Кафедра общенаучных дисциплин icon

Кафедра общенаучных дисциплин


Смотрите также:
Методические указания и контрольные задания для студентов 1-2 курсов заочной формы обучения по...
Методические указания и контрольные задания для студентов 1-2 курсов заочной формы обучения по...
Учебное пособие построено на материале рекламных проспектов промышленных предприятий города...
Кафедра «Общих гуманитарных и естественно-научных дисциплин» Кафедра...
Контрольные задания по высшей математике...
Рабочая программа учебной дисциплины ф тпу 1 21...
Кафедра национальной экономики...
Кафедра «Общих гуманитарных и естественно-научных дисциплин»...
Кафедра биологических дисциплин...
Кафедра естественнонаучных и математических дисциплин современные проблемы естественнонаучных и...
Кафедра источниковедения и вспомогательных исторических дисциплин...
Кафедра уголовно-правовых дисциплин учебно-методические материалы для сдачи вступительного...



Загрузка...
скачать


Министерство образования Российской Федерации

Пермский государственный технический университет

Березниковский филиал

Кафедра общенаучных дисциплин


ТЕКСТЫ И УПРАЖЕНИЯ

ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ

для студентов специальности

«Промышленное и гражданское строительство»

очно-заочной формы обучения


Березники 2006

Составитель: старший преподаватель кафедры ОНД Л.К. Ивонина.


Тексты и упражнения по английскому языку для студентов специальности «Промышленное и гражданское строительство» очно-заочной формы обучения./Сост. Ивонина Л.К.; Перм. гос. техн. ун-т. – Березники, 2006.- 29 c.

Пособие содержит тексты для аудиторной и самостоятельной работы, состоит из 4-х разделов, включающих следующие темы: «Планировка города», «Здание и его развитие», «Современные строительные материалы», «Архитектура».

К текстам даются предтекстовые и послетекстовые упражнения, предназначенные для студентов строительной специальности.

Пособие переработанное и дополненное.


Рецензент: старший преподаватель кафедры ОНД БФ ПГТУ Е.Б. Кучина.


© Пермский государственный

технический университет, 2006




CONTENS

Unit I ……………………………………………………………………………………………4

Text. Town planning ……………………………………………………………………………4


Unit II …………………………………………………………………………………………... 6

Text. Buildings, their development and functions…………………………...…………………..6

Text. Residential and Industrial Buildings……………………………………………………….9


Unit III …………………………………………………………………………………………..10

Text. The Choice of Material…………………………………………………………………….11


Unit IV ……….………………………………………………………………………………….12

Text. Forms and Functions of Architecture…………………………………………………….. 14

Text. Egyptian pyramids...……………………………………………………………………….17

Additional texts…………………………………………………………………..…....................18

Grammar review…………………………………………………………………………………22


Unit I


^ TOWN PLANNING AND TOWN DEVELOPMENT


1. Подберите русские эквиваленты к английским терминам.

to absorb

environment

to modify

to design

survey

forecast

communication

congestion

pattern

recreation

diagram

  1. скопление (перенаселенность, затор);

  2. окружающая среда;

  3. образец;

  4. проектировать;

  5. видоизменять;

  6. схема;

  7. транспортная сеть, коммуникационные линии;

  8. исследование;

  9. поглощать;

  10. отдых, развлечение;

  11. прогноз.


Text. Town planning

That cities should have a plan is now admitted in construction and planmaking has become an every day activity. The purpose of a town plan is to give the greatest possible freedom to the individual.

The new development absorbs or modifies an existing environment, and so before it can be designed it is necessary to find out about that environment. It is also necessary to do research of the trends of population growth, the distance from work to home, the amount of sunshine in rooms, the degree of atmospheric pollution and so on. After the survey is complete a forecast of future development is made in the form of a map: the master plan or development plan. The plan of a city must be flexible so that it may extend its dwellings, reconstruct its working places, complete its communications and avoid congestion in every part.

Most towns today have a characteristic functional pattern as follows: a central core containing the principal shopping center, business zones. Most towns planners accept the traditional town pattern. In the preparation of a master plan they are preoccupied with the definition of the town center, industrial areas, and the areas of housing; the creation of open space for recreation, the laying down of pattern of main roads.

