Практический курс английского языка 4 курс icon

Практический курс английского языка 4 курс


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3. Give the equivalents for:


досаждать кому-л. до смерти; наскучить, надоедать; было досад­но (неприятно); недовольный голос; раздраженный тон;

стучать зубами; болтуны; щебетанье птиц;

радостные мысли; веселое лицо; веселая комната; яркий, свет­лый день; бодрое настроение; жизнерадостный человек; приятная беседа; веселье, оживление; возгласы одобрения; поддержка, уте­шение; аплодисменты;

спор, состязание, борьба; международное соревнование; музы­кальный конкурс; бороться за каждую пядь земли; соперничать; до­биваться избрания в парламент;


внезапно появиться; неприкосновенный запас; запасной выход; стоп-кран; крайняя необходимость; критическое положение; вы­нужденная посадка; чрезвычайные меры; чрезвычайное положение; непредвиденный случай; спасательная шлюпка; чрезвычайные пол­номочия;

расхаживать; продолжать; предшествовать; пересматривать; проанализировать заново; посредник; пасть, быть побежденным;

оставаться в веках; быть принятым, одобренным (кем-л.);

бросаться, нападать на кого-то; возвращаться к чему-л.;

основывать свое мнение на чём-л.; платить (за обед) поровну, (пополам); продать дешево (даром);

нравиться (о чем-то); потерять сознание; просмотреть что-л. (бегло ознакомиться);

слегка намекнуть; прозрачно намекнуть, намекать на что-л.; гру­бо намекнуть; быть признаком (надвигающейся грозы);

трещать, грохотать, греметь; барабанить (о дожде); болтать, тре­щать, говорить без умолку; мчаться с грохотом; отбарабанить урок; погремушка; гремучая змея;

снижать цены; снижать зарплату; укоротить юбку; уменьшить влияние; довести до крайности; довести до нищеты; довести до ми­нимума; довести до абсурда; сократить военные расходы; сбавить скорость, понижать температуру.


^ 4. Paraphrase the following sentences using the essential vocabulary:


1. The girls talked very quickly without stopping as if un­aware of my presence. 2. The sounds of approval of the audi­ence filled the theatre. 3. Don't be sad, I've got good news for you. 4. You shouldn't argue a point or a statemeat trying to show that it is wrong, when you don't rely on facts. 5. Let's rehearse this scene again. 6. How did you happen to find out about it? There wasn't even a slight suggestion of it in his letter. 7. An old cart passed by quickly making a lot of noise. 8. If you don't want to get some lung disease you must give up smoking or cut it to a minimum.


^ 5. Use the essential vocabulary in answering the following questions. Give full answers repeating the words of the question:


1. How would you feel if somebody persistently interrupts your work by repeating the same question over and over again? 2. What do you do to try to raise the spirits of your sad friend? 3. What do you call a happy and contented person? 4. What do people say when soldiers put up a fearless fight not to


retreat? 5. What should a pilot do if serious problems with the plane's engine arise midflight? 6. Do you agree that failing health too often accompanies old age? 7. Do students have to examine a deeper level of the writer's words while preparing for the interpretation of the text? 8. What kind of cars usually move noisily and not very quickly? 9. Why did Hurstwood have to start to beg for his living?


^ 6. Mike up and act out short dialogues or stories using the essential vocabu­lary.


7. Replace the phrases in bold type by suitable phrasal verbs based on the verb "to go":


1. I'll have to examine those papers closely before I can say anything definite. 2. I had the idea of making a raft but couldn't figure out how to start it. 3. The engineers examined the machine carefully trying to establish the cause of trouble.

4. In his report the speaker attacked the hedgers who were forever trying to shift the responsibility onto somebody else. 5. As you get better in English, you'll find it easier to com­municate. 6.I hope I can base my judgement of these events on your information. 7. He didn't fulfil his promise to work harder. 8. How did your pupils accept your first lesson? 9. My opinion of him dropped considerably when I found out the truth. 10. Be kind to the dog, he didn't mean to hurt you. 11. I wouldn't dare criticise him to his face. 12. You shouldn't make your feelings so obvious to everyone.


