Практикум по английскому языку. icon

Практикум по английскому языку.


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ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНТСТВО ПО ОБРАЗОВАНИЮ



Нижегородский государственный университет им. Н.И. Лобачевского


О.Р. Жерновая


ДЕЛОВОЙ АНГЛИЙСКИЙ:

ГОТОВИМ ПРЕЗЕНТАЦИИ, ПРОВОДИМ СОВЕЩАНИЯ, УЧАСТВУЕМ В ПЕРЕГОВОРАХ


Практикум


Рекомендовано методической комиссией факультета международных отношений для студентов ННГУ, обучающихся по направлениям подготовки 030700 «Международные отношения», 032300 «Регионоведение» и специальностям 030701 «Международные отношения»,

032301 «Регионоведение»


Нижний Новгород

2009

УДК 42.8(07)

ББК 143.21я.73

Ж 60


Ж 60 Жерновая О.Р. ^ ДЕЛОВОЙ АНГЛИЙСКИЙ: ГОТОВИМ ПРЕЗЕНТАЦИИ, ПРОВОДИМ СОВЕЩАНИЯ, УЧАСТВУЕМ В ПЕРЕГОВОРАХ: Практикум по английскому языку. – Нижний Новгород: Нижегородский госуниверситет, 2009. – 121 с.


Рецензент: д.полит.н., профессор М.И. Рыхтик


Практикум предназначен для работы по развитию и совершенствованию лексических навыков и коммуникативных речевых умений, необходимых для составления и проведения презентаций, совещаний и переговоров. Практикум содержит оригинальные тексты, задания к аудиоматериалам и разговорные деловые фразы.


УДК 42.8 (07)

ББК 143.21я.73


© Нижегородский государственный

университет им. Н.И. Лобачевского, 2009

Введение


Настоящий практикум предназначен для студентов 2 курса факультета международных отношений, обучающихся по специальности «международные отношения» и «регионоведение».

Практикум носит комплексный характер и состоит из трех разделов: «Презентации», «Совещания» и «Переговоры». В каждом разделе представлены аутентичные тексты на чтение и аудирование, разработаны задания по активизации и закреплению лексических единиц по предложенной теме, упражнения на развитие деловой письменной речи, а также ряд заданий, направленных на развитие коммуникативных речевых навыков.

При отборе материала учитывался общий уровень владения английским языком (Intermediate – средний уровень согласно Европейским стандартам) у обучающихся и их профессиональная направленность. Практикум содержит речевые обороты, клише и фразеологические единицы, применяемые в ходе подготовки деловых презентаций, совещаний и проведения переговоров, что, в свою очередь, обеспечивает коммуникативный подход к обучению деловому английскому и помогает развивать творческие способности студентов.

Предполагается, что в результате работы с данным пособием студенты смогут самостоятельно готовить деловые презентации, доклады и публичные выступления, вести деловые беседы и принимать участие в дискуссиях, поводить деловые переговоры, аргументируя и отстаивая свою точку зрения.


Contents


Unit I “Presentations”



Listening 1 ………………………………………………………………………. 5

Reading 1 ……………………………………………………………………….. 8

Reading 2 ……………………………………………………………………… 11

Listening 2 …………………………………………………………………….. 17
Self-study task…………………………………………………………………... 21

What makes а good presentation?......................................................................... 22


^ Unit II “Meetings”


Reading 1 ……………………………………………………………………… 42

Listening 1 …………………………………………………………………….. 44

Writing 1 ……………………………………………………………………… 48

Listening 2 …………………………………………………………………….. 50

Writing 2 ……………………………………………………………………… 54

Reading 2 ……………………………………………………………………… 54

Reading 3 ……………………………………………………………………… 58

Role play………………………………………………………………………. 61

What makes а good meeting?............................................................................... 62


^ Unit III “Negotiations”


Reading 1 ……………………………………………………………………… 82

Listening 1 ……………………………………………………………………. 85

Writing 1 ……………………………………………………………………… 88

Reading 2 ……………………………………………………………………… 89

Writing 2 …………………………………………………………………….. . 90

Listening 2 ……………………………………………………………………. 92

Role play………………………………………………………………………. 96

Reading 3 …………………………………………………………………….. . 96

Listening 3 …………………………………………………………………….. 98

Role play……………………………………………………………………….. 100

What makes а successful negotiation?.................................................................. 105

^

UNIT I


PRESENTATIONS

Warm up


Discuss the following questions:

1 What is a presentation?

2 For what purposes are presentations made in business?

3 What makes a presentation effective?

4 What is the worst presentation you have ever experienced?

5 Even experienced presenters can make mistakes during a presentation. Can you give any examples from first-hand knowledge?


