Арнольд И. В. А 84 Лексикология современного английского языка: Учеб для ин-тов и фак иностр яз. 3-е изд., перераб и доп icon

Арнольд И. В. А 84 Лексикология современного английского языка: Учеб для ин-тов и фак иностр яз. 3-е изд., перераб и доп

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The present book has treated the specific features of the English word as a structure, both on the morphemic and semantic levels, and dealt with the English vocabulary as an adaptive system of contrasting and interrelated elements. The presentation of these is conceived on the basis of the theory of oppositions as initiated by N.S. Trubetzkoy and is described, partly at least, in set-theoretical terms.

The classical book on the theory of oppositions is the posthumous treatise by N.S. Trubetzkoy “Grundzuge der Phonologie”. The full significance and value of this work are now being realised and appreciated both in Soviet linguistics and abroad. Nevertheless, application of the theory of oppositions to linguistic analysis on levels other than that of phonology is far from being complete. One need hardly say that the present volume does not attempt to be definitive in its treatment of oppositions for lexicological description: quite considerable amount of research has already been done in some directions and very little in many others. Many points remain to be elucidated by future patient study and by collecting reliable factual evidence on which more general conclusions may then be built.

The special interest of contemporary science in methods of linguistic research extends over a period of about thirty years. The present status of principles and techniques in lexicology, although still far from satisfactory, shows considerable progress and an intense development.

The main procedures in use have been described in connection with the subject-matter they serve to investigate. They are the componential analysis, the contextological and valency analysis, analysis into immediate constituents, explanatory transformations based on dictionary definitions and different types of semantic oppositions helping to describe the vocabulary system.

Each of these techniques viewed separately has its limitations but taken together they complete one another, so that each successive procedure may prove helpful where the previous one has failed. We have considered these devices time and again in discussing separate aspects of the vocabulary system. All these are formalised methods in the sense that they replace the original words in the linguistic material sampled for analysis by symbols that can be discussed without reference to the particular elements they stand for, and then state precise rules for the combination and transformation of formulas thus obtained.


It must be emphatically stressed that although the synchronic and diachronic treatments are set apart, and the focal point of interest is the present state of the English vocabulary, these two aspects are not divorced, and the constant development of the whole system is always kept in mind. It must be fully realised that the separation of the two aspects is only an abstraction necessary for heuristic purposes. Secondly, structural methods demand a rigorous separation of levels and a study of language as an autonomous system. This dogmatic thesis placed a burden upon research. In present-day Soviet linguistics the interrelation between different levels as well as between language and extralinguistic reality is taken as all-important.

Finally, what is especially important, language is a social phenomenon, the language of any society is an integral part of the culture and social life of this society, words recognised within the vocabulary of the language are that part of the language on which the influence of extra-linguistic factors tells in the first place. Much of the semantic incommensurability that exists between languages can be accounted for in terms of social and cultural differences.

Sociolinguistics which is now making great progress is concerned with linguistic differences and with the actual performances of individuals as members of specific speech communities. It concentrates on the correlation of linguistic features with values and attitudes in social life with the status of speakers and listeners in social network. It deals with coexistence in the same individual or the same group of speakers of several linguistic codes, resorted to according to language-use conventions of society, i.e. a more prestigious formal and conservative code is used for official purposes, the other for spontaneous informal conversation. As sociolinguistics is still in its infancy it was possible to include in the present book only a few glimpses of this new branch.

Recent years in” Soviet linguistics have undoubtedly seen great progress in lexicology coming from various schools with various aims and methods. It is outside the scope of the present book to reflect them all, it is to be hoped, however, that the student will watch current literature and retrieve the necessary information on points that will interest him.

The modern methods of vocabulary study have emerged from practical concerns, especially those of foreign language teaching, dictionary-making, and recently, from the needs of machine translation and information retrieval. Improvements and expansion in foreign language teaching called forth a new co-operation between didactics and linguistics. In this connection it is well to remember that many eminent linguists devoted a great deal of attention to problems of teaching languages: L.V. Shcherba, L. Bloomfield, Ch. Fries, O. Jespersen, E. Nida wrote monographs on these problems.

