4.1. In a small shop a sales person often ….
a) is the manager of it
c) has to perform other duties besides selling
4.2. One advantage of door-to-door selling is that … .
a) the salesman can demonstrate his articles and show how they work
b) the salesman can demonstrate his articles and ask a higher price
c) the salesman can demonstrate his articles and get orders
4.3. The wholesale merchant buys goods from the manufacturer in large whole lots
and … .
a) sells them in a retail store
b) sells these large whole lots to individual retail businesses
c) sells them in small lots to retail businesses
4.4. Agents only combine retailers' orders for the manufacturer and arrange for … .
a) shipment directly from the manufacturer to the wholesale merchant
b) shipment directly from the manufacturer to the retailer
c) shipment directly from the manufacturer to the intermediary
4.5. There are other types of selling, such as … .
a) the selling of health, insurance plans, stocks
b) the selling of flats, precious metals
c) the selling of raw materials and minerals
ДЛЯ ВСЕХ ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКИХ СПЕЦИАЛЬНОСТЕЙ
A business organization is frequently referred to as a business entity. A business entity is any business organization that exists as an economic unit. Business entities can be grouped according to the type of business activity they perform.
The business entity concept applies to all forms of businesses -single proprietorship, a partnership, and a corporation.
A single (sole) proprietorship is business owned by an individual and often managed by that same individual. Single proprietors include physicians, lawyers, electricians, and other people who are 'in business for themselves'. In a single proprietorship, the owner is responsible for all debts of the business. Operating as a proprietorship is the easiest way to get started in a business activity. Other than the possibility of needing a local license, there are not any prerequisites to beginning operations.
A partnership is a business owned by two or more persons associated as partners. Partnerships are created by an agreement. Included in the agreement are such terms as the initial investment of each partner, the duties of each partner, the means of dividing profits or losses between the partners each year, and the settlement to be made upon the death or withdrawal of a partner. Accountants, attorneys, and other professionals frequently operate their firms as partnerships.
A corporation is a business owned by a few persons or by thousands of persons. The owners of the corporation are called shareholders or stockholders. They buy shares of stock. If the corporation fails, the owners lose only the amount they paid for their stock. The personal assets of the owner are protected from the creditors of the corporation. The stockholders do not directly manage the corporation; they elect a board of directors to represent their interests. The board of directors select the president and vice president, who manage the corporation for the stockholders.
The capital of a business consists of the funds used to start and run the business. The funds may be either the owner's (equity capital) or creditor's (debt capital) Equity capital consists of those funds provided to the business by the owner(s). These funds come from the personal savings of the owner. Debt capital consists of borrowed funds that the business owner owes to the lender. With debt capital the entrepreneur doesn't have to share ownership, but has a legal obligation to repay the borrowed money (principal) plus interest at a future data even if the business does not make profit.
Capital is also classified, depending on it use, as fixed or working. Fixed capital refers to items bought once and used for a long period of time. These items include real estate, fixtures, equipment. With a grocery, for example, the real estate consists of the store itself and the land on which it is built. The fixtures include such objective as counters, refrigerators, shelves. Equipment covers such articles as cutting machines, knives, scales. Working capital refers to the funds used to keep a business working or operating. It pays for merchandise, inventory and operating expenses such as rent, utilities (light and heat), taxes, wages. Cash on hand and accounts receivable are also considered working capital. Therefore, working capital is cash, or anything that can easily and quickly be turned into cash.
Equity financing (obtaining owner funds) can be exemplified by the sale of corporate stock. In this type of transaction, the corporation sells units of ownership known as shares of stock. Each share entitles purchaser to a certain amount of ownership. For example, if someone buys 100 shares of stock from Ford Motor Company, that person has purchased 100 shares worth of Ford resources, material, plants, production and profits. The person who purchases shares of stock is known as a stockholder or shareholder.
All corporations, regardless of their size, receive their starting capital from issuing and selling shares of stock. The initial sales involve some risk on the part of the buyers because corporation has no record of performance. If the corporation is successful, the stockholder may profit through increased valuation of the shares of stock, as well as by receiving dividends. Dividends are proportional amounts of profit usually paid quarterly to stockholders. However, if the corporation is not successful, the stockholder may take losses on the initial stock investment.