Listening I


  1. You’re going to hear Alan Wroxley, Sales Manager of Brother, an electronics firm, talking about sales presentations. Listen and answer the following question: What is the main key for a successful presentation?


^

AW – Alan WroxIey, DC – Derek Crown


DC Alan, I know that you've done many presentations in your job as a sales manager. Can you tell me why do business people have to make presentations?

AW Well, really there'll be three reasons, three main reasons why people make presentations, and they can be divided quite separately, although they're all linked together. The first one will be a new product, when you're trying to launch a new product to the sales force, into the UK, maybe to a group of sales managers from different companies. That would be a totally different approach to say, when you're launching a sales campaign, which might be used to promote that new product. And then the third area would be an incentive to actually get the sales campaign underway. So they're all linked but in themselves they'd all be different promotions. Sometimes they'd be made on the same day, but most of the time they'd be made separately.

DC I see, are the techniques required for those types of presentations, are they very different?

AW They differ slightly. Erm, the presentation for a new product, we would actually try and get your product there amongst the delegates, and you'd probably try to limit it to a small number of delegates. With a sales campaign it's not so important that you have the product there. The main message to get across is the benefits that the new product will bring and, if you like, the, er, incentives that go with it.

DC So you have to be pretty enthusiastic, for that type of thing.

AW Yes. The key to all of them is to be enthusiastic because what you've got to leave your delegates going away with is as much enthusiasm for the product as you've got. And if they've got that enthusiasm, they'll go out into the market, they'll promote your new product, they'll get involved in the sales campaign, and indeed they'll want to take part in an incentive, which is the third reason I was going to give you. They'll want to get involved in the incentive that will actually ensure that the sales campaign is a success, and that incentive might be a trip abroad, it might be to win a television or something like that. But, if you can infuse them with that enthusiasm they'll take that out and they'll do your job for you which is what you want them to do. That's, that's, I suppose the ultimate aim of a sales presentation is for them to go out and do your job.

DC I see. Erm, you've done a lot of presentations. Do you get nervous before them?

AW You do. I think the larger the presentation, or the presentation to more people,

the more nervous you get. Also, er, the more you know about a product the least nervous you'll get. So, I think the idea is to have, er, good preparation for any presentation, it does take the nerves out of it.

DC What ways do you use of getting your information across, Alan, in the presentation?

AW Well, there are various ways to use, and again it would depend on the type of presentation you're doing. If you're doing a small, rather intimate presentation, you might limit yourself to handouts, having equipment available for people to look at and use personally. If it's the larger presentation, or slightly larger presentation, you'll use an overhead projector. And then for the very big presentation when you're hiring a hotel, and you've got a lot of delegates coming from a long way away then often you'll use a professional media company, and you'll have a very slick presentation with music, with lights, erm, with slides and indeed often with video to get your message across. So those are the, if you like, the main tools of the job. I always find it useful to have handouts because when people come they might not write down the relevant points that you want them to write down, a lot of them won't make notes. Whatever presentation you're doing, whatever it is, you've always got to give something to go away with on what you've been presenting, or else it's forgotten.

DC Well that's useful information. What would you say are the elements of a good presentation? What are the secrets of success?

AW I think the main secret is enthusiasm. If you've got enthusiasm for your product then the people who are listening to you will have enthusiasm. Keep it pertinent, always keep it pertinent. You can wander off, so it's important that you do your research, as I mentioned earlier, that you know what you're talking about, and keep it, keep to the objective you've set yourself.