There has been a considerable growth of activity in the field of mathematical linguistics. Much of this is connected with computer-aided linguistics. We have attempted to show the usefulness of set-theoretical concepts for the study of vocabulary. We must be on our guard, however, against the idea that an attachment of mathematical symbols and


operations to linguistics material will by itself make the statements about it more scientific. The introduction of mathematical apparatus into linguistics is justified only when it is based on a thorough comprehension of linguistic problems involved. Otherwise an indiscriminate introduction of mathematical procedures will be purely ornamental and may even lead to the generation of meaningless results. Even more important and promising, perhaps, is the fact that the penetration of mathematical methods, whether from the theory of sets, adaptive system theory, symbolic logic or mathematical statistics, leads to a more rigorous general approach. We are now hopeful that with the help of cautious and responsible application of some developments in system theory a genuinely scientific lexicology can come into being that will be useful in different branches of applied linguistics.

A fresh departure in the study of language including its vocabulary is the communicative linguistics in which the pragmatic rather than structural approach is used. This new trend relates vocabulary characteristics not only to meanings but to uses and situations and the degree of their formality. Pragmatics concerned with the relations between signs and expressions and their users is steadily gathering momentum penetrating all branches of linguistics. At present, however, this promising trend has hardly begun to take shape.

In more than ten years that have passed since the second edition of this book went to press, the problems of English lexicology have been investigated in a tremendous number of publications. Bringing the bibliography up to date keeping the same degree of comprehensiveness without a great increase in bulk proved impossible. Our debt to numerous works of scholarship had been acknowledged in copious notes and references of the previous editions. Here a basically different approach was chosen: bibliographical footnotes were drastically reduced and the selective list gathered below includes books especially recommended as further reading. An attempt is made to take account of modern lexicological theory as developed in the last decade and also to show the survival of basic studies translated, updated and published many years after their first edition. (See, for instance, works by K. Baldinger, M. Bréal, O. Jespersen.)


Агамджанова В. И. Контекстуальная избыточность лексического значения слова. Рига, 1977.

Азнаурова Э. С. Очерки по стилистике слова. Ташкент, 1973.

Акуленко В. В. Вопросы интернационализации словарного состава языка. Харьков, 1972.

Амосова Н. Н. Этимологические основы словарного состава современного английского языка. М., 1956.

Амосова Н. Н. Основы английской фразеологии. Л., 1963.

Амосова Н. Н. Английская контекстология. Л., 1968. (На англ. яз.).

Апресян Ю. Д. Лексическая семантика. Синонимические средства языка. М. 1974.

Арнольд И. В. Лексикология современного английского языка. М., 1959.

Арнольд И. В. Семантическая структура слова в современном английском языке и методы ее исследования. Л., 1966.

Арнольд И. В. Стилистика современного английского языка: Стилистика декодирования. 2-е изд., перераб. Л., 1981.

Аспекты семантических исследований: Сборник. М., 1980.

Беляева Т. М., Потапова И. А. Английский язык за пределами Англии. Л., 1971.

Беляева Т. М. Словообразовательная валентность глагольных основ в английском языке. М., 1979.

Бенвенист Э. Общая лингвистика/Пер. с англ. М., 1977.

Блумфилд Л. Язык/Пер. с англ. М., 1968.

Бондарко А. В. Грамматические категории и контекст. Л., 1971.

Бондарко А. В. Грамматическое значение и смысл. Л., 1978.

Борисов В. В. Аббревиация и акронимы. М., 1972.

Виноградов В. В. Об основных типах фразеологических единиц в русском языке // Виноградов В. В. Лексикология и лексикография: Избранные труды. М., 1977.

Виноградов В. В. Основные типы лексических значений слова // Виноградов В. В. Лексикология и лексикография: Избранные труды. М., 1977.

Вольф E. М. Грамматика и семантика прилагательного. М., 1978.

Вольф E. М. Функциональная семантика оценки. М., 1985.

Гулыга E. В., Шендельс E. И. Грамматико-лексические поля в современном немецком языке. М., 1969.

Есперсен О. Философия грамматики/Пер. с англ. М., 1958.

Звегинцев В. А. Семасиология. М., 1957.

Звегинцев В. А. История языкознания XIX—XX вв. в очерках и извлечениях. М., 1965.

