Министерство образования Российской Федерации
Пермский государственный технический университет
Кафедра общенаучных дисциплин
ТЕКСТЫ И УПРАЖЕНИЯ
ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ
для студентов специальности
«Промышленное и гражданское строительство»
очно-заочной формы обучения
Составитель: старший преподаватель кафедры ОНД Л.К. Ивонина.
Тексты и упражнения по английскому языку для студентов специальности «Промышленное и гражданское строительство» очно-заочной формы обучения./Сост. Ивонина Л.К.; Перм. гос. техн. ун-т. – Березники, 2006.- 29 c.
Пособие содержит тексты для аудиторной и самостоятельной работы, состоит из 4-х разделов, включающих следующие темы: «Планировка города», «Здание и его развитие», «Современные строительные материалы», «Архитектура».
К текстам даются предтекстовые и послетекстовые упражнения, предназначенные для студентов строительной специальности.
Пособие переработанное и дополненное.
Рецензент: старший преподаватель кафедры ОНД БФ ПГТУ Е.Б. Кучина.
© Пермский государственный
технический университет, 2006
Unit I ……………………………………………………………………………………………4
Text. Town planning ……………………………………………………………………………4
Unit II …………………………………………………………………………………………... 6
Text. Buildings, their development and functions…………………………...…………………..6
Text. Residential and Industrial Buildings……………………………………………………….9
Unit III …………………………………………………………………………………………..10
Text. The Choice of Material…………………………………………………………………….11
Unit IV ……….………………………………………………………………………………….12
Text. Forms and Functions of Architecture…………………………………………………….. 14
Text. Egyptian pyramids...……………………………………………………………………….17
1. Подберите русские эквиваленты к английским терминам.
Text. Town planning
That cities should have a plan is now admitted in construction and planmaking has become an every day activity. The purpose of a town plan is to give the greatest possible freedom to the individual.
The new development absorbs or modifies an existing environment, and so before it can be designed it is necessary to find out about that environment. It is also necessary to do research of the trends of population growth, the distance from work to home, the amount of sunshine in rooms, the degree of atmospheric pollution and so on. After the survey is complete a forecast of future development is made in the form of a map: the master plan or development plan. The plan of a city must be flexible so that it may extend its dwellings, reconstruct its working places, complete its communications and avoid congestion in every part.
Most towns today have a characteristic functional pattern as follows: a central core containing the principal shopping center, business zones. Most towns planners accept the traditional town pattern. In the preparation of a master plan they are preoccupied with the definition of the town center, industrial areas, and the areas of housing; the creation of open space for recreation, the laying down of pattern of main roads.
The master plan thus has to define the ultimate growth of the town, but though the master plan is a diagram, and even a flexible one, it is the structure upon which all future development is to take place.
thus [ð⋏s] – таким образом;
ultimate ['⋏ltimit] – последний, окончательный;
to be preoccupied – быть озабоченным, поглощенным мыслями.
development plan … (развитие, усовершенствование, застройка);
master plan … (главный, ведущий, руководящий, генеральный);
most towns … (больше всего, наибольший, большинство);
to lay down the pattern … (уложить, составить, установить);
town pattern … (образец, характер, тип, структура).
Business zone, town pattern, population growth, development plan, road system, plan making, town planner, shopping center, public transport, recreation area.
4. Укажите, какие из данных предложений выражают главную мысль текста.
1. The purpose of a town plan is …
a). to do research of the trends of population growth,
b). to give the greatest possible freedom to the individual,
c). to find out about the existing environment.
2. Before a town plan is designed, it is necessary …
a). to extend the dwellings, reconstruct the working places,
b). to make a forecast of future development in the form of a map or a series of maps,
c). to find out about the existing environment.
3. In the preparation of a master plan the planners are preoccupied with …
a). the idea that in our time plan-making has become an everyday activity,
b). the definition of the town pattern and the laying down of a pattern of main roads,
c). the necessity to determine the distance from work to home.
7. Составьте три вопроса (общий, специальный, разделительный) по содержанию текста.
1. Подберите русские эквиваленты к английским терминам и словосочетаниям.
the column and beam method
Text. The development of the house
The first houses in different countries of the world were made of wood. At that time the greater part of our planet was covered with thick forests. Even in those days men found ways of using wood as a building material. In some places they tied together the tops of several trees and covered them with the hides (skins) of animals. In other places they covered them with leaves or grass.