  1. Listen again and make notes under the following headings:

  • presentation categories and techniques

  • nerves: causes and cures

  • ways of presenting information

  • handouts

  • how to be successful

Vocabulary


Find words and phrases in the interview that mean:

  1. a) to make a new product available for sale for the first time

b) something that encourages you to work harder

  1. c) to help something to develop and be successful

  2. d) to feel somebody with the particular feeling

  3. e) the final and most important purpose

  4. f) a piece of paper with information given to people who are attending a meeting

  5. g) cleverly and skillfully made and attractive

  6. h) directly concerned with something that is being considered

Speaking


Summarize the main points of the interview and speak about presentations, using the words from the exercise above:
^
Language practice


Match the verbs with their correct definitions (1-6). Then complete the sentences that follow, using each verb once only. Make sure you use the correct form:


Phrasal verbs: ‘stand’


1. to stand down a) to take someone’s place (e.g. while they are out of the office

or on holiday)

2. to stand for b) to be better than somebody/something or distinctive in some

way

3. to stand out c) to represent

4. to stand by d) to defend

5. to stand up for e) to be ready to act

6. to stand in f) to resign or withdraw


  1. We all know that the name Sony ……… technical excellence.

  2. If the company chairman is on a business trip his deputy will usually ……… for him.

  3. Our sales manager will be giving the presentation but a technical salesman will be ………to help him.

  4. In this company you don’t get anywhere by being modest. You have to ………yourself.

  5. The managing director was asked to ………and a new appointment was made.

  6. As an example of strong corporate culture in the fast-food sector, McDonalds certainly ……….
^

Phrasal verbs: 'keep'


Now do the same with these verbs:

1. to keep up a) to follow/inform yourself about

2. to keep up with b) to avoid (e.g. a topic)

3. to keep on c) to maintain good relations with

4. to keep to d) to maintain/continue

5. to keep in with e) to prevent from rising/hold at a low level

6. to keep down f) to continue employing

7. to keep off g) to stick to/adhere to (e.g. a rule a promise etc)

8. to keep from h) to prevent/stop


  1. We hope to ……… the deadline and finish the project on time.

  2. The chairperson ……… the forthcoming redundancy program because she didn’t want to upset anyone.

  3. Product prices had to be ……… for the firm to remain competitive.

  4. If you work in the computer industry, you need to ……… the latest technology in software and hardware.

  5. Some of the company’s longest-serving workers would have been ……… if the economic conditions hadn’t been so unfavourable.

  6. I have been ……… doing important jobs because of this report. It's been incredibly time-consuming.

  7. Our firm is known for craftmanship and we intend to ………the high standards we have set.

  8. It’s usually worth ……… your superiors even if you don’t like them.



Reading 1


Before you read the text, look at the title. What do you think the article is about?

^ MY BIGGEST MISTAKE


David Arnold, 36, is a director of studies at Ashridge Management College and a marketing consultant for such multinationals as Merck, Alfa-Laval and Boots. After a degree in English literature at University College London and in modern drama at London University, he began a career in publishing in 1979 as an editor for Mitchell Beazley. He moved to Ashridge in 1984 as marketing manager and later, after taking an MBA at City University, became a tutor on Ashridge's MBA course. His book, The Handbook of Brand Management, is published by Century Business.


MY BIGGEST mistake was failing to find out who was going to be in the audience before I gave a speech. It was two years ago, when I had been invited to be guest speaker at the annual management conference of a major clothing supplier, a company that relied on Marks & Spencer for more than 75 per cent of its sales.

My brief as guest speaker was to get the audience to think strategically about the changing in market.

The conference was held at Gleneagles. I had to speak for an hour and a half to 70 managers, and when I began they were very subdued.

I decided to raise the level of challenge in order to get some reaction. When my first attempts proved unsuccessful, I turned to my last resort: I suggested that Marks & Spencer, their lifeline, was not the paragon of business success they thought it was. Now this did spark some reaction, but the audience was still more subdued than most groups – so I actually started being rude about their beloved Marks & Spencer.

I justified these insults by saying I needed to make them take a different perspective, and even commented that I suspected the reason they were being quiet was because they were very loyal to their major customer. I could see they were all thinking hard - they weren't asleep or anything - and I assumed they were thinking about company issues. But at the end of the session, so when we took a break for coffee, a senior director sidled up and said he had something to tell me.
He took me aside and informed me that the reason they had been so quiet was because sitting next to him in the front row was their chief customer in person: one of the head buyers of M & S. At that point, my heart hit my boots and I realized I had made the most awful error of judgement.

When I spotted the buyer, I remember going to enormous efforts to avoid him. I managed to escape, but only at the expense of leaving my coat behind in the conference room, where everyone had assembled after coffee. I couldn't face going back in.

