Методические указания и контольные работы по английскому языку для студентов-заочников 1 курса исторического факультета Выпуск 4 icon

Методические указания и контольные работы по английскому языку для студентов-заочников 1 курса исторического факультета Выпуск 4

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1) Paper is thin material used for writing upon, printing upon or packaging, produced by the amalgamation of fibers, typically vegetable fibers composed of cellulose, which are subsequently held together by hydrogen bonding. While the fibers used are usually natural in origin, a wide variety of synthetic fibers, such as polypropylene and polyethylene, may be incorporated into paper as a way of imparting desirable physical properties. The most common source of these kinds of fibers is wood pulp from pulpwood trees, largely softwoods and hardwoods, such as spruce and aspen respectively. Other vegetable fiber materials including those of cotton, hemp, linen, and rice may be used.

2) The word paper comes from the Greek term for the ancient Egyptian writing material called papyrus, which was formed from beaten strips of papyrus plants. Papyrus was produced as early as 3000 BC in Egypt, and sold to ancient Greece and Rome. The establishment of the Library of Alexandria in the 3rd century BC put a drain on the supply of papyrus.

3) Paper is considered to be one of the Four Great Inventions of Ancient China, as the first standard papermaking process was developed in China during the early 2nd century. During the Shang and Zhou dynasties of ancient China, documents were ordinarily written on bone or bamboo, making them very heavy and awkward to transport. The light material of silk was sometimes used, but was normally too expensive to consider.

4) While the Han Dynasty Chinese court official Cai Lun is widely regarded to have first invented the modern method of papermaking from wood pulp in 105 AD. Archeologically however, true paper without writing has been excavated in China dating to the reign of Emperor Wu of Han from the 2nd century BC, used for purposes of wrapping or padding protection for delicate bronze mirrors. Although paper used for writing became widespread by the 3rd century, paper continued to be used for wrapping and other purposes.

5) Toilet paper was used in China by at least the 6th century AD. Toilet paper continued to be a valued necessity in China, since it was during the Hongwu Emperor's reign in AD 1393 that the Bureau of Imperial Supplies manufactured 720,000 sheets of toilet paper for the entire court produced of the cheap rice-straw paper. For the emperor's family alone, 15,000 special sheets of paper were made, in light yellow tint and even perfumed.

6) During the Tang Dynasty paper was folded and sewn into square bags to preserve the flavor of tea. During the same period, it was written that tea was served from baskets with multi-colored paper cups and paper napkins of different size and shape. During the Chinese Song Dynasty not only did the government produce the world's first known paper-printed money, or banknote, but paper money bestowed as gifts to deserving government officials were wrapped in special paper envelopes.

  1. In America, archaeological evidence indicates that paper was invented by the Mayans no later than the 5th century AD. It was in widespread use among Mesoamerican cultures until the Spanish conquest. In small quantities, traditional Maya papermaking techniques are still practiced today. The paper was thin and translucent, not like modern western paper, and thus only written on one side. Books were invented in India, of Palm leaves where we derive the name leaf for a sheet of a book. The first paper mill in Europe was in Spain in1120. Paper is recorded as being manufactured in both Italy and Germany by 1400, just about the time when the woodcut printmaking technique was transferred from fabric to paper.

№9 Прочитайте текст еще раз и ответьте на вопросы к нему:

  1. What materials were used for writing before paper?

  2. What was paper used in China?

  3. What for was paper used during the Tang and Song Dynasties?

  4. What other peoples made paper?

№10 Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих слов и выражений и составьте свои предложения с ними:

(1) был изобретен, (2) широко распространенный, (3) слишком дорогой,

(4) продолжает использоваться, (5) бумажные салфетки, (6) самый распространенный источник, (7) тяжелый и громоздкий, (8) бумажные деньги,

(9) процесс изготовления бумаги, (10) соответственно

№11 Заполните таблицу существительными, глаголами и прилагательными, где возможно:




to produce




to preserve

to differ




to desire


to consider

№12 Найдите в тексте антонимы к следующим словам:

(1) modern, (2) expensive, (3) bought, (4) light, (5) qualities, (6) the last, (7) the same,

(8) metal, (9) handy, (10) together

Тексты для дополнительного чтения.

^ History of Japanese Marriage

During the age of aristocracy, "Muko-iri" was the common marriage system in Japan. A bridegroom would nightly visit his bride at her home. Only after the birth of a child or the loss of his parents would be the bride is accepted as the wife in the man's home. Among common people labour power was and essential factor to maintain a family. A bridegroom would live with his bride's family to offer his labour for a certain length of time. The practice remains today in the system of adoption by which a man becomes a member of another family by marriage.

With the rise of "Bushi" warriors, the system of women marrying into men's families called "Yome-iri" was gradually adopted and widely accepted in the 14th century and on. Under the feudal system marriages were often used as political and diplomatic approaches to maintaining peace and unity among feudal lords. Thus the personal will of men and women for marriage was ignored in the face of family interests and the social intercourse of unmarried persons was denied. Marriages came to be arranged by and for families and the role of "Nakodo" go-between became very important in Japan. Now this "Yome-iri" system is quite common in Japan and you can find the traditional procedure in the contemporary marriage.

Throughout history, Japanese marital systems had gone through many changes along with changes in Japanese social systems and conditions. The most important and historical change in the Japanese marital system was brought about through the rise of "bushi" warriors in the 13th and 14th centuries. The change from the age of aristocracy to the age of the shoguns led to a change from the old practice of "muko-iri" to the new practice of "yome-iri". That is, instead of the groom joining the bride's family ("muko-iri"), the bride would join the groom's family ("yome-iri") after the birth of a child or the loss of a parent.

Under the feudal system, Japanese marriages were often used as political and diplomatic means to maintain peace and unity among feudal lords. The young men and women of the day did not have a say in choosing their partners in marriage. Rather, a matchmaker would arrange marriages on behalf of both families. Thus, the role of a "nakodo" (a matchmaker) was established in Japan.

It is interesting to note that a young man had more say in choosing his own bride during the age of aristocracy. A young man would typically visit the young lady of his choice at her home. If the young woman's parents approve of their union, the young man would be invited to a ceremony termed "tokoro-arawashi" and offered "mochi" rice cakes. This ceremony was deemed to be the most important function in ancient weddings among aristocrats.

Similarly among the common people, a young man would visit the parents of the lady and asked her parents for her hands in marriage. Labour played an essential role in life of the common people. Labour practices vary from places. In certain areas of Japan, such as the Tohoku area in the north, a groom would live with his bride's family to offer his labour for a certain length of time. While in other parts of the country such as the Izu Islands, a wife would work for the family of her husband while her husband would offer his labour to her family. It is worth noting that such labour arrangement is still being practised to this day in marriages where the man is adopted into the family of the bride upon marriage. A third and more common family labour arrangement was for the groom and the bride to offer their labour to their respective families. In such a case, the husband would visit his wife nightly to maintain their union in marriage.

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