Методические указания и контольные работы по английскому языку для студентов-заочников 1 курса исторического факультета Выпуск 4 icon

Методические указания и контольные работы по английскому языку для студентов-заочников 1 курса исторического факультета Выпуск 4



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Battle of Thermopylae


1) In the Battle of Thermopylae of 480 BC, an alliance of Greek city-states fought the invading Persian Empire at the pass of Thermopylae in central Greece. Vastly outnumbered, the Greeks held back the Persians for three days in one of history's most famous last stands. A small force led by King Leonidas of Sparta blocked the only road through which the massive army of Xerxes I of Persia could pass.


2) After three days of battle, a local resident named Ephialtes is believed to have betrayed the Greeks by revealing a mountain path that led behind the Greek lines. Dismissing the rest of the army, King Leonidas stayed behind with 300 Spartans and 700 Theban volunteers and slaves. The Persians succeeded in taking the pass but sustained heavy losses, extremely disproportionate to those of the Greeks. The fierce resistance of the Spartan-led army offered Athens the invaluable time to prepare for a decisive naval battle that would come to determine the outcome of the war.


3) The subsequent Greek victory at the Battle of Salamis left much of the Persian Empire's navy destroyed and Xerxes was forced to retreat back to Asia, leaving his army in Greece under Mardonius, who was to meet the Greeks in battle one last time. The Spartans assembled at full strength and led a pan-Greek army that defeated the Persians decisively at the Battle of Plataea, ending the Greco-Persian War and with it the expansion of the Persian Empire into Europe.


4) The performance of the defenders at the battle of Thermopylae is often used as an example of the advantages of training, equipment, and good use of terrain as force multipliers, and has become a symbol of courage against overwhelming odds. However, ancient writers first used the Battle of Thermopylae as an example of the superior power of a patriotic army of free men defending native soil.


5) There is also a large political significance of the Battle of Thermopylae, in that it was the first occasion in which the independent Greek city-states formed a significant alliance. The Battle of Thermopylae also possibly signified the beginning of the end for the Persian empire–drawing strength from the outcome of the battle, the Greeks as a national body began assaulting the Persian Empire.


6) King Darius I of Persia initially sent heralds to all Greek cities offering blandishments if they would submit to Persian authority. Many of the 700 Greek states submitted, including Argos. The Athenians declined to adhere to their initial agreement, undertaken in 507 BC. The Persian army first encountered a joint force of 10,000 Athenian and Spartan hoplites led by Euanetus and Themistocles in the Vale of Tempe. Upon hearing this, Xerxes sent the army through the Sarantaporo strait, which was unguarded, and sidestepped them. The hoplites, warned by Alexander I of Macedon, vacated the pass.


    1. The allied Greeks judged that the next strategic choke point where the Persian force could be stopped was Thermopylae. They decided to defend it and send a fleet to Artemision, a naval choke point, as Xerxes' army was being supplied and supported by sea. Using the fleet, Xerxes' army might have crossed Maliacos bay and outflanked the Greek army again. In essence, the Oracle's warning was that either Sparta would be conquered and left in ruins or one of her two hereditary kings, descendant of Heracles, must sacrifice his life to defend her. Leonidas took charge of his personal fighting unit, the 300 Spartans (and the 900 servants of the 300 soldiers), and headed to Thermopylae.


№9 Прочитайте текст еще раз и ответьте на вопросы к нему:


  1. What was the political significance of the Battle of Thermopylae?

  2. What for did the king Darius I of Persia send heralds to all Greek cities?

  3. What kind of prophecy did the Oracle make?

  4. What is King Leonidas of Sparta famous for?


№10 Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих слов и выражений и составьте свои предложения с ними:


(1) добровольцы, (2) остальная часть армии, (3) ожесточенное сопротивление

(4) предавать, (5) распускать, (6) одержать решительную победу,

(7) потомственные короли, (8) нести огромные потери, (9) значимый союз

(10) последствия битвы


№11 Заполните таблицу существительными, глаголами и прилагательными, где возможно:


глагол

существительное

прилагательное

to agree










possibility




to signify

significance

significant







hereditary




defense




to destroy













free




multiplier




to supply













valuable


№12 Найдите в тексте антонимы к следующим словам:


(1) ancestor, (2) to flourish, (3) to fail, (4) weakness, (5) doubtful, (6) slave