^ 8. Supply the appropriate word chosen from those at the end of the exercise:


1. A lamb ... 2. A mouse ... 3. A pigeon ... 4. A bird ... 5. An owl ... 6. A crow ... 7. A tiger ... 8. A rattlesnake ... 9. A nightingale ... 10. A monkey ...


(warbles, rattles, roars, croaks, squeaks, chatters, chirps, hoots, bleats, cooes)


^ 9. Supply the appropriate word chosen from those at the end of the exercise:


1. The brakes ... as the driver brought thecar to a sudden stop. 2. The dry leaves ... in the wind. 3. The hail … on the roof. 4. Old Thomas heard little feet ... down the corridor and then stopping at his door. 5. The clock... twelve. 6. The bells ... mer-


rily as the horses drawing the carriage broke into a steady trot. 7. His teeth ... with cold. 8. The air ... as it escaped the punctured tyre. 9. She heard the door ... and sighed in relief.


(bang, chime, chatter, patter, jingle, rattle, grate, hiss, rustle)


^ 10. Which words given in brackets denote:


1. a clumsy, awkward person; 2. an offensively inquisitive person; 3. an impudent person who thinks he is clever; 4. a per­son who doubts everything; 5. a person who discourages hope, enthusiasm or pleasure; 6. a person who's always in the compa­ny of others even when he is not wanted


(smart alec, doubting Thomas, butter-fingers, wet blanket, Nosy Parker, a hanger-on)


^ 11. Translate the following sentences into English using the essential vo­cabulary:


а) 1. Закрой окно, пожалуйста, шум меня раздражает. 2. Вода была такая холодная, что Том начал стучать зубами от холода. 3. В лесной тиши было слышно щебетанье птиц. 4. Безрадостные мысли не давали ему спать всю ночь. 5. Через всю жизнь он пронес юно­шеский оптимизм и радостную веру в людей. 6. Молодой неизвестный музыкант, принимавший участие в международном конкурсе Чай­ковского, стал впоследствии знаменитым пианистом. 7. Рыба, наконец, появилась на поверхности воды. Старик был поражен ее размерами. 8. Он появился в городе, когда его менее всего ожидали. 9. Адвокат нападал на свидетеля, задавал ему бесконечные вопросы, так что в конце концов свидетель стал противоречить самому себе. 10. Мистер Волтер шел по набережной. Все вокруг было спокойно. И. "Я знаю, что сейчас ты солгал мне, но я не буду на это обращать внимание, уверен, ты сам обо всем мне расскажешь", — сказал Геральд устало.


b) 1. Я намекнул, что ему причитаются кое-какие деньги, но, к моему удивлению, мои слова не дошли до него. 2. Далли прозрачно намекнули, что в ее услугах больше не нуждаются, но она продол­жала приходить каждый день. 3. Окна дребезжали от ветра. 4. Я не понимаю, зачем вы доводите мои слова до абсурда. 5. Долгая бо­лезнь мужа и безработица довели миссис Хартвуд до крайней нище­ты. 6. Вы должны снизить скорость. Мы въехали в город; 7. Полковника разжаловали в солдаты за то, что он сдал город.


12. a) Give the Russian equivalents for the following English proverbs:


Familiarity breeds contempt.

Experience is the best knowledge.

Who chatters to you will chatter of you.


b) Make up and act out the stories illustrating the given proverbs.


^ CONVERSATION AND DISCUSSION


HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA


TOPICAL VOCABULARY


1. Who is who: applicant/prospective student; freshman; sophomore, junior, senior, undergraduate student; graduate (grad) student; part-time student; .transfer student; night stu­dent; faculty:1 teaching assistant, assistant professor, associate professor, (full) professor; counselor.2

2. Administration: dean, assistant dean, department chair­man; President of the University; academic vice-president; stu­dent government; board of trustees.