The master plan thus has to define the ultimate growth of the town, but though the master plan is a diagram, and even a flexible one, it is the structure upon which all future development is to take place.


Notes

thus [ð⋏s] – таким образом;

ultimate ['⋏ltimit] – последний, окончательный;

to be preoccupied – быть озабоченным, поглощенным мыслями.


^ 2. Используя текст, подберите нужное значение выделенных слов в данных сочетаниях и переведите их.

development plan … (развитие, усовершенствование, застройка);

master plan … (главный, ведущий, руководящий, генеральный);

most towns … (больше всего, наибольший, большинство);

to lay down the pattern … (уложить, составить, установить);

town pattern … (образец, характер, тип, структура).


^ 3. Переведите следующие словосочетания.

Business zone, town pattern, population growth, development plan, road system, plan making, town planner, shopping center, public transport, recreation area.


4. Укажите, какие из данных предложений выражают главную мысль текста.

  1. In the preparation of the master plan it is necessary to define the town zones.

  2. All cities should have a plan.

  3. Before a flexible plan is made it is necessary to find out about the existing environment.

  4. The master plan also defines places for active and passive recreation.


^ 5. В соответствии с содержанием текста дополните незаконченные предложения одним из данных вариантов.

1. The purpose of a town plan is …

a). to do research of the trends of population growth,

b). to give the greatest possible freedom to the individual,

c). to find out about the existing environment.


2. Before a town plan is designed, it is necessary …

a). to extend the dwellings, reconstruct the working places,

b). to make a forecast of future development in the form of a map or a series of maps,

c). to find out about the existing environment.


3. In the preparation of a master plan the planners are preoccupied with …

a). the idea that in our time plan-making has become an everyday activity,

b). the definition of the town pattern and the laying down of a pattern of main roads,

c). the necessity to determine the distance from work to home.


^ 6. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на значение глагола «to be».

  1. The purpose of a town plan is to give the greatest possible freedom to the individual.

  2. The master plan is the structure upon which all future development is to take place.

  3. We are to take into consideration all the advantages and disadvantages to decide what plan is the best.

  4. Many new blocks of houses are to be built according to the new development plan.

  5. The task of an architect is to make plans, whereas the task of an engineer is to build according to those plans.


7. Составьте три вопроса (общий, специальный, разделительный) по содержанию текста.


Unit II


^ BUILDINGS, THEIR DEVELOPMENT AND FUNCTIONS


1. Подберите русские эквиваленты к английским терминам и словосочетаниям.

primitive

concrete

the column and beam method

site

know-how (ability)

to burn

to harden

slanting roof

the arch

precast

  1. арка, свод, дуга

  2. покатая крыша

  3. первобытный, примитивный

  4. придавать твердость, прочность

  5. колонно-балочный метод

  6. умение

  7. обжигать

  8. сборный

  9. бетон

  10. строительная площадка


Text. The development of the house

The first houses in different countries of the world were made of wood. At that time the greater part of our planet was covered with thick forests. Even in those days men found ways of using wood as a building material. In some places they tied together the tops of several trees and covered them with the hides (skins) of animals. In other places they covered them with leaves or grass.

The primitive people’s first houses were tents or huts. Primitive building required no tools. The invention of tool permitted the cutting of stones and timber. Stone was the most convenient building material in countries where there was not much wood but plenty of stone.

People began to use stone widely to build their houses many centuries ago. With the development of stone cutting finer tools appeared.

The column has played an important part in the history of building. Most of the building of old times was based upon the column and beam method of construction.

About 4,000 years before our era the Egyptians possessed great constructional know-how (ability). They built simple houses by present standards. They used bricks which in their most primitive form were not burned, but were hardened by being dried in the sun. Since the middle ages, brickwork has been in constant use everywhere, in every sort of construction and in every architectural style. They made flat roofs because there was very little rain in Egypt. Their buildings were simple in construction but very beautiful. We still admire their monuments, sphinxes and palaces.

Greek builders learned much from Egyptian builders. They built their houses with slanting roofs because the climate of these two countries differs greatly. Soon Greek builders became second to none in column making. But they added the arch, thus adding much strength and beauty to their buildings.

