B11. Castle Clinton was built in the times of
Napoleonic wars and great tension between Britain
and the US. New York was almost
and in a short time five new forts, Castle Clinton among them, were built.
B12. However, it was never used as a fortress. In
1824, it became a place of public
B13. A newspaper described, it as a "fanciful garden,
tastefully ornamented with shrubs and flowers". The
garden was the setting for band concerts,
fireworks and demonstrations of the latest _____________ SCIENCE
B14. Many _______________________people were
honored at the Garden, President Andrew Jackson among them.
B15. In 1896 Castle Clinton became the city Aquarium
and thousands of rushed to see
fish that came from the waters around New York.
B16. Later exotic fish from around the world were brought to
the Aquarium and the collection grew in number and _____________________
3.3.1. Прочитайте текст с пропусками, обозначенными номерами А22-А29. Эти номера соответствуют заданиям А22-А29, в которых представлены возможные варианты ответов. Обведите номер выбранного вами варианта ответа.
What will you be doing in 2025? Will you be living in an undersea
research station? Will you be the chief engineer A22 abridge
across the Atlantic Ocean? Will you be leading an A23 _____ to the planet Mars? Will you be...?
You can daydream, of course, but nobody knows exactly what the
world will be A24 . But scientists have made some guesses.
Based on the advances made, they believe people will be healthier. Diphtheria, malaria, tuberculosis, polio and many other killers are
under control now. These diseases are on the way out, A25 ___
to germ-killing chemicals, new ways of finding out about our bodies,
and new ways of providing clean, safe A26 and water.
Healthier people live longer, so we can expect the world's
population to A27 sharply. It may double in the next forty
years! This brings up a serious problem: how will we find food, water and minerals for such a huge population?
Scientists are at work on some A28 . From the ocean
they hope to get new fertilizers to increase the yield of the soil; new
chemicals to kill crop-destroying insects without A29 other
animals, new sources of water or supplies of food.
A22. 1) inventing 2) designing 3) scheming 4) doing
A23. 1) exploration 2) expenditure 3) expedition 4) exhibit
A24. 1) like 2) alike 3) likely 4) likable
A25. 1) as a result 2) because 3) on account 4} thanks
A28. 1) eat 2) feed 3) food 4) cooking
A27. 1) decrease 2) distract 3) dissolve 4) increase
A28. 1) solutions 2) alternatives 3) preferences 4) questions
A29. 1) hurting 2) harming 3) injuring 4) wounding
Раздел 4. ПИСЬМО
4.1.1. Personal Letter.
You have 20 minutes to do this task.
You have received a letter from your pen friend Vicky who writes:
... At school we are doing projects on schools and school rules in different countries. Could you tell me what kind of rules you have in your school?
As the holidays are coming I am thinking of looking for a job…
Write a letter to Vicky.
In your letter
Write 100-140 words.
Remember the rules of letter writing.
4.2.1. You have 40 minutes to do this task. Comment on the following statement.
A number of people believe that pocket money teaches teenagers to be responsible with money. Others say that teenagers are too young to deal with money and that their parents should just buy them what they need.
Do you think that being given pocket money teaches teenagers anything?
Write 200-250 words.
Use the following plan
Контрольная работа № 2
Раздел 1. TESTS
Translate from Russian into English:
b) Reported Speech. Sequence of Tenses.
Translate from Russian into English:
c) The Gerund
Translate from Russian into English using the Gerund:
Раздел 2. ЧТЕНИЕ
2.1.2. Установите соответствие между заголовками А-Н и текстами 1-7. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую букву только один раз. В задании один заголовок — лишний.
A. Supercomputer Е. Intelligent machines in our
B. Human intelligence test F. Computer intelligence test
C. Man against computer G. Computers change human
D. Robotic industry H. Electronic film stars
3. The possible dangers of intelligent machines became the stories of many science fiction films. In The Terminator (1984), a computer network uses nuclear weapons against the human race in order to rule the world. This network then makes intelligent robots called 'Terminators' which it programs to kill all the humans. In The Matrix (1999) and The Matrix Reloaded (2003), a machine dominates humanity, using people as batteries to power itself.
4. In 1997, then the world chess champion Garry Kasparov played against IBM's Deep Blue supercomputer — and lost. After six games, the world-famous Kasparov lost 2.5 to 3.5 to the computer. In February 2003, Kasparov restored human reputation by finishing equal against the Israeli-built supercomputer Deep Junior. Kasparov ended the game with the score 2-2 against US company X3D Technologies' supercomputer X3D Fritz in November 2003, proving that the human brain can keep up with the latest developments in computing (at least in chess).
5. There are a number of different methods which try to measure intelligence, the most famous of which is perhaps the IQ, or 'Intelligence Quotient' test. This test was first used in early 20th century Paris. The modern day IQ test measures a variety of different types of ability such as memory for words and figures and others. Whether IQ tests actually test general intelligence is disputable. Some argue that they just show how good the individual is at IQ tests!
в. Analysis shows that human intelligence is changing. We are gaining abilities in some areas of intelligence, while losing them in others, such as memory. So this generation may not remember the great number of poems, their abilities are greater in other areas. It has been discovered that wide use of video games improves reaction time. But we could only dream of computing without calculators as fast as our grandparents did.