3. Structure: college (college of Arts anil Sciences); school (school of Education), evening school;'grad school; summer school;3 college of continuing education;4 department; career development and job placement office.2

4. ^ Academic calendar: fall spring term/semester; fall, winter, spring, summer quarter; school/academic year; exam period/days — reading days/period;5 break/recess; deadline6 (fall term break; whiter recess or winter holidays, summer vaca­tion).

_________


1 The entire teaching staff at an educational institution.

2 For detailed information see Appendix (p. 262).

3 Classes taken in summer (during vacation time) to earn additional credits or to improve one's proficiency.

4 In-service training, updating one's qualification.

5 One or more days to read up for an examination.

6 The last date for a retake.


5^ . Academic programs: course (a one / three credit course); to take a course, to give a lecture; pass-fail course;1 elective, a major/to major (what's your major?); a minor (second in importance); discussion session; seminars; a more academic class, usually with grad students; a student-teacher.

6. Grades: to get/to give a grade; pass-fail grading (e. g.: to take grammar pass-fail); grades A, B, C, D, E; A-student; to graduate with straight A; a credit, to earn a credit; education record.2

7. Tests: quiz; to take/to give an exam; to retake an exam (a retake); to flunk a course; to flunk smb; to drop out/to with­draw; a pass-fail test; multiple choice test; essay test; SAT, PSAT (preliminary SAT) ACT; GPA.3

8. Red Tape: to register (academically and financially); to enroll for admission; to interview; to sign up for a course; to select classes/courses; to drop a course, to add a course,4 a student I.D.,5 library card; transcript; degrees: B.A., M.A., Ph.D.; to confer a degree; to confer tenure, thesis, paper, dissertation.

9. Financing: full-time fees; part-time fees; graiits; student financial aid; to apply for financial aid; to be eligible for finan­cial assistance; scholarship; academic fees; housing fees; a col­lege work-study job.


^ Higher Education


Out of more than three million students who graduate from high school each year, about one million go on for higher edu­cation. A college at a leading university might receive applica­tions from two percent of these high school graduates, and then accept only one out of every ten who apply. Successful applicants at such colleges are usually chosen on the basis of a) their high school records; b) recommendations from their

_________


1A course where you don't take an examination, but a pass-fail test (зачёт).

2 Information on a student's attendance, enrollment status, degrees con­ferred and dates, honours and awards; college, class, major field of study; ad­dress, telephone number.

3 Grade Point Average — a grade allowing to continue in school and to graduate.

4 To take up an additional course for personal interest, not for a credit and to pay for it additionally, cf. факультатив

5 I. D. (Identification Document) — cf. студенческий билет


high school teachers; c) their scores on the Scholastic Aptitude Tests (SATs).

The system of higher education in the United States com­prises three categories Of institutions: 1) the university, which may contain a) several colleges for undergraduate students seeking a bachelor's (four-year) degree and b) one or more graduate schools for those continuing in specialized studies beyond the bachelor's degree to obtain a master's or a doctoral degree, 2) the technical training institutions at which high school graduates may take courses ranging from six months to four years in duration and learn a wide variety of technical skills, from hair styling through business accounting to com­puter programming; and 3) the two-year, or community col­lege, from which students may enter many professions or may transfer to four-year colleges.

Any of these institutions, in any category, might be either public or private, depending on the source of its funding. Some universities and colleges have, over time, gained reputa­tions for offering particularly challenging courses and for pro­viding their students with a higher quality of education. The factors determining whether an institution is one of the best or one of the lower prestige are quality of the teaching faculty; quality of research, facilities; amount of funding available for libraries, special programs, etc.; and the competence and num­ber of applicants for admission, i. e. how selective the institu­tion can be in choosing its students.

