a) if labour and resources were extremely mobile
b) if labour and assets were extremely mobile
c) if labour and capital were extremely mobile
4.2. Large expenditures on … involve great risks
a) salaries and fringe benefits
b) research and development
c) training of personnel
4.3. Several government agencies exist … .
a) to offer advice and help firms introducing new technology
b) to offer advice and control firms introducing new technology
c) to improve the practice of management
4.4. The UK's economic growth and ability to compete in world markets depends
very much on … .
a) the existence of corporate securities market
b) the existence of cross-border trading
c) the existence of a skilled and adaptable labour force
4.5. There is a view that the relatively slow growth of productivity in British
industry was partly due to … .
a) the thinness of the market
b) a big price disturbance
c) constant changes in government economic policy
Контрольная работа для студентов специальности 080301
I. Выберите правильный ответ, обращая внимание на видовременную форму и залог сказуемого и переведите предложения на русский язык.
1.1. Bonds … for a fixed period, usually from 15 years up.
1.2. The USA … almost $150 billion in foreign aid since the end of World War II.
a) has given
c) has been given
1.3. The manager knows that the losses … by the company now.
a) have been suffered
b) are being suffered
c) have suffered
1.4. Transition economies lately … impressive steps towards reducing fiscal
b) are making
c) have made
1.5. Recently a new agreement on how to distribute tax revenues among the
Federation members … .
a) has been approved
b) was approved
c) is approved
II. Выпишите предложения, содержащие в составе герундий и переведите их на русский язык.
2.1. In a command economy, the central planning requires large capital investments.
2.2. Governments intervene in economies controlling the supply of money, limiting
monopolies and helping private industries.
2.3. Nowadays many nations and governments are interested in developing
international division of labour through specialization.
2.4. Reducing our imports, we decrease the export of others
2.5. Some members of the Parliament in Russia insist on imposing control over the
Central Bank’s monetary policy.
III. Выпишите предложения в которых причастие II является определением и переведите их на русский язык.
3.1. The causes of inflation are rather complicated, and there is a number of theories
3.2. Exports are goods and services sold to other countries.
3.3. In English-speaking countries, public auditors are usually certified.
3.4. As seen from the article the study of economics is of great use even to those
students who have no wish to become professional economists.
3.5. Consumers typically buy a smaller quantity of the good sold at a higher price.
IV. Прочитайте и устно переведите текст, затем выполните тест по тексту:
Retail and wholesale Selling
Retailing is the selling of small quantities of goods to the final consumer. This is done in various ways. The most common is through a retail store. A retail store may be one small salesroom or a gigantic department store. In a small shop a sales person often has to perform other duties besides selling. He may have to decide when to order new goods and which items are needed, and usually he must be able to operate a business. However, as a rule, sales clerks in department stores are not concerned with such matters. Their main task is to wait on the customers and to handle cash efficiently.
A well-known type of retailing is door-to-door selling. It is mostly small articles, such as brushes and cosmetics, which are sold this way, because the salesman has to be able to carry them around. Or he may sell only one type of merchandise, like a sewing machine or a vacuum cleaner. One advantage of door-to-door selling is that the salesman can demonstrate his articles, and the housewife can see how they work right in her own home. Besides, it saves her from a trip to the store.
Mail order selling is another kind of retailing, in which both selling and buying are done through the mail. In this case the role of the salesman is taken over by a mail-order catalog that lists all the items offered for sale.
It would be very costly for the manufacturer to ship many small orders to different retail stores. But a storekeeper does not have space enough to store large orders. As a result, another type of sales business has developed that of wholesaling. The wholesale merchant buys goods from the manufacturer in large whole lots and sells them in small lots to individual retail businesses.
Wholesale companies also, vary in size and service. Some companies store the goods in a single warehouse and send out trucks to deliver them. Others own several warehouses, where the merchandise is picked up by the retailers. Still others, called agents or brokers, neither store nor deliver goods. They only combine retailers' orders for the manufacturer and then arrange for shipment others, called agents or brokers, neither store nor deliver goods. They only combine retailers' orders for the manufacturer and then arrange for shipment directly from the manufacturer to the retailer. Some very large concerns offer every possible service, from storing huge amounts of goods over long periods of time to extending long-term credit to their retail customers. They may even do advertising for the manufacturer.
Most selling may be divided into the major groups of retail and wholesale selling. But there are other types of selling, such as the selling of health, life, or home insurance plans, the selling of subscriptions for magazines or book clubs; or the selling of stocks and bonds through a broker.
Выберите правильный ответ и переведите предложения на русский язык.