Иванова И. П., Бурлакова В. В., Почепцов Г. Г. Теоретическая грамматика современного английского языка. М., 1981.

Ильиш Б. А. Строй современного английского языка. 3-е изд. Л., 1971.

Караулов Ю. Н. Общая и русская идеография. М., 1976.

Караулов Ю. Н. Лингвистическое конструирование и тезаурус литературного языка. М., 1981.

Касарес X. Введение в современную лексикографию/Пер. с исп. М., 1958.

Кацнельсон С. Д. Типология языка и речевое мышление. Л., 1972.

Кащеева М. А., Потапова И. А., Тюрина Н. С. Практикум по английской лексикологии. Л., 1974.


Котелова Н. 3. Значение слова и его сочетаемость. Л., 1975.

Кубрякова Е. С. Основы морфологического анализа. М., 1974.

Кубрякова Е. С. Типы языковых значений. Семантика производного слова. М., 1981.

Кузнецова А. И. Понятие семантической системы языка и методы ее исследования. М., 1963.

Кунин А. В. Английская лексикология. М., 1940. (На англ. яз.).

Кунин А. В. Английская фразеология. М., 1970.

Кунин А. В. Фразеология современного английского языка. М., 1972.

Лайонз Дж. Введение в теоретическую лингвистику/Пер. с англ. М., 1978.

Лотте Д. С. Вопросы заимствования и упорядочения иноязычных терминов и терминоэлементов. М., 1982.

Медникова Э. М. Значение слова и методы его описания. М., 1974.

Медникова Э. М. Практикум по лексикологии английского языка. М., 1978. (На англ. яз.).

Мешков О. Д. Словообразование современного английского языка. М., 1976.

Никитин М. В. Лексическое значение слова. М., 1983.

Новиков Л. А. Семантика русского языка. М., 1982.

Пауль Г. Принципы истории языка/Пер. с нем. М., 1960.

Потебня А. А. Эстетика и поэтика. М., 1977.

Пражский лингвистический кружок: Сб. статей/Сост., ред. и предисл. Н. А. Кондрашова. М., 1967.

Принципы и методы семантических исследований. Сборник. М., 1976.

Резинкина Н. М. Развитие языка английской научной литературы. М., 1978.

Рейман Е. А. Английские предлоги. Значения и функции. Л., 1982.

Селиверстова О. Н. Компонентный анализ многозначных слов. М., 1975.

Сепир Э. Язык/Пер. с англ. М.-Л., 1934.

Смирницкий А. И. Лексикология английского языка. М., 1956.

Солнцев В. М. Язык как системно-структурное образование. М., 1971.

Соссюр Ф. де. Труды по языкознанию/Пер. с фр. М., 1977.

Степанов Ю. С. Методы и принципы современной лингвистики. М., 1975.

Степанов Ю. С. Основы общего языкознания. М., 1975.

Степанов Ю. С. Имена. Предикаты. Предложения. М., 1981.

Степанова М. Д. Методы синхронного анализа лексики. М., 1968.

Степанова М. Д. Теория валентности и валентностный анализ. М., 1973.

Стернин И. А. Проблемы анализа структуры значения слова. Воронеж, 1979.

Ступин Л. П. Словари современного английского языка. Л., 1973.

Суперанская А. В. Общая теория имени собственного. М., 1973.

Трубецкой Н. С. Основы фонологии. М., 1960.

Уфимцева А. А. Слово в лексической системе языка. М., 1968.

Уфимцева А. А. Типы словесных знаков. М., 1974.

Уфимцева А. А. Лексическое значение. М., 1986.

Хидекель С. С. и др. Английская лексикология в выдержках и извлечениях. Л., 1969. (На англ. яз.).

Чейф У. Л. Значение и структура языка/Пер. с англ. М., 1975. Шаховский В. И. Эмотивный компонент значения и методы его описания. Волгоград, 1983.

Швейцер А. Д. Литературный английский язык в США и в Англии. М., 1971.

Швейцер А. Д. Современная социолингвистика: теория, проблемы, методы. М., 1976.

Шехтман Н. А. Словари минимумы и учебные тезаурусы // Иностр. яз. в школе. 1982, № 5.