(7) little, (8) foreign, (9) modern, (10) to gather


Вариант 2


№1 Перефразируйте следующие предложения, употребляя инфинитивную конструкцию сложное дополнение (Complex Object) вместо придаточных дополнительных предложений или переделывая два предложения в одно. Переведите предложения на русский язык:


  1. I expect that she would behave quite differently.

  2. I know that your uncle is an excellent mathematician.

  3. I saw him. He pointed to a picture on the wall.

  4. She bent and picked something from the floor. The policeman saw it.

  5. I expect that you will join our excursion.

  6. They showed themselves even more narrow-minded than he had expected they would be.

  7. The wounded hunter felt that the bear touched him, but he didn’t move.


№2 Перефразируйте следующие предложения, употребляя инфинитивную конструкцию сложное подлежащее (Complex Subject). Переведите переделанные предложения на русский язык:


  1. It appeared that Caucasian had worn high fleece caps on most occasions.

  2. It is supposed that the playwright is working at a new comedy.

  3. It has been found that this mineral water is very good for the liver.

  4. It happened that I was present at the opening session.

  5. It turned out that the world-famous Moscow’s museums and galleries with their collections are some of the largest and most important in the world.

  6. It is considered that these devices are very effective.

  7. It was said that people had invented samovars in Central Asia.

№3 Перепишите и переведите предложения на русский язык, подчеркните герундий и укажите его форму:


  1. The project for planning and building works in the city was established in 1968, basing on the instructions provided by Peter the Great.

  2. Lisitsyn and his two sons were laboring in their free from making arms and ammunition on a rather unusual device.

  3. Nearly all samovars have a four-legged square-shaped foundation. This keeps the samovar from damaging the furniture with its heat.

  4. Charcoal-burning samovars are less common, and guests should be warned about the risk of scalding themselves.


№4 Перепишите и расположите по порядку:

a) предложения с инфинитивной конструкцией сложное подлежащее (Complex Subject)

b) предложения с инфинитивной конструкцией сложное дополнение (Complex Object)

c) предложения с независимой причастной конструкцией (Absolute Participial Construction)

Подчеркните конструкции и переведите предложения на русский язык:


  1. The project abandoned, the leadership in this field passed to another institute.

  2. I saw him do it several times.

  3. Twenty minutes later he came out of number seven, pale, with his lips tightly compressed and an odd expression on his face.

  4. The family suspected it and wanted to get him see a doctor.

  5. He happens to work at the same problem.

  6. Would you like me to do it?

  7. This scientist is known to be keeping in touch with the latest developments in his field of research.


№5 Найдите ошибку в предложениях и исправьте ее (ошибка в использовании относительных местоимений). Перепишите исправленный вариант и переведите его на русский язык:


  1. What was the name of the man whom phoned you?

  2. I gave her money what I had.

  3. The people work in the office are very nice.

  4. The book is about a girl where runs away from home.

  5. .Why do you blame me for everything who goes wrong?

  6. They give their children everything which they want.

  7. The place whose we spend our holiday was really beautiful.


№6 Перепишите следующие предложения. Укажите в них зависимый и независимый причастный оборот и переведите их на русский язык.


  1. After many nations accreted the faith of Christ, many synods assembled throughout the world. Such there were throughout England, consisting of bishops and other competent councilors.

  2. While waiting for you, I was looking through newspapers and magazines.

  3. She often took care of my little sister giving me a possibility to play with other boys.

  4. The questions of collective scientific discoveries have already been suggested that a solution of some urgent problems can be best achieved that way.

  5. America was transformed in the two centuries from the first English settlement at Jamestown in 1607 to the beginning of the 19th century. From a series of isolated colonial settlements hugging to the Atlantic coast, America evolved into a new nation, born in revolution, and guided by a Constitution embodying the principles of democratic self-government.

  6. Never having experienced such difficulties she was at a loss.

  7. In relations with the Soviet Union, President Reagan's declared policy was one of peace through strength. Rooted in the Cold war tradition, he was determined to stand firm in dealing with the country he termed "the evil empire".


№7 Перепишите предложения, подчеркните в них герундиальный комплекс и переведите на русский язык.


  1. Do you mind my waiting there?

  2. I had no idea of your being there.

  3. That was how the affair ended with Mr. Tupman being put to bed and the doctor being sent for.

  4. He was disturbed by the children’s coming in.

  5. She had overlooked the possibility of her father’s getting to know about the affair from the newspapers sooner than she could inform him.


№8 Прочитайте и письменно переведите 2, 3, 5 абзацы текста:





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