Методические указания и контольные работы по английскому языку для студентов-заочников 1 курса исторического факультета Выпуск 4 icon

Методические указания и контольные работы по английскому языку для студентов-заочников 1 курса исторического факультета Выпуск 4

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History of silk

1) The history of silk begins, according to Chinese tradition, in the 27th century BC. The Chinese were able to continue making it exclusively for three millennia without ever revealing the secret process whereby it was made. During the later epoch, the Chinese lost their secret as the Koreans, the Japanese, and later the Indians succeeded in discovering how to make silk.

2) In China, silk worm farming was originally restricted to women, and many women were employed in the silk-making industry. Even though some saw the development of a luxury product as useless, silk provoked such a craze among high society that the rules in the Li Ji were used to regulate and limit its use to the members of the imperial family. Peasants did not have the right to wear silk until the Qing dynasty (1644-1911). For approximately a millennium, the right to wear silk was reserved for the emperor and the highest dignitaries. Later, it gradually extended to other classes of Chinese society. Silk began to be used for decorative means and also in less luxurious ways: musical instruments, fishing, and bow-making.

3) Paper was certainly one of the greatest discoveries of China. Since the 3rd century BC, paper was made in all sizes with various materials. Silk workers had been making paper since the 2nd century BC. Silk, bamboo, linen, wheat and rice straw were all used differently, and paper made with silk became the first type of luxury paper Researchers. The material was certainly more expensive, but also more practical than bamboo. Treaties on many subjects (meteorology, medicine, astrology, divinity), and even maps written on silk have been discovered.

4) During the Han Dynasty, silk became progressively more valuable in its own right, and no longer simply a material. It was used to pay government officials and compensate citizens who were particularly worthy. The length of the silk cloth became a monetary standard in China. The wealth that silk brought to China stirred up envy in neighboring peoples. Silk was a common offering by the emperor to these tribes in exchange for peace. For more than one millennium, silk remained the principle diplomatic gift of the emperor of China to his neighbors or to his vassals.

The use of silk became so important that "silk" (纟) soon constituted one of the principal radicals of the Chinese alphabet.

5) Broadly speaking, the use of silk was regulated by a very precise code in China. For example, the Tang Dynasty imposed upon bureaucrats the use of a particular color according to their different functions in society. Under the Ming, silk began to be used in a series of accessories: handkerchiefs, wallets, belts, or even an embroidered piece of fabric displaying dozens of animals, real or mythical. These fashion accessories remained associated with a particular position: there was a specific bonnet for warriors, for judges, for nobles, and others for religious use.

6) A number of discoveries showed that silk was rapidly becoming a luxury material appreciated in foreign countries. Its role in commerce dates well before the opening of the silk road by the Chinese. The Silk Road toward the west was opened by the Chinese in the 2nd century A.D. The main road left from Beijing, going either to the north or south of the Taklamakan desert, one of the most arid in the world, before crossing the Pamir Mountains. The caravans that employed this method to exchange silk with other merchants were generally quite large, including from 100 to 500 people as well as camels and yaks carrying around 140 kg of merchandise.

№9 Прочитайте текст еще раз и ответьте на вопросы к нему:

  1. Who worked in the silk-making industry?

  2. Who could wear silk in China?

  3. What was silk used for during the Han Dynasty?

  4. When and where was the Silk Road opened?

№10 Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих слов и выражений и составьте свои предложения с ними:

(1) сумели, преуспели, (2) роскошный, (3) крестьяне, (4) в общих чертах

(5) для декоративных целей, (6) денежный стандарт, (7) вышитый кусочек ткани, (8) открытия, (9) навязать, (10) постепенно распространился

№11 Заполните таблицу существительными, глаголами и прилагательными, где возможно:






to value


to differ




to provoke



to reserve

№12 Найдите в тексте антонимы к следующим словам:

(1) failed, (2) more, (3) native, (4) to finish, (5) cheap, (6) war, (7) civil, (8) found

(9) slowly, (10) workers

Вариант 3

№1 Перефразируйте следующие предложения, употребляя инфинитивную конструкцию сложное дополнение (Complex Object) вместо придаточных дополнительных предложений или переделывая два предложения в одно. Переведите предложения на русский язык:

  1. I expect that he will understand your problem and help you to solve it.

  2. He knows that my mother is a very kind woman.

  3. Jane saw her neighbor. He opened the door of his flat and went in.

  4. I should like to see how he would say it to my face.

  5. I hate it when people speak so cynically.

  6. He heard that somebody called his name.

№2 Перефразируйте следующие предложения, употребляя инфинитивную конструкцию сложное подлежащее (Complex Subject). Переведите переделанные предложения на русский язык:

  1. It was proved that the beginning of the 17th century was a hard time for Russia.

  2. It is reported that the flood has caused much damage to the crops.

  3. It is believed that the original Roman calendar was a lunar calendar.

  4. It turned out that .the look of the city changed drastically during the Soviet times.

  5. It seemed that the discussion was coming to the end.

  6. It is considered that his invention is very important.

  7. It is reported that the excavations are not finished yet.

№3 Перепишите и переведите предложения на русский язык, подчеркните герундий и укажите его форму:

  1. The Russian general was supposedly trying to stop the massacre and even went as far as to order the destruction of the bridge to Warsaw over the river Vistula river with the purpose of preventing the spread of violence to Warsaw from its suburb.

  2. After entering Moscow, the Grand Armee, unhappy with military conditions and no sign of victory, began looting what little remained within Moscow.

  3. Gaining these two hills cost the Japanese 1280 killed and wounded.

  4. The Japanese Imperial Headquarters fully understood the necessity of destroying Russian ships.

№4 Перепишите и расположите по порядку:

a) предложения с инфинитивной конструкцией сложное подлежащее (Complex Subject)

b) предложения с инфинитивной конструкцией сложное дополнение (Complex Object)

c) предложения с независимой причастной конструкцией (Absolute Participial Construction)

Подчеркните конструкции и переведите предложения на русский язык:

  1. With the prices going higher and higher and wages frozen, it is becoming increasingly difficult for the British housewife to make both ends meet.

  2. Have you ever seen him dance?

  3. One can watch more and more people move into history from other areas of research.

  4. They seem to have taken advantage of the favorable conditions.

  5. The pleasant day passing, we started home.

  6. The main object of the interview was to assess the candidate and suitability, special consideration being given to the factors of general intelligence, previous education, training and experience.

  7. My brother wanted me to bring this rare book.

№5 Найдите ошибку в предложениях и исправьте ее (ошибка в использовании относительных местоимений). Перепишите исправленный вариант и переведите его на русский язык:

  1. This school is only for children who first language is not English.

  2. Ben’s father that used to be a teacher now works for a TV company.

  3. Where’s the nearest shop who sells newspapers?

  4. The driver which caused the accident was fined 500$.

  5. A mystery is something who cannot be explained.

  6. I won’t be able to do much, but I’ll do the best whose I can.

  7. Unfortunately we couldn’t go to the wedding whom we were invited to.

№6 Перепишите следующие предложения. Укажите в них зависимый и независимый причастный оборот и переведите их на русский язык.

  1. The project abandoned, the leadership in this field passed to another institute.

  2. When being a student, he used to study at the library.

  3. Herodotus, "the father of history", traveled extensively, visiting all the places of the greatest interest.

  4. His work is not only a narration of the deeds of real men and a description of foreign places; it is also the expression of a whole man, representing all the world seen through the eyes of one man.

  5. By this time having got used to the atmosphere of the big city, he no longer felt a stranger.

  6. Having got what he wanted he took off his hat and left.

  7. No country's history has been more closely found to immigration than that of the United States. During the first 15 years of the 20th century alone, over 13 million people came to the United States, many passing through Ellis Island, the federal immigration center that opened in New York harbor in 1892.

№7 Перепишите предложения, подчеркните в них герундиальный комплекс и переведите на русский язык.

  1. His saying this made all the difference.

  2. Much depends on your taking the job.

  3. Henry was put in charge of the party, but the doctor objected to that, saying he was physically unfit for such a job.

  4. There was no question of anybody not having enough work to do.

  5. You are responsible for the work being done in time.

№8 Прочитайте и письменно переведите 1, 4, 7 абзацы текста:

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