The primitive people’s first houses were tents or huts. Primitive building required no tools. The invention of tool permitted the cutting of stones and timber. Stone was the most convenient building material in countries where there was not much wood but plenty of stone.
People began to use stone widely to build their houses many centuries ago. With the development of stone cutting finer tools appeared.
The column has played an important part in the history of building. Most of the building of old times was based upon the column and beam method of construction.
About 4,000 years before our era the Egyptians possessed great constructional know-how (ability). They built simple houses by present standards. They used bricks which in their most primitive form were not burned, but were hardened by being dried in the sun. Since the middle ages, brickwork has been in constant use everywhere, in every sort of construction and in every architectural style. They made flat roofs because there was very little rain in Egypt. Their buildings were simple in construction but very beautiful. We still admire their monuments, sphinxes and palaces.
Greek builders learned much from Egyptian builders. They built their houses with slanting roofs because the climate of these two countries differs greatly. Soon Greek builders became second to none in column making. But they added the arch, thus adding much strength and beauty to their buildings.
The use of precast concrete, a very advanced construction technique, has many advantages over other building materials. Precast building units can be assembled at the site all the year round in any weather. The precast concrete technique which is constantly being improved in our country, plays a great a great role in our building.
since the middle ages – начиная со средних веков;
to be second to none – не иметь себе равных.
housing (residential construction)
modern amenities [ə’mi:nitiz]
prefabricated concrete elements
food processing plant
Text. Residential and Industrial Buildings
In technically developed countries the building industry, comprising skilled and unskilled workers in many trades, building engineers and architects, managerial staff and designers employs a considerable proportion of the available labour force.
Building industry including residential and industrial construction holds a considerable place in the National Economy. The problems of construction have grown into major, political issues in most countries.
The housing demands have brought to life new methods of construction, new levels of technological advance. At present prefabricated concrete elements may be classified into two principal groups – for residential houses and industrial buildings.
Present-day designs for residential construction envisage all modern amenities for a dwelling, they advocate larger, better built and better equipped flats and houses. There is a marked improvement in the heating and ventilating systems as well as in kitchen and sanitary fittings. Many tenants now can afford better furnishings, refrigerators, washing machines, etc. A house which is a physical environment where a family develops is acquiring a new and modern look.
Industrial buildings comprise another significant type of construction. This types of construction involves factories, food processing plants, office buildings, stores, storage facilities, exhibitions halls, ets.
4. Вставьте данные внизу слова в соответствии с их функцией в предложении и переведите эти предложения.
(place, holds, demands, buildings, methods, comprise, technological advance).
«Why is a house acquiring a new and modern look»?
1. Building industry including residential and industrial construction holds a considerable place in the National Economy.
2. Present-day designs for residential construction advocate better built and better equipped flats and houses.
3. In technically developed countries the building industry, comprising skilled workers, engineers, architects and designs employs a considerable proportion of labor force.
1. Подберите русские эквиваленты к английским терминам.
depending on application
prefabricated concrete elements
reinforced concrete elements
Text. The Choice of Material
Which material can be used for a particular part of the building depends on the kind of load to which it is subjected and on the shape of the part. That development of the metallurgical and machine-building industry made possible mass production of prefabricated concrete and reinforced concrete structural elements is a well-known factor to influence the choice of materials. Using prefabricated elements builders perform a considerable amount of building work at a factory where highly mechanized technological processes of production are practiced.
Reinforced concrete is a buildings material in which the joint functions of concrete and steel are successfully used. Being brittle, concrete cannot withstand tensile stresses. But if steel is introduced into concrete it changes its property.
Like any other stone material, concrete offers a good resistance to compressive loads.
Reinforced concrete structures and elements are widely used both for residential houses and industrial buildings. Depending on the application of reinforced concrete structures all kinds of concrete – heavy, light and heat insulating may be employed.
In many cases bricks too are very satisfactory for use in the construction. Bricks generally present a pleasing appearance and can be obtained with various qualities, colours and textures. Being of a high volume weight and high thermal conductivity, ordinary brick is not always satisfactory in building practice. There are other kinds of bricks which are more effective, they are light-weight buildings bricks, hollow or porous bricks. Light-weight building bricks differ from ordinary bricks in a lower volume weight and lower thermal conductivity, and are therefore more economical than ordinary bricks.
