1. She often took care of my little sister Polly giving me a possibility to play with other boys in the neighbourhood. 2. Having bathed her face in cold water, she came up to the window and burst it open. 3. Renton Heath is a charming village, situated in the loveliest part of the West of England? 4. "I'm leaving for South America and have come to say good-bye," Jim said staring into her eyes. 5. She seemed to be asking not him but herself. 6.1 seated myself at the table and was on the point of filling my cup from the teapot when the sound of the door opening made me look up. 7. After spending the night in the farm, the weather remaining fine, they set out again on their journey in the same way. 8. He had to stand aside for the maid to carry in the luncheon. 9. I'm afraid I never seem to get any time for reading. 10. He began moving away down the drive, keeping his eyes on Dixon. 11. It's no use trying to argue with me. 12. Looking in Ferrand's face he saw to his dismay tears rolling down his cheeks. 13. He said it bending forward to be out of hearing of the girl. 14. Douglas sat down again, having evidently changed his mind about going. 15. When we had lain on the bank for some time without speaking I saw a man approaching from the far end of the field. 16. I know why I make you laugh. It's because you're so far above me in every way that I am somehow ridiculous. 17. It was past two o'clock when she heard the car return. There were steps on the gravel, the opening and shutting of the door, a brief murmur of voices — then silence. 18. From room to room he went and, though each gave signs of having recently been occupied, it was clear that its inhabitants had departed. 19. Were it not for his having asked me to spend a week with him in the country, I should certainly be very glad to go with you to Madrid. 20. Get a blanket spread and make them hold it tight. 21. The darkness found him occupied with these thoughts. 22. "Three years ago it was," she broke off and stood still, her mouth set in a rigid grimace of pain. 23. He felt anger against the gipsy for having given them such a fright.
UNIT ONE 4
TEXT. ANNE MEETS HER GLASS 5
TOPIC: CHOOSING А CAREES 13
UNIT TWO 20
TEXT. A DAY'S WAIT by Ernest Hemingway 21
TOPIC: ILLNESSES AND THEIR TREATMENT 29
TEXT. INTRODUCING LONDON 38
TOPIC: CITY 45
UNIT FOUR 51
TEXT. HOW WE KEPT MOTHER'S DAY by Stephen Leacock 52
TOPIC: MEALS 59
UNIT FIVE 67
TEXT. A FRESHMAN'S EXPERIENCE From "Daddy Long-Legs" by Jean Webster 69
UNIT SIX 82
TEXT. A FRIEND IN NEED by William Somerset Maugham (abridged) 82
TOPIC: SPORTS AND GAMES 91
UNIT SEVEN 100
TEXT. THE BRITISH ISLES 100
TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY 108
TEXT. SEEING PEOPLE OFF By Max Beerbohm 117
TOPIC: TRAVELLING 125
UNIT NINE 132
TEXT. ROSE AT THE MUSIC-HALL From "They Walk in the City" by J. B. Priestley 135
TOPIC: THEATRE 142
B. CONVERSATIONAL PHRASES 153
EXERCISES IN INTONATION 154
SECTION ONE. Review of Fundamental Intonation Patterns and Their Use 154
SECTION TWO. Intonation Pattern IX. High fall 157
SECTION THREE. Intonation Pattern X
SECTION FOUR. Intonation Pattern XI
(LOW PRE-HEAD + ) FALLING HEAD+ HIGH FALL (+ TAIL) 164
SECTION FIVE Compound Tunes FALL + RISE 170
SECTION SIX Compound Tunes
TWO OR MORE FALLS WITHIN ONE SENSE-GROUP 174
SECTION SEVEN Intonation pattern XII
SECTION EIGHT. HIGH PRE-HEAD 183
GRAMMAR EXERCISES 191
REVISION EXERCISES ON TENSE AND VOICE 191
THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD AND THE CONDITIONAL MOOD 196
REVISION EXERCISES ON MOOD AND MODAL VERBS 207
NON-FINITE FORMS OF THE VERB 210
The Infinitive 210
The Gerund 215
The Participles 217
REVISION EXERCISES ON THE VERBAIS 221
Аракин Владимир Дмитриевич, Селянина Лидия Ивановна, Куценко Алла Владимировна
Учебник для студентов высших учебных заведений
7-е издание, дополненное и исправленное
Сдано в набор 15.01.05. Подписано в начать 20.05.05.