The most selective are the old private north-eastern univer­sities, commonly known as the Ivy League, include Harvard Radcliffe, (Cambridge, Mass., in the urban area of Boston), Yale University (New Haven, Conn. between Boston and New York), Columbia College (New York), Princeton University (New Jersey), Brown University, Cornell University, Dartmouth College, University of Pennsylvania. With their traditions and long established reputations they occupy a position in Ameri­can university life rather like Oxford and Cambridge in Eng­land, particularly Harvard and Yale. The Ivy League Universi­ties are famous for their graduate schools, which have become intellectual elite centers.

In defence of using the examinations as criteria for admis­sion, administrators say that the SATs provide a fair way for deciding whom to admit when they have ten or twelve appli­cants for every first-year student seat.


In addition, to learning about a college/university's entrance requirements and the fees, Americans must also know the fol­lowing:

Professional degrees such as a Bachelor of Law (LL.A.) or a Bachelor of Divinity (B.D.) take additional three years of study and require first a B.A. or B.S. to be earned by a student.

Graduate schools in America award Master's and Doctor's degrees in both the arts and sciences. Tuition for these programs is high. The courses for most graduate degrees can be completed in two or four years. A thesis is required for a Master's degree; a Doctor's degree requires a minimum of two years of course work beyond the Master's degree level, success in a qualifying examination, proficiency in one or two foreign languages and/or in a research tool (such as statistics) and completion of a doctoral dissertation.

The number of credits awarded for each course relates to the number of hours of work involved. At the undergraduate level a student generally takes about five three-hour-a week courses every semester. (Semesters usually run from September to early January and late January to late May.) Credits are earned by attending lectures (or lab classes) and by successful­ly completing assignments and examinations. One credit usual­ly equals one hour of class per week in a single course. A three-credit course in Linguistics, for example, could involve one hour of lectures plus two hours of seminars every week. Most students complete 10 courses per an academic year and it usually takes them four years to complete a bachelor's degree requirement of about 40 three-hour courses or 120 credits.

In the American higher education system credits for the academic work are transferable among universities. A student can accumulate credits at one university, transfer them to a second and ultimately receive a degree from there or a third university.


^ 1. As you read the text a) look for the answers to the questions:


1. What are the admission requirements to the colleges and universities? 2. What are the three types of schools in higher education? 3. What degrees are offered by schools of higher learning in the USA? What are the requirements for each of these degrees? 4. What are the peculiarities of the curricula offered by


a college or a university? 5. What is a credit in the US system of higher education? How many credits must an undergraduate student earn to receive a bachelor's degree? How can they be earned?


b) Find in the text the factors which determine the choice by in individual of this or that college or university.


c) Summarize the text in three paragraphs.


^ 2. Use the topical vocabulary and the material of the Appendix (p. 262) in answering the following questions:


1. What steps do students have to take to enroll in a college/ university for admission? Speak about the exams they take — PSAT, SAT, ACT. 2. What financial assistance are applicants eligible for? What is college scholarship, grants, loan? Explain and bring out the essence of student financial aid. 3. Speak about the academic calendar of a university. How does an academic year differ from the one in Russia? 4. How many credit hours does a student need to graduate? What type auricular courses and how many does a student have to take to earn a degree? 5. What is a GPA (grade point average) ? 6. What is there to say about a college faculty? What is a tenure? 7. What is the role of a student's counsellor? Specify the function of career develop­ment and job placement within a university. 8. Should there be an age limit for university full-time students? What are your attitudes to mature students? 9. What are the sources of funding for universities and colleges (both public and private)? 10. What is an undergraduate student ? A graduate student ?


3. a) Study the following and extract the necessary information:


Average Academic Fees per Quarter

(public university)

Tuition

Colleges

non-residential residential

students students


Two Year Colleges $ 753 $ 1796

College of Applied Science $ 753 $ 1796


University College $ 63 $ 150

(part-time rates per cr. hour)


^ Baccalaureate Colleges

Art & Science, College- $ 753 $ 1796

Conservatory

School of Education, Evening

College, Business Administra- $ 63 $ 150

tion, etc.