The use of precast concrete, a very advanced construction technique, has many advantages over other building materials. Precast building units can be assembled at the site all the year round in any weather. The precast concrete technique which is constantly being improved in our country, plays a great a great role in our building.


Notes

since the middle ages – начиная со средних веков;

to be second to none – не иметь себе равных.



^ 2. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на сказуемое в пассивном залоге.

  1. The first houses in the world were made of wood.

  2. Most of the buildings of old times was based upon the column and beam method of construction.

  3. Precast building units can be assembled at the site all the year round in any weather.

  4. Since the middle ages brickwork has been used in every architectural style.

  5. The precast concrete technique is constantly being improved in our country.


^ 3. На основании содержания текста ответьте на следующие вопросы.

  1. What kind of material did men use building the first houses?

  2. Primitive building didn’t require tools, did it?

  3. What appeared with the development of stone?

  4. What kind of roofs did the Egyptians make and why?

  5. Who became second to none in column making?

  6. Why do precast building units have advantages nowadays?


^ 1. Подберите русские эквиваленты к следующим английским терминам и словосочетаниям.

housing (residential construction)

managerial staff

modern amenities [ə’mi:nitiz]

prefabricated concrete elements

food processing plant

dwelling

sanitary fittings

furnishings

tenants

stores

storage facilities

present-day design

technological advance

  1. жилищное строительство;

  2. сборные бетонные элементы;

  3. управленческий аппарат;




  1. сантехническое оборудование;

  2. мебелировка;

  3. жилище;

  4. современное проектирование;

  5. современные удобства;

  6. пищекомбинат;

  7. технический прогресс;

  8. складские помещения;

  9. магазин;

  10. жители


Text. Residential and Industrial Buildings

In technically developed countries the building industry, comprising skilled and unskilled workers in many trades, building engineers and architects, managerial staff and designers employs a considerable proportion of the available labour force.

Building industry including residential and industrial construction holds a considerable place in the National Economy. The problems of construction have grown into major, political issues in most countries.

The housing demands have brought to life new methods of construction, new levels of technological advance. At present prefabricated concrete elements may be classified into two principal groups – for residential houses and industrial buildings.

Present-day designs for residential construction envisage all modern amenities for a dwelling, they advocate larger, better built and better equipped flats and houses. There is a marked improvement in the heating and ventilating systems as well as in kitchen and sanitary fittings. Many tenants now can afford better furnishings, refrigerators, washing machines, etc. A house which is a physical environment where a family develops is acquiring a new and modern look.

Industrial buildings comprise another significant type of construction. This types of construction involves factories, food processing plants, office buildings, stores, storage facilities, exhibitions halls, ets.

^ 2. Укажите, какие из данных предложений относятся к описанию жилых зданий и какие – к промышленным.

  1. The problem of housing has grown into a major, political issue in most countries.

  2. Industrial buildings comprise another significant type of construction.

  3. Present-day designs for housing envisage all modern conveniences and sanitary fittings.

  4. A house which is a physical environment where a family develops is acquiring a new and modern look.


^ 3. Составьте план к тексту.


4. Вставьте данные внизу слова в соответствии с их функцией в предложении и переведите эти предложения.

  1. Building industry … a considerable … in the National Economy.

  2. Industrial … … another significant type of construction.

  3. The housing … have brought to life new … of construction, new levels of … .

(place, holds, demands, buildings, methods, comprise, technological advance).


  1. Дайте не менее трех вариантов ответа на вопрос.

«Why is a house acquiring a new and modern look»?


^ 6. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на функции Present and Past Participles.

1. Building industry including residential and industrial construction holds a considerable place in the National Economy.

2. Present-day designs for residential construction advocate better built and better equipped flats and houses.

3. In technically developed countries the building industry, comprising skilled workers, engineers, architects and designs employs a considerable proportion of labor force.