Шмелев Д. Н. Проблемы семантического анализа лексики. М., 1973.

Щур Г. С. Теория поля в лингвистике. М., 1974.

Языковая номинация: Общие вопросы. М., 1976.

Языковая номинация: Виды наименований. М., 1977.

Antal, Laszlo. Questions of Meaning. The Hague, 1963.


Baldinger, Kurt. Die Semasiologie. Versuch eines Überblicks. Berlin, 1957/ Transl. as “Semantic Theory: Towards a Modern Semantic”. Oxford, 1980.

Baugh А.С. and Cable T. A History of the English Language. 3rd ed. London, 1978.

Block, Bernard and Trager, G. Outline of Linguistic Analysis. Baltimore, 1942.

Bloomfield, Leonard. Language. N. Y., 1935.

Bolinger, Dwight. Meaning and Form. London, 1977.

Bolinger, Dwight. Aspects of Language. 3rd ed. N. Y., 1981.

Bréal, Michel. Essai de sémantique. Paris, 1897 // Transl. as “Semantics: Studies in the Science of Meaning”. N. Y., 1964.

Chafe, Wallace L. Meaning and the Structure of Language. Chicago — London, 1970.

Firth, John R. Papers in Linguistics 1934-1951. London, 1951.

Fries, Charles С The Structure of English. N. Y., 1953.

Ginzburg R. S. et al. A Course in Modern English Lexicology. M., 1979.

Greenough, James B. and Kitteredge, George L. Words and their Ways in English Speech. London — New York, 1961.

Guiraud, Pierre. Problèmes et méthodes de la statistique linguistique. Paris, 1959.

Halliday M. A. K., Mclntosh A. and Strevens P.D. The Linguistic Science and Language Teaching. London, 1964.

Halliday M. A. K. and Hasan R. Cohesion in English. London, 1976.

Harris, Zellig S. Methods in Structural Linguistics. Chicago, 1952/Reprinted as “Structural Linguistics", 1961.

Hockett, Charles. A Course in Modern Linguistics. N. Y., 1958.

Jespersen, Otto. Growth and Structure of the English Language. Oxford, 1982. (First publ. in 1905.)

Jespersen, Otto. A Modern English Grammar on Historical Principles. Copenhagen, 1942. Part VI.

Koziol H. Handbuch der englischen Wortbildungslehre. Heidelberg, 1937.

Koziol H. Grundziige der englischen Semantik. Vienna, 1969.

Kronasser H. Handbuch der Semasiologie. Heidelberg, 1952.

Leech, Geoffrey N. English in Advertising. London, 1966.

Leech, Geoffrey N. Towards a Semantic Description of English. London, 1969.

Leech, Geoffrey N. Meaning and the English Verb. London, 1971.

Leech, Geoffrey N. Semantics. Penguin Books, 1974.

Leech, Geoffrey N., Deuchar M. and Hoggnuradd R. English Grammar for Today. A New Introduction. London, 1982.

Leech, Geoffrey N. Principles of Pragmatics. London, 1985.

Lehnart M. Morphem, Wort und Satz im Englischen. Berlin, 1969.

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Leisi, Ernst. Der Wortinhalt. Seine Struktur im Deutschen und Englischen. 2 Aufl. Heidelberg, 1961.

Leith, Dick. A Social History of English. London, 1983.

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Lyons, John. Language and Linguistics: an Introduction. Cambridge, 1981.

Marchand H. The Categories and Types of Present-Day English Word-Formation. Wiesbaden, 1960.

McKnight С. English Words and their Background. New York — London, 1931.

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Nida, Eugene. Componential Analysis of Meaning. An Introduction to Semantic Structures. The Hague —Paris, 1975.

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Partridge, Eric. Slang To-day and Yesterday. London, 1933.

Potter S. Modern Linguistics. London, 1957.


Quirk, Randolph. The English Language and Images of Matter. London, 1972.