Often equity financing does not provide the corporation with enough capital and it must turn to debt financing, or borrowing funds. One example of debts financing is the sale of corporate bonds. In this type of agreement, the corporation borrows money from investor in return for bond. The bond has maturity date, a deadline when the corporation must repay all of the money it has borrowed. The corporation must also make periodic interest payment to the bondholder during the time the money is borrowed. If these obligations are not met, the corporation can be forced to sell its assets in order to make payments to the bondholders.
All businesses need financial support. Equity financing (as in the sale of stock) and debt financing (as in the sale of bonds) provide important means by which a corporation may obtain its capital.
Switzerland is one of the few countries in the world that guarantees, by law, the secrecy of its bank accounts. As long as the client of a Swiss bank has not done anything that is considered illegal in Switzerland, the bank will not reveal the client's identity to anyone.
During World War II, for example, many families from war-torn Germany, Italy, and France were able to keep their savings secure by putting them in Swiss banks. Many Europeans still consider having a bank account in Zurich, Basel, Lugano, or Geneva to be a sign of financial security.
Opening a legal, numbered Swiss bank account is still relatively easy to do, usually involving nothing more than going to Switzerland, filling out a few forms, and making a deposit. Swiss bankers are known to be dependable, trustworthy, and, above all, discreet. These qualities have made Switzerland one of the world's banking centers. But they have also made Switzerland a center for money laundering.
Swiss bank accounts are useful for money-laundering schemes because once money passes through a respectable Swiss bank, it is accepted anywhere in the world. When several Swiss banks were found to be facilitating the activities of international drag traffickers in the 1980s, the Swiss authorities finally decided to break open several secret accounts that were linked to illegal activities abroad.
Most people holding Swiss bank accounts, however, do not use them to launder illegally earned money. They merely want their legally earned funds to be safe and free from government control and taxes at home. Swiss bankers do not reveal the accounts of clients accused of avoiding taxes in their home country, since tax evasion is not considered to be "illegal" in Switzerland: it is only a civil, not a criminal offense.
Foreigners—as long as they break no Swiss laws—can keep their money in Swiss bank accounts without fear. This guarantee of secrecy can be used by many unscrupulous people for a wide variety of shady international activities. In the case of the Iran-contra scandals during the 1980s, for example, the secret deals between America's CIA and the Iranian arms merchants were paid for in part with money deposited by CIA agents at banks in Switzerland.
Philippine dictator Ferdinand Marcos had also deposited large sums of illegally acquired funds in Swiss banks during the 1970s and 1980s. When he was deposed, the Philippine government called for the return of these funds, which was agreed to by the Swiss authorities. After several abuses of Swiss banking secrecy, the Swiss authorities announced that they would be ready to open any accounts revealed to be linked to illegal international activity.
The criteria necessary for professional status include three major components:
- A code of conduct as behavior imposed upon members and usually enforced internally.
If we examine the field of management in light of these characteristics, what shall we find out?
There is no question that management as a discipline has developed ' a body of knowledge, which is becoming more and more sophisticated part of the curriculum in many academic institutions. Research in the field, particularly in the quantitative and behavioral areas, shows promise of making even more significant advances in the future. More and more academic institutions offering business programs are devoting their primary attention to graduate education in the area of management, with a particular emphasis on both theoretical and practical research. A growing number of business schools are making efforts to integrate faculty move closely with members of the business community so as to apply research findings to actual business problems.
With respect to the second criterion of professionalism, that of placing the interest of society before personal interest in the conduct of activities the issue is much less clear-out. Businessmen in general recognize that the role of management does include the responsibility of devoting business resources to the common interests of society. One difficulty facing the manager, however is determining what is meant by the "interest of society". Many corporations fear to allocate significant resources to social and ecological programs because stockholders would complain that such allocation is not consistent with their own financial interests. Corporations that fail to allocate stockholder resources for social and ecological programs receive criticism from political and civic groups accusing them of being interested only in profits. But we should admit that corporate management is indeed becoming more involved in the problems of society, whether because of self-interest or concern for others.