The other thing I couldn't face was sending the company an invoice for the agreed speaker's fee or for my expenses in travelling to Scotland.

Looking back, I remember there was a lot of fidgeting going on during my speech. I thought it was because I was talking about their most valued customer. It was the squirming of the senior director in the front row that I remember most. Clearly, he was trying to make a judgement about whether he should speak up and halt me in mid-flow. I think it would have been better if he had.

The night before, I had joined them for dinner and had become quite chummy with a lot of them, which is probably why I thought I was safe in taking the risk of winding them up. But it was a mistake to assume I understood why people were reacting the way they were. It was a fatal assumption, because it was wrong. As a result, I was more critical about Marks & Spencer than I normally would have been, and certainly more than was necessary.

I still can't believe that, doing the job I do, I didn't find out who was there beforehand, I've had no communication with the company since, but the lesson to be learned is quite simple. In meetings, conferences or presentations of any sort, always make sure you find out exactly who you are speaking to.


Comprehension


  1. Decide whether the statements below are true or false. Give reasons for your answer, based on the text. If you decide the answer is false, change the statement so that it becomes correct:

1. David Arnold had been invited to the annual management conference at M&S company.

  1. The conference was held in Scotland.

  2. David’s main task as guest speaker was to tell the managers about the changing market.

  3. The audience was subdued because the managers were thinking about company issues.

  4. One of the head buyers of M&S was present at the conference.

  5. David had found out all the necessary information about M&S before he came to the conference.

  6. David Arnold didn’t make critical comments about M&S in his talk.




  1. Now read the text again and answer the following questions:




  1. Why did David Arnold start making critical comments about Marks & Spencer in his talk?

  2. How did the audience react?

  3. How did he interpret the audience's reaction - and respond?

  4. What awful error of judgement did the senior director bring to his attention in the coffee break?

  5. How did David Arnold respond to this piece of news?

  6. With hindsight, what was the true significance of the audience's body language?

  7. What was David Arnold’s biggest mistake?

  8. What did David Arnold learn from the experience?


Vocabulary


Match the words and expressions on the left to the explanations on the right:

  1. annual a. thought that it was true

2. subdued b. walked towards smb. slowly and quietly

  1. the last resort c. used to say that smb. suddenly began to feel sad


4. paragon d. a list of work that has been done, showing how

much you owe for

5. insult e. happening once a year

6. assumed f. unusually quiet, having no excitement or interest

7. issues g. a rude or offensive remark

8. sidled up h. twisting your body from side to side because

you’re nervous

9. My heart hit my boots i. friendly

10. invoice j. it is used when everything else has failed

11. fidgeting k. problems

12. squirming l. to stop

13. to halt m. someone who is perfect or extremely good

14. chummy n. to deliberately say sth. in order to annoy smb.

15. to wind smb. up o. moving your hands or feet because you’re

  1. nervous



Reading 2

1. All managers make mistakes, but the good ones learn from them. Here are two managers' accounts of mistakes they made. The stories are mixed up. Read the beginning of each one to find out what they are about. Then read the extracts quickly and decide if they are part of Lynda's story or Dick's.

1) Lynda KingTaylor,41, is managing director of LKT Manpower Services. After studying behavioural sciences, she worked with the World Health Organization India and Pakistan. She also trained under Fred Herzberg, the 1970s management guru, was an advisor to the Department of Employment and established her own consultancy in 1980.


^ MY BIGGEST MISTAKE was trying to save money on a lecture tour.

2) Dick Beach, 50, is manager of Dunkeld House Resort Hotel in Scotland. In the early sixties he spent several years running restaurants in Paris and Frankfurt before moving to Scotland and working his way up the hotel management ladder. Dunkel House is part of the Stakis group and has a turnover of £3 million.


^ MY BIGGEST MISTAKE BIGGEST MISTAKE was too much talking and not enough listening.



  1. It made me laugh at the time. Naturally I apologized and refunded the money he had spent on the trousers. But in retrospect I hadn’t really interviewed him at all. I’d just talked at him.

  2. Of course the worst happened. One of the flights was delayed and I missed all my connections. I didn’t get to Singapore until midnight the next day and I was absolutely exhausted. And although I was in Singapore, my luggage was in Jakarta.