^

Unit III




BUILDING MATERIALS



1. Подберите русские эквиваленты к английским терминам.

depending on application

prefabricated concrete elements

reinforced concrete elements

diverse properties

tensile stress

compressive loads

brittle

thermal conductivity

volume weight

rigid

resin

  1. растягивающее напряжение;

  2. хрупкий;

  3. теплопроводность;

  4. в зависимости от применения;

  5. жесткий;

  6. сжимающие нагрузки;

  7. смола;

  8. сборные бетонные элементы;

  9. объемный вес;

  10. железобетонные элементы;

  11. разнообразные свойства


Text. The Choice of Material

Which material can be used for a particular part of the building depends on the kind of load to which it is subjected and on the shape of the part. That development of the metallurgical and machine-building industry made possible mass production of prefabricated concrete and reinforced concrete structural elements is a well-known factor to influence the choice of materials. Using prefabricated elements builders perform a considerable amount of building work at a factory where highly mechanized technological processes of production are practiced.

Reinforced concrete is a buildings material in which the joint functions of concrete and steel are successfully used. Being brittle, concrete cannot withstand tensile stresses. But if steel is introduced into concrete it changes its property.

Like any other stone material, concrete offers a good resistance to compressive loads.

Reinforced concrete structures and elements are widely used both for residential houses and industrial buildings. Depending on the application of reinforced concrete structures all kinds of concrete – heavy, light and heat insulating may be employed.

In many cases bricks too are very satisfactory for use in the construction. Bricks generally present a pleasing appearance and can be obtained with various qualities, colours and textures. Being of a high volume weight and high thermal conductivity, ordinary brick is not always satisfactory in building practice. There are other kinds of bricks which are more effective, they are light-weight buildings bricks, hollow or porous bricks. Light-weight building bricks differ from ordinary bricks in a lower volume weight and lower thermal conductivity, and are therefore more economical than ordinary bricks.

One of the most significant facts about building has been research on synthetics and plastics. Plastics have appeared comparatively recently but, owing to their valuable and diverse properties, have found a wide application in many fields (machine-building, aviation, textile industry, etc.). Application of plastics in the building field widens from year to year.

In respect to physical and mechanical properties at a normal temperature of 200C all plastics are divided into rigid, semi-rigid, soft and plastic. In respect to the number of constituents plastics may be classified as simple and complex.

Plastics consisting of one polymer are referred to as simple. Thus, organic glass (plexiglass) consists of one synthetic resin. But in the building field we usually deal with complex plastics, e. g. plastics consisting of a polymer and other components.


^ 2. Найдите, какие из данных предложений относятся к описанию бетона, кирпича и пластмасс.

1. There are some kinds of structural materials that have appeared comparatively recently, sometimes they consist of one polymer. But in building industry some complex materials consisting of a polymer and other components are used.

2. In many cases bricks too are very satisfactory for use in the construction.

3. There are some kinds of material which are brittle and cannot withstand tensile stress.

  1. If steel is introduced into some kind of material it changes its property .

  2. Some buildings materials offer a good resistance to compressive loads.

In respect of physical and mechanical properties these materials are divided into rigid, semi-rigid and soft.

^ 3. В соответствии с содержанием текста дополните незаконченные предложения одним из данных вариантов (a, b, c).

  1. Reinforced concrete is a building material in which …

a). … such properties as small volume weight and high thermal conductivity are combined.

b). … physical and mechanical properties at a normal temperature of 200C make it semi-rigid and soft.

c). … the joint functions of concrete and steel are successfully used.


  1. Like any other stone material, concrete offers …

a). … the ability of binding together stone, brick and plaster.

b). … a good resistance to compressive loads.

c). … a lower volume weight and lower thermal conductivity.


^ 4. Используя содержание текста ответьте на следующие вопросы.