One of the most significant facts about building has been research on synthetics and plastics. Plastics have appeared comparatively recently but, owing to their valuable and diverse properties, have found a wide application in many fields (machine-building, aviation, textile industry, etc.). Application of plastics in the building field widens from year to year.
In respect to physical and mechanical properties at a normal temperature of 200C all plastics are divided into rigid, semi-rigid, soft and plastic. In respect to the number of constituents plastics may be classified as simple and complex.
Plastics consisting of one polymer are referred to as simple. Thus, organic glass (plexiglass) consists of one synthetic resin. But in the building field we usually deal with complex plastics, e. g. plastics consisting of a polymer and other components.
1. There are some kinds of structural materials that have appeared comparatively recently, sometimes they consist of one polymer. But in building industry some complex materials consisting of a polymer and other components are used.
2. In many cases bricks too are very satisfactory for use in the construction.
3. There are some kinds of material which are brittle and cannot withstand tensile stress.
In respect of physical and mechanical properties these materials are divided into rigid, semi-rigid and soft.
a). … such properties as small volume weight and high thermal conductivity are combined.
b). … physical and mechanical properties at a normal temperature of 200C make it semi-rigid and soft.
c). … the joint functions of concrete and steel are successfully used.
a). … the ability of binding together stone, brick and plaster.
b). … a good resistance to compressive loads.
c). … a lower volume weight and lower thermal conductivity.
Architecture is the art and the science of building. Without consideration of structural principles, materials, and social and economic requirements a building cannot take form, but unless aesthetic quality also is inherent in its form the building cannot be considered as a work of architecture.
From the very beginning of architecture many skills, systems and theories have been evolved for the construction of the buildings, and writing on architecture is almost as old as writing itself. Books on the theory of architecture, on the art of building, and on the aesthetic appearance of buildings exist in fair number. The oldest book we have that sets forth the principles upon which buildings should be designed is the work of Marcus Vitruvius Pollio, written in the first century B.C.
Architecture is an art, its contemporary expression must be creative and consequently new. The heritage of the past cannot be ignored. The paradox of the coexistence of change and survival is evident in all phases of the human story. The philosophers, and historians have taken great pains to explain it. This paradox of change and repetition is clearly illustrated in any architectural style.
Nearly two thousand years ago the Roman architect Vitruvius listed three basic factors in architecture – convenience, strength and beauty. These three factors are always present and are always interrelated in the best structures. Thus architectural design entails not only the study of solutions for convenience, for structure, and for appearance as three separate processes but also a consideration of the constant interaction of these factors.
This triple nature of architectural design is one of the reasons why architecture is a difficult art. The designer must have a sufficient knowledge of engineering and of building materials, must posses the creative imagination which will enable him to integrate the plan and the construction into one harmonious whole. The architect’s feeling of satisfaction in achieving such an integration is one of his greatest rewards.
inherent [in’hiərənt] – присущий
to set forth – формулировать, излагать
B.C. – before Christ [kraist] – до нашей эры
Marcus Vitruvius Pollio [ma:kəs vit’ruviəs pɔ’liɔu] – Маркус Витрувий (римский архитектор и инженер, автор трактата «Десять книг об архитектуре»)
fair number – значительное количество
consequently – следовательно, поэтому
to take pains – брать на себя старание
to repeat, to construct, to consider, to express, to create, to imagine, to integrate, to interact, to interrelate, to satisfy.
There have been many different styles or kinds of architecture in the past and there are many different styles today in different parts of the world.
The oldest monuments which are met within architecture are the colossal pyramids of Egypt most of which were constructed about 6,000 years ago.
The pyramids are large triangular buildings which were placed over tombs of Egyptian Kings. The best known of the pyramids are a group of three built at Giza south of Cairo. The larget of these is 482 feet high. They tell us of the advanced civilization of ancient Egypt which is much spoken about even in our days. It was a country which had expert mathematicians and engineers, where astronomy and philosophy were known and studied.
The country was rich in hard and durable stone, but poor in timber and metal, so that the main material used for construction was granite, and this was the reason for the durability of the pyramids.