  3. Of course I should have carried my suit and presentation tools in my hand luggage. And I should have paid the extra for a direct flight. But I’ve learnt my lesson. These days if I’m expected to be first class on arrival then I travel first class.

  4. It was 1971 and I was manager of the Great Northern Hotel. One morning I was sitting in my office when someone turned up for an interview. We had advertised for a waiter so I was pleased to see a smart, good-looking fellow of about 23.

  5. So my first mistake was not listening. I should have kept quiet and heard what he had to say. And my second mistake was assuming he was a waiter when he was nothing of the sort. I shouldn’t have jumped to conclusions. Pity though. He could have been a good waiter.

  6. I hadn’t thought to take the business suit or the slides I needed for the presentation into the cabin with me. I was wearing a grubby old T-shirt and jeans. All the shops were shut and I had to appear on the platform at seven the next morning. What a nightmare!

  7. I sent him out to buy some trousers, gave him a jacket and told him to work in the restaurant. He was quite good actually. But about three hours later I heard him shouting at my secretary ‘Me no waiter’. Only then did we discover that he had actually come to be interviewed by one of our customers for a job as a cosmetics salesman.

  8. There were plenty of scheduled flights, but I decided to look around for the cheapest fare. In fact I booked one which had six stops en route that cost about half the normal price.

  9. During the interview I didn’t learn very much about him apart from the fact that he had no experience and was from Iran. But he was keen to learn and I was short-staffed so I arranged for him to start immediately.

  10. It was 1973 and I’d received an invitation to 500 top business people in Singapore. I was just starting out in business and my bank manager had made it clear that I had to keep my costs down.


2. The two stories have a similar structure. Put the extracts into the correct order under the following headings:

The background
An arrangement they made
What happened as a result
What they had to do
What they should have done

^ 3. Make up your own short story to tell the group. Describe an experience you have had. It could be about

• a mistake you made yourself

• a mistake someone else made

• problems you encountered on a business trip

• something funny that happened in your study/workplace

Don't forget to say what should and shouldn't have happened.


Discussion


What are the most important keys for a successful presentation? Choose five of these and rank them. You can use some of your own if you prefer.


^ Some hints for a successful presentation

PREPARATION

  • Planning

Plan your presentation carefully. Thorough preparation will make you more confident and help you to overcome your nervousness.

  • Objectives

Think about what you want to achieve. Are you aiming to inform, persuade, train or entertain your audience?

  • Audience

Whom exactly will you be addressing? How many people will be attending? What do they need to know? What do they already know? What will they expect in terms of content and approach?

  • Content

Brainstorm your ideas first. Then decide which are most relevant and appropriate to your audience and to your objectives and carry out any research that is necessary. Be selective! Don't try to cram too much into your presentation.

  • Approach

A good rule of thumb is to tell your audience what you're going to say, say it, then tell the audience what you've said. Try to develop your key points in an interesting and varied way, drawing on relevant examples, figures etc. for support as appropriate. You might also like to include one or two anecdotes for additional variety and humour.

  • Organization

Think about how you will organize your content. Your presentation should have a clear, coherent structure and cover the points you wish to make in a logical order. Most presentations start with a brief introduction and end with a brief conclusion. Use the introduction to welcome your audience, introduce your topic/subject, outline the structure of your talk, and provide guidelines on questions. Use the conclusion to summarize the main points of your presentation, thank the audience for their attention, and invite questions.

If you have a lot of complex information to explain, think about using some charts, diagrams, graphs etc., on an overhead projector or flipchart. Visual aids can make a presentation more interesting and easier to understand, but make sure they are appropriate and clear - don't try to put too much information on each one.

  • Rehearsal

Allow time to practise your presentation – this will give you a chance to identify any weak points or gaps. You will also be able to check the timing, and make sure you can pronounce any figures and proper names correctly and confidently.

LANGUAGE

  • Simplicity

Use short words and sentences that you are comfortable with. There is no benefit in using difficult language.


  • Clarity

Active verbs and concrete words are much clearer and easier to understand than passive verbs and abstract concepts. Avoid jargon unless you are sure all your audience will understand it.

  • Signalling

Indicate when you've completed one point or section in your presentation and are moving on to the next. Give your audience clear signals as to the direction your presentation is taking.




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