  1. What types of construction are reinforced concrete structures and elements used for?

  2. What kind of material cannot withstand tesile stresses and why?

  3. What new materials have come into use both in industry and building?

  4. In what industrial fields are plastics used?

  5. How does steel introduced into concrete change its properties?



Unit IV




^

THE COMMUNITI AND ARCHITECTURE





  1. Подберите русские эквиваленты к английским терминам.

aesthetic quality

evolve

skills

heritage

survival

evident

solution

entail

appearance

interaction

separate

constant

creative imagination

integration

contemporary expression

  1. современная выразительность;

  2. мастерство, искусство;

  3. выживание;

  4. эстетическое качество;

  5. взаимодействие;

  6. решение;

  7. постоянный;

  8. целостность;

  9. наследие;

  10. влечь за собой, вызывать;

  11. внешний вид;

  12. отдельный;

  13. творческое воображение, фантазия;

  14. развивать;

  15. очевидный



^

Text. Forms and Functions of Architecture


Architecture is the art and the science of building. Without consideration of structural principles, materials, and social and economic requirements a building cannot take form, but unless aesthetic quality also is inherent in its form the building cannot be considered as a work of architecture.

From the very beginning of architecture many skills, systems and theories have been evolved for the construction of the buildings, and writing on architecture is almost as old as writing itself. Books on the theory of architecture, on the art of building, and on the aesthetic appearance of buildings exist in fair number. The oldest book we have that sets forth the principles upon which buildings should be designed is the work of Marcus Vitruvius Pollio, written in the first century B.C.

Architecture is an art, its contemporary expression must be creative and consequently new. The heritage of the past cannot be ignored. The paradox of the coexistence of change and survival is evident in all phases of the human story. The philosophers, and historians have taken great pains to explain it. This paradox of change and repetition is clearly illustrated in any architectural style.

Nearly two thousand years ago the Roman architect Vitruvius listed three basic factors in architecture – convenience, strength and beauty. These three factors are always present and are always interrelated in the best structures. Thus architectural design entails not only the study of solutions for convenience, for structure, and for appearance as three separate processes but also a consideration of the constant interaction of these factors.

This triple nature of architectural design is one of the reasons why architecture is a difficult art. The designer must have a sufficient knowledge of engineering and of building materials, must posses the creative imagination which will enable him to integrate the plan and the construction into one harmonious whole. The architect’s feeling of satisfaction in achieving such an integration is one of his greatest rewards.

Notes


inherent [in’hiərənt] – присущий

to set forth – формулировать, излагать

B.C. – before Christ [kraist] – до нашей эры

Marcus Vitruvius Pollio [ma:kəs vit’ruviəs pɔ’liɔu] – Маркус Витрувий (римский архитектор и инженер, автор трактата «Десять книг об архитектуре»)

fair number – значительное количество

consequently – следовательно, поэтому

to take pains – брать на себя старание




  1. Укажите, какое из данных утверждений выражает главную тему текста.

  1. Books on the theory of architecture exist in fair number.

  2. Three basic factors in architecture – convenience, strength and beauty are always present and interrelated in the best structures.

  3. This paradox of change and repetition is clearly illustrated in any architectural style.


^ 3. Укажите, какие из данных предложений выражают основное содержание текста. Расположите их согласно последовательности изложения.

  1. Architecture is an art, its contemporary expression must be creative and consequently new.

  2. There are some people who claim that architecture is not a fine art at all.

  3. Writing on architecture is almost as old as writing itself.

  4. The tripe nature of architectural design is one of the reasons why architecture is a difficult art.

  5. A building cannot be considered as a work of architecture, unless aesthetic quality is also inherent in its form.

  6. The architect’s feeling of satisfaction in achieving such an integration is one of his greatest rewards.


^ 4. Опровергните неправильные утверждения с точки зрения содержания текста.

  1. Architecture is the art but not the science of building.

  2. It is quite possible for the architect to think of the basic factors in architecture - convenience, strength and beauty – as three separate processes.


^ 5. Образуйте от следующих глаголов существительные, используя соответственно суффиксы: -tion, -ion.

to repeat, to construct, to consider, to express, to create, to imagine, to integrate, to interact, to interrelate, to satisfy.


^ 1. Подберите русские эквиваленты к английским терминам.

colossal

triangular

tomb

durable

ancient

expert

  1. опытный, искусный

  2. могила

  3. древний

  4. треугольный

  5. великолепный, замечательный

  6. прочный




Egyptian Pyramids

There have been many different styles or kinds of architecture in the past and there are many different styles today in different parts of the world.

The oldest monuments which are met within architecture are the colossal pyramids of Egypt most of which were constructed about 6,000 years ago.