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Abbreviation 142-145

Ablaut combinations 130

Ablaut or vowel gradation 146

Abstracted forms 106, 218, 219

Acronyms 142-145, 218

Adaptive system 10ff, 21, 143, 216ff: see System, lexical adaptive

Affixes 77-107

Allomorphs 101, 102

Amelioration 70

American English 265-270

Antonyms 182, 201, 209-215
antonyms, absolute 209ff
antonyms derivational 209ff

Aphaeresis, aphesis 138

Apocope 138

Archaic words 205, 220

Assimilation of loan words 255-259

Assimilation of synonyms 205, 255-259

Australian variant 270, 271

Back-formation 127, 150-152

Bahuvrihi 123, 125

Barbarism 256, 258

Basic form 153, 185

Bias words 49

Blends, blending 141, 142

Borrowing, borrowed affixes and words:

see Loan words Bound forms 77, 80
Boundary cases 102, 103, 121

Canadianism 270
Cliché 179-181
Clipping: see Shortening
Cockney 262, 263
Cognate words 79ff
Colloquial words 145, 245-249
Combinations, phraseological 170, 171 Combining forms 80, 104-106
Combining power 194; see also Valency Complementary distribution 101ff
Componential analysis 41, 57-59 Compounds 78, 108-152
Compound adjectives 125, 126
Compound derivatives: see Derivational

compounds Compound nouns 123-125

Compound verbs 126, 127

Compounds, asyntactic 111

Compounds, endocentric and exocentric

111, 123ff

Compounds, syntactic 111

Connotation and connotative meaning 40-50, 97, 177, 230-238, 251

Contextual analysis 56, 57
Contrastive and contrary notions 209ff

Conversion 18, 153-164

Conversives 73, 209-215

Correlation of oppositions 26, 81, 111 Curtailment 134

Dead suffixes 100

Degradation of meaning: see Pejoration

Demotivation 132

Denotative meaning 40, 47-50

Derivational affixes 77, 87ff

Derivational compounds 127

Derivatives 10, 76ff

Determinant and determinatum 108ff

Diachronic (approach) 10//, 155//, 216

Dialect 262

Dictionaries 272-285

Dictionary, bilingual 272ff
Dictionary, explanatory 272ff
Dictionary, machine-translation 275

Diminutive suffixes 97

Disintegration of polysemy: see Split of polysemy

Distinctive feature 25, 26, 53, 146, 185

Distinctive stress 15, 147, 148

Distribution 13, 101

Doublets, etymological 136, 137, 259 260

Echoism, echo words: see Sound imitation

Elevation: see Amelioration

Ellipsis 139ff

Emotional tone (colouring, connotation, component, force) 43, 44, 233ff, 437; see also Connotations

Emotive speech 234

Equivalence 23

Equonym 197

Etymology 10, 15, 79


Euphemism 75, 207 Evaluative connotation 48

False etymology 131

Form words 18, 187, 222-223

Formatives, inner 89

Formatives, outer 77-89

Free forms 77ff, 129, 131

Functional affixes 87-90

Functional change: see Conversion

Functional styles 240-250

Fusions or portmanteau words: see


Fusion phraseological 170 Fuzzy sets 6, 21, 26

Generic terms 39, 63, 196 Generalisation 62-63 Glossary 274

Historism 220

Holophrasis 122ff

Homograph 185

Homonyms and homonymy 154ff, 182-194

Homonymy, patterned 155ff, 183ff, 191 Homophone 154, 184ff

Hybrids 106, 107

Hyperbole 69

Hyperonymy 196, 197

Hyponym 196, 197, 226-229

Ideographic groups 226, 227 Ideolect 209

Idioms: see Set expressions Immediate constituents 83-87, 141

Implicational 41, 50

Indivisibility 28

Informal vocabulary 242

Information retrieval 13

Integrity 30, 114 Intensifier 235

Intensifying connotation 49 International words 260, 261

Irony 69

Learned words 243 Lexical group 26 Lexical variants 207, 208 Lexicalisation 18

Lexico-grammatical class or group 224 Lexico-grammatical meaning: see Meaning, lexico-grammatical

Lexico-grammatical variant 51, 52 Lexicography 191-194, 272ff Linguostylistics 240ff

Litotes 69

Loan words 100, 135, 252-259

Marked member of the opposition 242 Meaning, contextual 54

Meaning, denotative 40, 47
Meaning, figurative 52
Meaning, grammatical 39, 99
Meaning, lexical 16, 37ff, 42-47 Meaning, lexico-grammatical 16, 224 Metaphor 64ff
Metonymy 64ff
Morpheme 19, 77-107
Morphemic analysis 81ff
Motivation 33-36, 83, 95