It is in the third criterion of professionalism that the case for management is perhaps the weakest. Let's consider an example taken from the Harvard Business Review. Executives were presented with the following hypothetical situation: "The minister of a foreign nation where extraordinary payments are common in order to lubricate decision making machinery asks you as Marketing Director for a $ 200,000 consulting fee. In return he promises special assistance in obtaining a $ 1 million contract which would produce a $ 5 million profit for your company. What would you do?" 36 per cent of these executives said that they would pay the fee, feeling it to be ethical in the moral climate of the country; 22 per cent said they would pay the fee but felt it was unethical though necessary to insure the sale; and 42 per cent said they would refuse to pay the fee. This simple example shows that each person in business looks to his or her own personal code of ethics to determine acceptable behavior in a given situation. There is a wide variety of behavior results, since individuals view a given situation in different ways, as their personal values and principles dictate. We recognize that each member of our society must answer ultimately to his or her own conscience. But it remains for the field of management to develop a position that is consistent with the professional, ethical status of its members.
Stated simply, international marketing is marketing across national boundaries. Since the end of World War II, improved travel, communications, and technology have fostered a tenfold increase in trade among nations.
A company choosing to enter international markets can achieve many benefits, but can also encounter many difficulties.
The main reason for companies to do international marketing is to exploit a better business opportunity in terms of increased sales and profits. Either firms are limited in their home country or their opportunities are great in the foreign countries.
Many companies find themselves with little room for growth in their domestic market. Competition may increase and leave a smaller portion of the pie to enjoy, or demand may shift to a newer, better product. The economic environment in the home country may be undesirable because of higher taxes or a recession. It would seem logical to turn to other markets in any of these cases. So foreign markets may offer an opportunity for growth. A product that is mature and facing dwindling sales at home may be new and exciting in other countries.
Among the conditions that influence the success of international marketing are economic, political, legal and cultural ones.
Economic conditions. There are several important rules to international marketing in light of a country's economic conditions: the product must fit the needs of the country's consumers and the product must be sold where there is the income to buy it and effective means of distributing, using, and servicing it. Five aspects of these considerations are (1) the country's stage of economic development, (2) multination trade groups, (3) the country's economic infrastructure, (4) consumer income, and (5) currency exchange rates.
There are over 200 countries in the world today, each of which is at a slightly different point in terms of its stage of economic development. However, they can be classified into two major groupings that will help the international marketer better understand their needs:
Political and legal conditions. The difficulties in assessing the political and legal condition of a country lie not only in identifying the current condition but also in estimating exactly how long that condition will last. Some transnational companies use analyses ranging from computer projections to intuition and forecasts to assess a country's condition. The dimensions being evaluated include the government attitude toward foreign marketers, the stability and financial policies of the country, and government bureaucracy.
Some countries invite foreign investment through offering investment incentives, helping in site location, and providing other services. A country or group of countries can establish equitable standards to enable foreign products to compete fairly in their domestic markets. The European Union has a huge staff in Brussels, Belgium, developing directives to establish such standards for products marketed in the EU after 1992.
Millions of dollars have been lost in the Middle East as a result of war and changes in governments. When instability is suspected, companies do everything they can to protect themselves against losses. Companies will limit their trade to exporting products into the country, minimizing investments in new plants in the foreign economy. Currency will be converted as soon as possible.
Even friendly countries can change their policies toward international marketing. Quotas can be revised or set, currency can be blocked, duties can be imposed, and in extreme cases companies can be expropriated.
Цуканова Лидия Дмитриевна
Пантюшина Майя Митрофановна
Рабочая программа, методические указания, контрольные задания и тексты для чтения для студентов заочной формы обучения 2 курса факультета Экономики и предпринимательства специальностей: 080105 (0604), 080109 (0605), 080502 (0608), 080507 (0611), 080503 (3510), 080301 (3513)
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