The pyramids are large triangular buildings which were placed over tombs of Egyptian Kings. The best known of the pyramids are a group of three built at Giza south of Cairo. The larget of these is 482 feet high. They tell us of the advanced civilization of ancient Egypt which is much spoken about even in our days. It was a country which had expert mathematicians and engineers, where astronomy and philosophy were known and studied.

The country was rich in hard and durable stone, but poor in timber and metal, so that the main material used for construction was granite, and this was the reason for the durability of the pyramids.

Large blocks of stone were transported over long distances by land and water, and placed into position with the help of the most primitive equipment. That was done by slaves working for thirty or forty years. All this great amount of work was done, masses of material and a large territory sometimes of about 52.000 square meters were used, only for protecting the body of a dead king and constructing a dwelling place for his happy life in the “other world”.


Notes

Egypt [’i:ʤipt] – Египет

Cairo [’kaiərɔu] – г. Каир

Giza [’gizə] – Гиза, г. в Египте, пригород Каира. Центр туризма, где сооружены пирамиды фараона Хеопса.


^ 2. Обратите внимание на звучание слов.

granite [’grænit]

expert [eks’pə:t]

durable [’djuərəbl]

ancient [’einʃnt]

square [skwεə]

tomb [tu:m]

triangular [trai’ængjulə]


  1. Ответьте на следующие вопросы.

  1. What are the oldest monuments of Egypt?

  2. When were the pyramids constructed?

  3. What are the best known of them?

  4. What were they constructed for?

  5. What material was used for the construction of Egyptian pyramids?




  1. Внимательно прочтите текст и выпишите предложения в логической последовательности, где дается описание египетских пирамид. Переведите предложения на русский язык.


^ ADDITIONAL TASKS

1. Describe one of the architectural monuments or the most beautiful buildings in Russia or abroad, using a plan:

1. When and where it was built;

2. Who it was designed by;

3. How it looked before and how it looks now;

4. Construction materials which were used;

5. How the building was used before and how it is used now;

6. Why you think it is one of the most beautiful architectural monuments (or the most beautiful building) of the world.


2. Discussion.

to pull down – сносить, уничтожать;

to reconstruct – восстанавливать, реконструировать.

In all the cities of the world there are some very old buildings. Sooner or later they have to be pulled down or reconstructed.

In Moscow and St. Petersburg and other towns some parts of the old town are reconstructed and carefully preserved. In some others all old buildings are pulled down and modern comfortable structures of concrete and glass are being built. In Warsaw, for example, many buildings destroyed during the World War II were reconstructed and now they look as they did before the War. Do you think it is necessary to reconstruct old buildings or pull them down?

Read the list of pros and cons. Think of some more.

Is it necessary to reconstruct old buildings?

For

Against

  1. Old buildings are historic monuments.

  2. It is much cheaper to reconstruct old buildings than to build new ones.

  3. The architecture of old buildings is much more beautiful than that of modern buildings.

  1. Old buildings are not comfortable, they have no necessary conveniences.

  2. The process of reconstruction takes a lot of time and needs qualified workers.

  3. City traffic can’t go through old narrow streets.

  4. There is no place to build new houses.


^ ADDITIONAL TEXTS

What places of rest does a master plan define?

The master plan defines the pattern of the town and its relation to the topography. It shows the principal areas and zones necessary for housing and industry. Furthermore, it defines the principal zones in the town centre for civic, business and cultural purposes.

As for the landscape, the master plan shows the agricultural areas surrounding the town, it indicates the areas of natural landscape that should be left for passive recreation; it also shows the active recreation areas necessary for the housing areas and for the town as a whole.

As for the road system, it shows the principal roads connecting various zones together; it suggests the routes of public transport and it may define the principal pedestrian ways.


^ How can the problem of safety be solved?

Roads appeared in the far-off times and were first in the form of pedestrian tracks. Then, as civilization progressed, they became routes along which horse-drawn traffic and finally vehicles moved.

Roads have always had a dual function: as traffic routes and as a means of approach to dwellings and other buildings. But since the growth of transport these functions have been seriously in conflict with each other. Today this conflict is extremely great and leads to great danger.