2 на листе 5000 сум
для транскрипционных знаков использован шрифт PhoneticTM. Но в принципе транскрипции в этом томе мало.
1 Так, первые три урока рассчитаны главным образом на закрепление наиболее употребительных речевых образцов с сослагательным наклонением; в уроках 4—6 даны речевые образцы, выражающие модальность; в уроках 7—9 — речевые образцы с некоторыми видами неличных форм глаголов.
2 Схема заданий дана в конце каждого урока. Предполагается, что упражнения разрабатываются преподавателем в зависимости от подготовленности студентов.
3 Упражнения данного типа даются в книге Селяниной N.И., Куценко А.В., Поповой В.В. и др. «Пособие к практическому курсу английского языка» под ред. В.Д. Аракина (находится в печати).
4 Бархударов N. С, ДйпелцнгД А. Грамматика английского языка. М., 1965; НА. Кобрина, ^ Корнеева. An English Gramma. М., Просвещение, 1985; ВЗ. Гуревич. Practical English Gramma. М., «Наука», 2003. Kaushanskiya Υ. L and others. A Grammar of the English Language. Leningrad, 1959.
5 term n
School terms in Great Britain are arranged in the following way:
Usually called Approximate dates
the first term the antumn term Sept 5 — Dec. 20
the second term the winter term or spring term Jan. 5 — Mar. 25 (or later, depending on the date of Easter)
the third term the summer term Apr. 15 (or later) — Jul. 20
6 to can the register is used only if the names are called out and the pupils answer. To mark smb. present/absent is often used in connection with registration. The expression to take the register is also used in the sense of "mark".
In schools the form teacher marks the register every morning before lessons, and often before afternoon lessons too. The register is a book with a list of the pupils' full names, addresses and dates of birth. When marked, the register is usually kept in the school office, and not taken to lessons.
In universities and colleges there is generally no formal marking of a register by the teaching staff.
7 cupboard n: a cabinet or closet fitted with shelves.
8 Borstal: an institution (like a prison) for young criminals.
9 break n: This is widely used in schools to denote a 10- or 20-minute interval in the middle of the morning (11—11.30).
^ and afternoon break are used in schools which also have a break between afternoon lessons. Lunch break can be used as a translation of «большая перемена». Break may also be used of the shorter time allowed for changing lessons.
Break is not generally used in universities and colleges, except in the sense of the 5- to 10-minute break between one class and the next, because there are usually no other breaks besides the lunch hour.
10 «М-р Браун в отпуске». Авторы сценария: Е. Сергиевская, А. Морозова, А. Штаден. Научные консультанты: Е. Кириллова, Н. Федотова Режиссер А. Штаден. «Леннаучфильм», 1977.
11 Кириллова Е.П., Сергиевская Е.Г. Методические рекомендации к учебному фильму на английском языке «М-р Браун в отпуске" 1978.
12 Schatz (Germ.): darling
13 102 °F (Fahrenheit) correspond to 38.9 °C (Centigrade), The Fahrenheit thermometer is used throughout the British Commonwealth and in the United States. The boiling point of the Fahrenheit thermometer is 212°, the freezing point — 32°, the normal temperature of a human bodyis about 99°. The Centigrade thermometer, used in Russia, France and other countries, has 0° (zero) for its freezing point and 100° for the boiling point
14 ^ (1853-1911): an American illustrator, painter and author.
15 to summarize (or to give a summary): to give a short version (usu. in reported speech) of a passage, story, novel, etc. containing its main points only.
16 lb. (pound): a measure of weight = 453.6 g
17 pt. (pint) [paint]: a measure for liquids = 0.57 1
18 See Notes on Synonyms and Antonyms on p. 18.
19 The noun mime has two meanings: 1. a performance without words (пантомима); 2. an actor in such a performance (мим).
20 The first picture should be discussed with the whole group under the teacher's guidance; the other pictures may be discussed m pans.
21 ^ = Anno Domini (Lat.): in the year of the Lord, new era ['isre].
22 Greater London includes the suburbs of the city all of which are connected with the centre of London and with each other by underground railway lines.
