mass of muscle cells. The muscular fibers are connected together by connective tissue.


Lesson 3

^ THE SKELETON

Wordbuilding

-ive - суффикс, образующий прилагательные от глагола
to digest- переваривать digestive - пищеварительный

-ous - суффиксы, образующие прилагательные от существительных
a nerve - нерв nervous - нервный

a skeleton - скелет skeletal - скелетный

    1. Guess the meanings of the adjectives and translate them:

to protect - защищать protective -

to sense - чувствовать sensitive -

to relate - относить(ся) relative -

a fibre - волокно fibrous -

a face - лицо facial -

a spine - позвонок spinal -

Stomatology - стоматология stomatological -

Biology - биология biological -

2. Translate the international words and the words of Latin origin:
interior-internal; exterior-external; superior; posterior, lymphatic; a membrane; compact substance; the mandible.

3. While reading the text you'll come across these word combinations:
to be knit together - быть соединенным

to be well saved - быть хорошо защищенным

mechanical injuries - механические повреждения

the periosteum - надкостница

loose connective tissue - рыхлая соединительная ткань

the junction - соединение

spongy substance - губчатое вещество

to be supplied with - быть снабженным ч/л

a lower jaw bon - нижняя челюстная кость

dried up - высохший

especially - особенно

the movable jaw bone - подвижная челюстная кость

the spinal column - позвоночный столб


4. Study grammar-table No. 2. on page 52 and make the grammar analysis of these sentences. Translate them:

  1. The bony structure of the body is called the skeleton.

  2. The bones are knit together by fibrous tissues.

  3. The nervous system is saved by the skull.

  4. Each bone is supplied with nerves.

5. Read the text and answer the questions given below.

The bony structure of the body is called the skeleton (from the Greek word meaning "dried up"). The skeleton consists of 206 bones of various shapes and sizes. The bones are knit together by fibrous tissues. The fibrous junction between two bones is called a joint.

The functions of the skeleton are those of support, movement and protection. The protective function of the skeleton is especially seen in the skull, the spinal column and the chest. The central nervous system, the heart, the lungs and other organs are well saved from external mechanical injuries.

A bone is structurally a complex organ. The greater part of a bone consists of bony tissue formed of compact and spongy bony substance. Except for the tooth enamel bone is the hardest tissue in the body.

Each bone is supplied with nerves, blood and lymphatic vessels. Bones have an outer layer called the periosteum. The periosteum is a fibrous membrane which has two layers - the external performing a protective function and the internal one with many nerve fibres and blood vessels.

The bony structure of the head and face is called the skull. It consists of 23 bones. The main parts are the cranium in which the brain is well saved and the facial skeleton with the movable lower jaw bone. The lower jaw bone called the mandible enables man to talk and eat.

The main bones of the face are the mandible, two upper jaw bones, two malar, two nasal, two lacrimal, two palate bones. All of these bones except the mandible are closely knit together.

  1. What is the skeleton?

  2. How many bones does the skeleton consist of?

  3. What is the function of the skeleton?

  4. What is the hardest tissue in the body?

  5. Where are the heart and the lungs situated?

  6. What bones of the face do you know?


EXERCISES

Ex. 1. Listen to the tape-recording of the text and repeat sentence by sentence after the speaker.

Ex. 2. Give English equivalents: механическое повреждение, волокнистая ткань, защитная функция, центральная нервная система, лицевая часть, нижняя челюсть, надкостница, мозг, сердце и легкие, внешний и внутренний, верхний и нижний.

Ex. 3. State the tense form of the Predicate and translate:

  1. The musculo-skeletal system is made up of bones, muscles and joints.

  2. Bones are classified as long, short, flat and irregular.

  3. All the muscles' contractions are controlled by the brain.

  4. We were asked about our work.

  5. The corpse was dissected by one of the students.

  6. New cells are formed by division of old ones. This process is called mitosis,

  7. This work will be done by John.

  8. The blood analysis was made yesterday.

  9. Medical students are taught Physiology.

  10. The body is made up of 60 trillion cells that join together forming tissues.

Ex. 4. Give the correct forms:

  1. The books (to bring) tomorrow.

  2. The experiment (to make) two weeks ago.

  3. Vitamins (to give to) the child.

  4. The body (to consist of) cells, tissues and organs.

  5. Bones (to knit) together by joints.

  6. The brain (to protect) by the skull.

  7. The bones (to cover) by the periosteum.

Ex. 5. Translate into English:

  1. Внешний слой, покрывающий кость, называется надкостницей.

  2. Каждая кость снабжена кровеносными сосудами и нервами.

  3. Защитная функция выполняется наружным слоем надкостницы.

  4. Об этом эксперименте много говорили.

  5. Органы человеческого тела состоят из различных тканей, скомбинированных в различных соотношениях.

Ex. 6. Answer the following questions and check your answers:

  1. What is the bony structure of the body called?

  2. What is the bony structure of the head called?

  3. What functions does a joint perform?

  4. What are the functions of the skeleton?

  5. What is the brain saved by the skull from?

  6. What organ is a bone?

  7. What does a bone consist of?

  8. What is a bone covered with?

  9. What are the main parts of the skull?

  10. What bones of the face do you know?

  11. What bone of the face is movable?

Ex. 7. Translate the text without a dictionary:

Man's skeleton was formed more than million years ago. The skeleton is a tower of bones knit together by joints so that man can run, jump and bend. 206 bones protect the vital organs from injuries. The skeleton performs functions of support, movement and protection. The supporting function consists in supporting all the organs and giving the body a definite form and position. The skeleton, together with the muscles, constitute the motive apparatus.

The human skeleton may be divided into the skeleton of the trunk, upper extremities, lower extremities and the skull.

The bony part of the head is called the cranium or skull. The skull has a cavity which contains the brain. The bones of the skull form the mouth and nasal cavities. In the mouth cavity there are accessory organs of the digestive system

^ THE SKULL

The main part of the head and face is called the skull. The skull is composed of twenty-six bones. These bones form two basic parts of the skull, that is, facial and cranial parts.

The bones of the skull are connected with the cervical vertebrae. The bones of the skull are connected together so firmly (крепко) that it is very difficult to separate them.

The bones of the skull form one large cavity and some smaller cavities. The large cavity is called the cranial cavity. The brain is in the cranial cavity. One of the smaller cavities is the oral cavity and the other is the cavity of the nose. The other two cavities are the orbits. The eyeballs are in the orbits.


Lesson 4

^ THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

Wordbuilding

-er, -or - суффикс, образующий существительные
to read - читать a reader - читатель


to teach - учить a teacher - учитель

^ 1. Guess the meanings and translate:
to retain - удерживать a retainer -

to regulate - регулировать a regulator -
to examine - экзаменовать an examiner -
to think - думать a thinker -

to dress -перевязывать рану a dresser –





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