Any town so planned that its citizens are killed in great numbers is an ill-planned town. The layout of all newly developed areas must be made dependent on the safety factor. Pedestrians and fast motor traffic will never and can never mix – they must be isolated.

***

Portland cement is a product obtained by mixing and then burning two raw materials, the one composed largely of lime and the other of material containing silica, alumina and iron. The two raw materials are ground and mixed to give definite proportions of lime, silica, alumina and iron oxide. The finished product should receive no addition other than gypsum. Portland cement can to some extent be modified to suit a particular application. It has led to the development of an increasing variety such as high alumina cement and puzzolanas. Puzzolanic cement consists of mixtures in varying proportions of Portland cement and puzzolana. The latter is an ash usually of volcanic origin, but which may be produced by the calcinations of suitable clays or shales. Puzzolanic cements are more resistant to chemical attack than Portland cement. They are generally very finely ground and have excellent working properties. To develop the maximum ultimate strength, these cements need prolonged wetting; they are therefore very suitable for use under water.


***

In Russia excavators are now recognized as an essential part of the builder’s equipment. Construction operations embody different classes of work. It would not be a good practice to create single-purpose machines for best economy will be obviously achieved when an all-purpose unit is made that can be converted, when required to suit each class of work. Our plants for excavating machinery produce revolving shovels with attachments which make it possible to use them for carrying out each class of work.

Each shovel is made in three structural divisions. Anatomically the top of the revolving unit is the head and torso, the travel unit is the legs, and the various attachments are the arms and hands. A revolving and a travel unit together make up a “basic shovel”.


***

The architect uses drawing to achieve his objective, but in the strict meaning of the term a work of architecture exists only when it stands complete, a concrete object for all to see or to use. Drawing, no matter how magnificent the design they show, are never in themselves works of architecture. The dangers of “paper architecture” are very great. It is necessary to point out that many elements, which look well on a drawing may be either completely ineffective or definitely harmful in the actual building. Paper architecture is the result of thinking of drawing and the effects they make as an end rather than a means. In fact, drawings can represent buildings only symbolically. A valid criticism against much eclectic architecture is that it is essentially paper architecture, because eclectic buildings are full of decorative elements which look well on the drawing – yet in the actual buildings they are completely meaningless.


***

The setting of limits of population, area, and density is the first step in the art of building cities. It is interesting to note that Leonardo da Vinci recognized the evils of congestion that resulted from the overcrowding of Milan at the beginning of the sixteenth century. He proposed to put its 300.000 people into ten cities of 30.000 each.

Some architects recognize in the city the same limitation on biological growth that is seen in the cell. Every cell has a norm of development. When a cell has reached its optimum of growth, its nucleus divides in two, and two new cells are formed. Cities are not biological organisms, hence, except for a primitive dependence on a limited water and food supply there is no natural limit to their growth – but there is a social limit, and that limit has been constantly exceeded in the expansion of modern cities.

A city should be big enough to achieve social co-operation of a complex kind based on the necessary division of labour, but so big as to handicap these functions.


^ GRAMMAR REVIEW



to ask


Past Present Future


asked ask (s) will / shall

ask

II ф
. I ф. ф.

Вспомогат. гл. Participle I


to be + asking

Past Present Future


was am will be

were is (shall be)

are



























Simple Continuous

^
English Tenses




Вспомогат. гл. Participle II


to have + asked


Past Present Future


had have/has will have                     (shall have)


Вспомогат. гл. Participle I


to have been + asking


Past Present

had been have (has) been

Perfect

Perfect Continuous



He went to Paris last week


Разделительный

Выражает предположение: «не так ли?», «не правда ли?»


I

   He went to Paris last                                             week, didn’t he?



Вопрос к подлежащему

^ Уточняет, кто (что), выполняет действие


II

    Who went to Paris last

                     week?



Общий

^ Задается ко всему предложению и предполагает ответ «да» или «нет».


III

Did he go to Paris last

week?



Альтернативный

^ Предлагает выбор из двух или нескольких вариантов

IV

           Did he go to Paris or to

New York last week?



Специальный

Задается с помощью вопросительных слов для выяснения чего-то конкретного

V

When did he go to

Paris?