Large blocks of stone were transported over long distances by land and water, and placed into position with the help of the most primitive equipment. That was done by slaves working for thirty or forty years. All this great amount of work was done, masses of material and a large territory sometimes of about 52.000 square meters were used, only for protecting the body of a dead king and constructing a dwelling place for his happy life in the “other world”.
Egypt [’i:ʤipt] – Египет
Cairo [’kaiərɔu] – г. Каир
Giza [’gizə] – Гиза, г. в Египте, пригород Каира. Центр туризма, где сооружены пирамиды фараона Хеопса.
1. Describe one of the architectural monuments or the most beautiful buildings in Russia or abroad, using a plan:
1. When and where it was built;
2. Who it was designed by;
3. How it looked before and how it looks now;
4. Construction materials which were used;
5. How the building was used before and how it is used now;
6. Why you think it is one of the most beautiful architectural monuments (or the most beautiful building) of the world.
to pull down – сносить, уничтожать;
to reconstruct – восстанавливать, реконструировать.
In all the cities of the world there are some very old buildings. Sooner or later they have to be pulled down or reconstructed.
In Moscow and St. Petersburg and other towns some parts of the old town are reconstructed and carefully preserved. In some others all old buildings are pulled down and modern comfortable structures of concrete and glass are being built. In Warsaw, for example, many buildings destroyed during the World War II were reconstructed and now they look as they did before the War. Do you think it is necessary to reconstruct old buildings or pull them down?
Read the list of pros and cons. Think of some more.
Is it necessary to reconstruct old buildings?
What places of rest does a master plan define?
The master plan defines the pattern of the town and its relation to the topography. It shows the principal areas and zones necessary for housing and industry. Furthermore, it defines the principal zones in the town centre for civic, business and cultural purposes.
As for the landscape, the master plan shows the agricultural areas surrounding the town, it indicates the areas of natural landscape that should be left for passive recreation; it also shows the active recreation areas necessary for the housing areas and for the town as a whole.
As for the road system, it shows the principal roads connecting various zones together; it suggests the routes of public transport and it may define the principal pedestrian ways.
Roads appeared in the far-off times and were first in the form of pedestrian tracks. Then, as civilization progressed, they became routes along which horse-drawn traffic and finally vehicles moved.
Roads have always had a dual function: as traffic routes and as a means of approach to dwellings and other buildings. But since the growth of transport these functions have been seriously in conflict with each other. Today this conflict is extremely great and leads to great danger.
Any town so planned that its citizens are killed in great numbers is an ill-planned town. The layout of all newly developed areas must be made dependent on the safety factor. Pedestrians and fast motor traffic will never and can never mix – they must be isolated.
Portland cement is a product obtained by mixing and then burning two raw materials, the one composed largely of lime and the other of material containing silica, alumina and iron. The two raw materials are ground and mixed to give definite proportions of lime, silica, alumina and iron oxide. The finished product should receive no addition other than gypsum. Portland cement can to some extent be modified to suit a particular application. It has led to the development of an increasing variety such as high alumina cement and puzzolanas. Puzzolanic cement consists of mixtures in varying proportions of Portland cement and puzzolana. The latter is an ash usually of volcanic origin, but which may be produced by the calcinations of suitable clays or shales. Puzzolanic cements are more resistant to chemical attack than Portland cement. They are generally very finely ground and have excellent working properties. To develop the maximum ultimate strength, these cements need prolonged wetting; they are therefore very suitable for use under water.
In Russia excavators are now recognized as an essential part of the builder’s equipment. Construction operations embody different classes of work. It would not be a good practice to create single-purpose machines for best economy will be obviously achieved when an all-purpose unit is made that can be converted, when required to suit each class of work. Our plants for excavating machinery produce revolving shovels with attachments which make it possible to use them for carrying out each class of work.
Each shovel is made in three structural divisions. Anatomically the top of the revolving unit is the head and torso, the travel unit is the legs, and the various attachments are the arms and hands. A revolving and a travel unit together make up a “basic shovel”.