(part-time rates per cr. hr.)


Graduate and Professional Programs

Medicine (M.D.) $ 2188 $ 4204

(part-tame per cr. hr.) $ 182 $ 350

Law J.D.) $1192 $2323

(part-tame per cr. hr.)/ $ 99 $ 194

Graduate programs $1171 $2303

(part-tame per cr. hr.) $98 $ 192

_____________________________________________________________________

^ Room $642

Board (10 meals a week) $ 1045


Average College Expenses

(University of Pennsylvania — private)

Tuition and General Fee $ 11,976

Room and meals $ 4,865

Books and supplies $ 380

Educational Technology Fee $ 200

Personal expenses (e. g. clothing, laundry, $ 1,009

recreation)

_________________________

Total: $ 18,430


b) Comment on the given information and speak about the financial aspect of getting a higher education in the US A.


^ 4. Read the following dialogue. The expression in bold type show the way people can be persuaded. Note them down. Be ready to act out the dialogue in class:


Molly. Yolanda, I have big news to tell you. I've made a very big decision.

Yolanda: Well, come on. What is it?


M.: I'm going to apply to medical school.

Y.: You're what? But I thought you wanted to teach.

M: I've decided to give that up. Teaching jobs are being cut back now at many universities.

Y.: Yes, and I've read that a number of liberal arts colleges have been closed.

M: I have a friend who finished his Ph. D. in history last year. He's been looking for a teaching position for a year, and he's been turned down by every school so far.

Y.: I suppose a Ph.D. in the humanities isn't worth very much these days.

M: No, it isn't. And even if you find a teaching job, the sala­ry is very low.

^ Y.: Yeah, college teachers should be paid more. But, Molly, it's very difficult to get into medical school today.

M.: I know. I've been told the same thing by everyone.

Y.: How are you going to pay for it? It costs a fortune to go to medical schools now.

M.: Maybe I can get a loan from the federal government.

Y.: That's an interesting possibility but it doesn't solve the financial problem entirely even if you get the student financial aid. You will graduate owing money. Medical students, espe­cially, acquired heavy debts. Recently I read of one who owed $ 60,000. Won't you be facing sufficient other problems with­out starting life in debt? Aren't many college graduates having trouble even finding jobs? When they find them, don't they be­gin at relatively modest salaries ?

^ M.: I don't know, but...

Y.: It's foolish for a student to acquire debt, a negative dow­ry, unless it's absolutely imperative. Students sometimes be­come so excited about college that they forget there's life after­wards.

M: Maybe you're right. Life is a series of compromises, I'll have to consider career possibilities in the light of college costs...


5. In trying to persuade others, people use different tactics which can be classified into 3 basic strategies — hard, soft, and rational. Hard tactics aUenate the people being influenced and create a climate of hostility and resistance. Soft tactics — acting nice, being humble —may lessen self-respect and self-esteem. People who rely chiefly on logic reasons and compromise to get then-way are the most successful.


^ 1) As you read the extracts below pay attention to the difference between the 3 different strategies of persuasion — hard, soft and rational:


a) (parent to child) Get upstairs and clean your room! Now. (hard); b) (professor to student) I'm awfully sorry to ask you to stay late but I know I can't solve this problem without your help, (rational); c) (professor to student) I strongly suggest that you work this problem out, if not, I will have to write a negative report about you. (hard); d) (teacher to freshman) That was the best essay I ever read. Why don't you send it to the national competition ? You could do very well there, (soft).


^ 2) Turn the given situation below into four possible dialogues by supplying the appropriate request of the first speaker:

John, a high school undergraduate, asks his Latin teacher to write a recommendation for him to apply to the University of Pennsylvania for admission.


a) J.:

T.: Sure, John.

b) J.:

T.: Of course, John.

c) J.:

T.: I suppose that's all right, John.

d) J.:

T.: Yeah, that's OK, John.





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