Simple Passive



to be written


was

written

were


Past

shall be

written

will be


Future







Present


am

is written

are






Active Voice Passive Voice


I teach English. I am taught English.

We gave her a present. We were given a present.

She helped him. She was helped by him.

He will send a letter. He will be sent a letter.

They often read stories. They are often read stories.


кто-то что-то делает кому-то что-то делают





Т а б л и ц а ф о р м п р и ч а с т и й





Participle I

Participle II




Active

Passive

Passive

Simple

translating

  1. определение

переводящий

  1. обстоятельство

переводя

being translated

  1. определение

который (ая) переводится

  1. обстоятельство

будучи переведенный (ая)


translated

  1. определение

переведенный (ая)

  1. обстоятельство

когда (……) перевели …

статью

текст


Perfect

having translated

обстоятельство


закончив перевод


having been translated

обстоятельство


когда (……) перевели …

статью

текст







^ 1. Образуйте Past Simple глаголов:

to go – went

to come –

to run –

to do –

to have –

to say –

to stay –

to try –

to visit –

to watch –

to read –

to sleep –


^ 2. Найдите ошибки в предложениях

1. My favorite subjects is English and Maths.

2. Sometimes I studies books about history of building.

3. Who did destroy that architectural monument?

4. Last year they have finished college.

5. He doesn’t design buildings, doesn’t he?


^ 3. Выберите правильную форму вспомогательного глагола

1. I … not like to play tennis.

2. Where … he go two years ago?

3. They … discuss this plan next week.


4. Раскройте скобки и поставьте глагол в нужную форму

1. Look! She (to draw) a very beautiful picture.

2. We (to see) Peter a couple of weeks ago, but we (not, see) him this week yet.

3. Soon she (to be) an architect.

4. It often (to rain) in this part of the world.

5. I never (to be) to Egypt before.


^ 5. Задайте вопрос к предложениям, используя вопросительные местоимения в скобках.

1. He has passed two exams this week (How many?)

2. In the middle ages nobles built castles as a form of defense. (What? Who?)

3. Next week the lecturer will tell the students about the ancient art of making columns. (When? What about?)


^ 6. Переведите с русского языка на английский

1. Я уйду с работы через полчаса.

2. Колонно-балочный метод играет важную роль в истории строительства, не правда ли?

3. Я еще не просмотрел все документы, которые я хочу использовать в этом проекте.


^ 7. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Simple, Perfect, Continuous Passive

1. During the Second World War many ancient architectural monuments (to destroy).

2. Many houses (to build) in Moscow every year.

3. Since the middle ages brickwork (to use) in every architectural style.

4. A new railway line (to construct) now.

5. In a minute each of us (to give) instructions on labour protection.


^ 8. Перефразируйте, употребляя Passive

1. They will build a stadium here in the near future.

2. They used granite as the main material for construction of Egyptian pyramids.

3. They had built the theatre before the war began.

4. The architect uses drawings to achieve his objective.

5. The builders are realizing the project proposed by a group of architects.

Составитель Л.К. Ивонина

Корректор Н.В. Шиляева


Лицензия ЛР № 020370


Подписано в печать 02.05.2006

Формат . Объем 1 п.л.

Тираж 100 Заказ 37/2006.


Редакционно-издательский отдел Пермского государственного технического университета (Березниковский филиал)

Отпечатано в ООО «Типограф».

Адрес: 618450 г. Соликамск, Соликамское шоссе, 17.







Скачать 177,75 Kb.
оставить комментарий
Л.К. Ивонина
Дата10.09.2011
Размер177,75 Kb.
ТипДокументы, Образовательные материалы
Добавить документ в свой блог или на сайт

Ваша оценка этого документа будет первой.
Ваша оценка:
Разместите кнопку на своём сайте или блоге:
rudocs.exdat.com

Загрузка...
База данных защищена авторским правом ©exdat 2000-2017
При копировании материала укажите ссылку
обратиться к администрации
Анализ
Справочники
Сценарии
Рефераты
Курсовые работы
Авторефераты
Программы
Методички
Документы
Понятия

опубликовать
Загрузка...
Документы

Рейтинг@Mail.ru
наверх