The architect uses drawing to achieve his objective, but in the strict meaning of the term a work of architecture exists only when it stands complete, a concrete object for all to see or to use. Drawing, no matter how magnificent the design they show, are never in themselves works of architecture. The dangers of “paper architecture” are very great. It is necessary to point out that many elements, which look well on a drawing may be either completely ineffective or definitely harmful in the actual building. Paper architecture is the result of thinking of drawing and the effects they make as an end rather than a means. In fact, drawings can represent buildings only symbolically. A valid criticism against much eclectic architecture is that it is essentially paper architecture, because eclectic buildings are full of decorative elements which look well on the drawing – yet in the actual buildings they are completely meaningless.
The setting of limits of population, area, and density is the first step in the art of building cities. It is interesting to note that Leonardo da Vinci recognized the evils of congestion that resulted from the overcrowding of Milan at the beginning of the sixteenth century. He proposed to put its 300.000 people into ten cities of 30.000 each.
Some architects recognize in the city the same limitation on biological growth that is seen in the cell. Every cell has a norm of development. When a cell has reached its optimum of growth, its nucleus divides in two, and two new cells are formed. Cities are not biological organisms, hence, except for a primitive dependence on a limited water and food supply there is no natural limit to their growth – but there is a social limit, and that limit has been constantly exceeded in the expansion of modern cities.
A city should be big enough to achieve social co-operation of a complex kind based on the necessary division of labour, but so big as to handicap these functions.
Past Present Future
asked ask (s) will / shall
II ф. I ф. I ф.
Вспомогат. гл. Participle I
to be + asking
Past Present Future
was am will be
were is (shall be)
Вспомогат. гл. Participle II
to have + asked
Past Present Future
had have/has will have (shall have)
Вспомогат. гл. Participle I
to have been + asking
had been have (has) been
He went to Paris last week
Выражает предположение: «не так ли?», «не правда ли?»
He went to Paris last week, didn’t he?
Вопрос к подлежащему
Who went to Paris last
Did he go to Paris last
Did he go to Paris or to
New York last week?
Задается с помощью вопросительных слов для выяснения чего-то конкретного
When did he go to
to be written
Active Voice Passive Voice
I teach English. I am taught English.
We gave her a present. We were given a present.
She helped him. She was helped by him.
He will send a letter. He will be sent a letter.
They often read stories. They are often read stories.
кто-то что-то делает кому-то что-то делают
Т а б л и ц а ф о р м п р и ч а с т и й
to go – went
to come –
to run –
to do –
to have –
to say –
to stay –
to try –
to visit –
to watch –
to read –
to sleep –
1. My favorite subjects is English and Maths.
2. Sometimes I studies books about history of building.
3. Who did destroy that architectural monument?
4. Last year they have finished college.
5. He doesn’t design buildings, doesn’t he?
1. I … not like to play tennis.
2. Where … he go two years ago?
3. They … discuss this plan next week.
4. Раскройте скобки и поставьте глагол в нужную форму
1. Look! She (to draw) a very beautiful picture.
2. We (to see) Peter a couple of weeks ago, but we (not, see) him this week yet.
3. Soon she (to be) an architect.
4. It often (to rain) in this part of the world.
5. I never (to be) to Egypt before.
1. He has passed two exams this week (How many?)
2. In the middle ages nobles built castles as a form of defense. (What? Who?)
3. Next week the lecturer will tell the students about the ancient art of making columns. (When? What about?)
1. Я уйду с работы через полчаса.
2. Колонно-балочный метод играет важную роль в истории строительства, не правда ли?
3. Я еще не просмотрел все документы, которые я хочу использовать в этом проекте.
1. During the Second World War many ancient architectural monuments (to destroy).
2. Many houses (to build) in Moscow every year.
3. Since the middle ages brickwork (to use) in every architectural style.
4. A new railway line (to construct) now.
5. In a minute each of us (to give) instructions on labour protection.
1. They will build a stadium here in the near future.
2. They used granite as the main material for construction of Egyptian pyramids.
3. They had built the theatre before the war began.
4. The architect uses drawings to achieve his objective.
5. The builders are realizing the project proposed by a group of architects.
Составитель Л.К. Ивонина
Корректор Н.В. Шиляева
Лицензия ЛР № 020370
Подписано в печать 02.05.2006
Формат . Объем 1 п.л.
Тираж 100 Заказ 37/2006.
Редакционно-издательский отдел Пермского государственного технического университета (Березниковский филиал)
Отпечатано в ООО «Типограф».
Адрес: 618450 г. Соликамск, Соликамское шоссе, 17.