7. In 1950 mathematician Alan Turing invented a test to check machine intelligence. In the Turing Test, two people (A and B) sit in a closed room, a third person (C), who asks questions, sits outside. Person A tries to answer the questions so that person С doesn't guess who they are: men or women, while person В tries to help him (C) in their identification. Turing suggested a machine take the place of person A. If the machine fooled the human, it was likely to be intelligent.
2.2.2. Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски 1-6 частями предложений, обозначенными буквами A-G. Одна из частей в списке A-G — лишняя. Занесите букву, обозначающую соответствующую часть предложения, в таблицу.
Children at Southdown Infants School in Bath enjoy tasty homemade meals such as roast turkey with fresh vegetables,
chicken, salad and fresh fruit for pudding. Vegetables are 1 -----------------------------------__ Instead of crisps, chocolate and sweets, the school canteen serves organic carrots, dried fruit and fresh seasonal fruit in bags for 10 р, 2 ------------------------------.
Southdown's healthy eating initiative began four years ago with the start of a breakfast club.
Now Ms Culley, the head teacher of the school, says that the teachers very clearly see the link between diet and concentration. "Children's concentration and behaviour 3 ----------------------- ." The teachers would also like to give the children the experience of eating together. It turned out that some children weren't used to that.
Pupils are also encouraged to find out more about where their
food comes from by 4 --------------------------------- .
Parents are also involved and are invited in to try school dinners on special occasions, 5 -----------------------------.
The efforts of staff, pupils and parents to create a healthy eating environment were recognized earlier this month 6 ------------------- the Best School Dinner award.
Ms Culley said; "We are happy to win this award. Healthy eating is at the centre of everything we do. It's really rewarding to see so many children enjoy real food."
C. local, fresh and organic where possible
D. provide good quality food
E. definitely improve after a good meal
Г. and about 100 bags are sold each day
G. when the school was awarded
2.3.2. Прочитайте текст и выполните задания А15-А21, обводя цифру 1,2,3 или 4, соответствующую номеру выбранного вами варианта ответа.
Tonight, do yourself a favor. Shut off the TV, log off the Internet and unplug the phone. Relax, take a bath, maybe sip some herbal tea. Then move into the bedroom. Set your alarm clock for a time no less than eight hours in the future, fluff up your pillows and lay your head down for a peaceful night of restorative shut-eye. That's what American doctors advise.
American sleep experts are sounding an alarm over America's sleep deficit. They say Americans are a somnambulant nation, stumbling groggily through their waking hours for lack of sufficient sleep. They are working longer days —- and, increasingly, nights — and they are playing longer, too, as TV and the Internet expand the range of round-the-clock entertainment options. By some estimates, Americans are sleeping as much as an hour and a half less per night than they did at the turn of the century — and the problem is likely to get worse.
The health repercussions of sleep deprivation are not well understood, but sleep researchers point to ills ranging from heart problems to depression. In a famous experiment conducted at the University of Chicago in 1988, rats kept from sleeping died after two and a half weeks. People are not likely to drop dead in the same way, but sleep deprivation may cost them their lives indirectly, when an exhausted doctor prescribes the wrong dosage or a sleepy driver weaves into someone's lane.
What irritates sleep experts most is the fact that much sleep deprivation is voluntary. "People have regarded sleep as a commodity that they could shortchange," says one of them. "It's been considered a mark of very hard work and upward mobility to get very little sleep. It's a macho attitude." Slumber scientists hope that attitude will change. They say people have learned to modify their behavior in terms of lowering their cholesterol and increasing exercise. Doctors also think people need to be educated that allowing enough time for sleep and taking strategic naps are the most reliable ways to promote alertness behind the wheel and on the job.
Well, naps would be nice, but at the moment, employers tend to frown on them. And what about the increasing numbers of people who work at night? Not only must they work while their bodies' light-activated circadian rhythms tell them to sleep, they also find it tough to get to sleep after work. Biologists say night workers have a hard time not paying attention to the 9-to-5 day because of noises or family obligations or that's the only time they can go to the dentist. There are not too many dentists open at midnight.
As one might imagine, companies are springing up to take advantage of sleeplessness. One of the companies makes specially designed shift-work lighting systems intended to keep workers alert around the clock. Shift-work's theory is that bright light, delivered in a controlled fashion, can help adjust people's biological clocks. The company president says they are using light like a medicine. So far, such special lighting has been the province of NASA astronauts and nuclear power plant workers. He thinks that in the future, such systems may pop up in places like hospitals and 24-hour credit-card processing centers. Other researchers are experimenting with everything from welder' s goggles (which night workers wear during the day) to human growth hormones. And, of course, there is always what doctors refer to as "therapeutic caffeine use," but everyone is already familiar with that.
So, is a good night's sleep an impossible dream for Americans? Maybe so.
A15. The advice of American doctors is all about
A16. Americans are referred to as a "somnambulant nation" because they
A17. Experiments with sleep deprivation proved that
A18. There is a tendency to sleep less because
A19. Having naps during the day would be nice, but
A20. People who work at night can hardly
A21. The main aim of specially designed shift-work lighting system is
4) to stimulate human growth hormones.