Native words 204ff, 252ff Neologism 134, 216-220 Neutralisation, semantic 196 Non-semantic grouping 238, 239 Nonce usage 55, 245 Nonce words 18 Notion 42-47

Obsolete words 177, 205

Official vocabulary 243

Onomasiological approach 24

Onomasiology 55

Onomatopoeia 148ff

Onomatopoeic words: see Sound imitation

Onomatopoeic stems 129

Oppositions 23, 25, 184ff, 195,215,225, 241

Opposition, basis of 26

Opposition, binary 215, 242

Opposition, equipollent 242

Opposition, lexical 134, 145, 241 Opposition, polydimensional 26 Opposition, privative 215
Opposition, proportional 98 Opposition, synonymic 195

Opposition, theory of 25, 26

Paradigm 156ff

Paradigmatic 24, 201

Paralinguistics 14

Paronyms 207, 208

Patterned homonymy: see Homonymy,


Patterns, word-building 90-95, 133 Patterns, new word-forming 133 Pejoration 70

Phrasal verbs: see Verbal collocations Phraseology: see Set expressions

Poetic diction 244

Polysemy and polysemantic words 41, 50-57, 182

Polysemy, disintegration of: see Split of polysemy

Positional mobility 29, 30

Pragmalinguistics 14, 47ff, 240

Prefix 13ff, 213

Proper nouns 43, 62, 66-69 Proverbs 179ff

Pseudo-compounds 131


Quotation compounds and quotation derivation 122, 123, 129
Quotations, familiar 179-181

Reduplication 129, 130

Referent 31, 32

Register 241ff

Rhyme combinations 130, 131

Roots 77ff, 153ff, 188

Semantic change 60-76

Semantic change, extralinguistic causes of 73-76

Semantic change, linguistic causes of 71-73

Semantic component: see Seme

Semantic field 226, 228, 229

Semantic structure of the Word 10, 42, 50-55

Semantic triangle 31-33

Semasiology 37

Seme 41-59

Semi-affixes 84, 102, 116-118

Semi-fixed combinations 166-167

Set expressions 19, 165-181

Shortened words and shortening 134-145 Simplification of stems 132

Slang 140, 249-251

Sociolinguistics 11, 230, 240

Sound imitation or onomatopoeia 129, 148ff

Sound interchange 145-147

Sound symbolism 130

Specialisation 61, 62

Split of polysemy 188ff

Stem 77ff, 90-95

‘Stone-wall’ problem 118-120
Stress, distinctive 147, 148

Style, functional 240-248 Substantivation 161, 162

Suffixes 77-107, 213

Suppletion, lexical 90, 243

Synchronic (approach) 10ff, 155ff, 216

Syncope 138

Synonymic differentiation 209

Synonymic dominant 196

Synonyms 178, 182ff, 194-209

Synonymy, sources of 203-205

Syntagmatic vs paradigmatic relations 23

System, lexical or vocabulary 10ff, 38, 152, 182ff, 215

System, lexical adaptive 10ff, 21, 216

Technical terms and terminology 229-233 Telescoping and portmanteau words 141 Thematic groups 226ff
Transformations, explanatory 59, 192 Transposition 153, 163

Ultimate constituents 81, 84

Umlaut 146

Understatement: see Litotes Uninterruptability 29, 30
Unities, phraseological 170ff

Valency 24, 90-95, 195, 200
Variants or regional varieties 262ff

Verbal collocations of the ‘give up' type 120, 121, 161, 206

Vowel gradation 146
Vowel mutation 146

Word, definition of 27-31
Word equivalents 9, 20, 167
Word-family 77ff, 222
Word-formation analysis 81ff Word-formation, types of 163

Zero derivation: see Conversion


Ирина Владимировна Арнольд


(на английском языке)

Заведующий редакцией И. Э. Волкова. Редактор В. И. Киселева. Младший редактор Е. Г. Назарова. Художник В. И. Казакова. Художественный редактор В. И. Пономаренко. Технический редактор 3. А. Муслимова. Старший корректор Н. А. Каджардузова,

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