23 mile: a measure of length, 1609 metres. English measures of length (yard — 91 cm, foot — 30 cm, inch — 2.5 cm), weight (stone — 6 kg, pound — 454 g, ounce — 31 g), liquids (gallon — 3.79 lit, pint — 0.57 lit) are not based on the decimal system.
24 pound: a monetary unit circulating in Great Britain. Up to 1971 English money with its pennies, shillings and pounds was not based on the decimal system either: 12 pence for a shilling, 20 shillings for a pound, 21 shillings for a guinea, the latter got its name from the first coin struck from gold on the coast of Guinea. In 1971 Britain changed over to, decimal currency system — 100 new pence to the pound (£). New coins (or pieces) were introduced: the 1/2 p., 2 p., 5 p., 10 p., 20 p. and 50 p. coins.
25 The Daily Express: a "popular" paper for those who prefer entertainment to information. It is largely filled with sporting news, accounts of crime, advertisements (ads.), gossip of little worth (about private life of society people, film stars, etc.) and strip cartoons. Other popular papers are The Sun, The Daily Mirror, The Daily Mail. This kind of newspapers is called the tabloids.
The Daily Telegraph: a daily London newspaper of conservative orientation. It is a "quality" paper for educated readers who are interested in important domestic and foreign news. Other quality papers are ^ and The Independent.
26 Constable, John (1776-1837): a famous English painter.
27 a "fringe" theatre stages experimental theatrical plays performed by amateurs.
28 Barrie, James M. (1860-1937): a Scottish novelist. Peter Pan — a fairy-tale boy who refused to grow up preferring to lead children into his magic "Never-Never Land" where they fought pirates.
29 ^ (1769-1852): a famous British general whose army defeated Napoleon at Waterloo in 1815
30 Nelson, Horatio (1758-1805): an English admiral who won the battle of Trafalgar (the Atlantic coast of Spain)
31 In 1973 the library of the British Museum and four other biggest libraries were joined into one — the British Library, which is the biggest national library in the United Kingdom and one of the biggest and best present-day libraries in the world.
32 Xmas [krIsmqs]: an abbreviated form of Christmas. In England Christmas day (the 25th of December) is one of the biggest holidays, devoted especially to family reunion and merry-making with its traditional Christmas tree and Christmas pudding.
33 mantelpiece: a structure of brick, wood or marble above and around a fire-place —an open grate where a coal fire burns. Most old English houses have no central heating. Up to now a great number of flats are warmed by coal fires. Sometimes instead of a coal fire a gas fire or an electric fire may be used, which is more convenient, as it can be lit in a second and turned off as soon as it is not needed.
34 sandwich: two slices of buttered bread with meat, egg, cheese or tomato, etc. between them (cf. the Russian бутерброд). The word has one more meaning: a sandwich (or a sandwich-man, a sandwich-boy) is a man walking along the street with two advertisement-boards hung one in front of him and one behind.
35 the Continent (remember the capital letter and the article): the mainland of Europe, as distinct from the British Isles (the name is used by the British)
36 Compare Essential Vocabulary given in this lesson with the first-year vocabulary on the same topic.
37 One of the students may ask questions, another correct the mistakes after each question and answer
38 college: a place of higher education both in the USA and in Great Britain. The oldest universities in Great Britain are Oxford and Cambridge dating from the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, respectively; the largest is the University of London. Admission to the universities is by examination and selection. Women are admitted on equal terms with men, but the general proportion of men to women students is three to one, at Oxford it is nearly five to one, and at Cambridge eight to one.
A college is sometimes a part of a university. For instance the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge and London are composed of groups of largely autonomous colleges. On the other hand a college may be quite independent. There is a great number of such colleges in Great Britain (technical and commercial colleges, colleges of art, etc.),
39 campus: the grounds of a school, college or university
40 Maeterlinck, Maurice (1862-1949): a Belgian poet and dramatist
41 freshman: (for both sexes) the same as the English fresher. First-year students are called freshers only for about a month until they are used to college (university) life.
42 Arnold Matthew (1822-1888): an English critic and poet 6 poor box: a box (usually in a church) in which money may be placed to be given to the poor. Here: things given as chanty (food, clothes, etc.).
43 polysyllables: words of more than two syllables; they usually have two stresses: the secondary (,) and the main (,) stress, е. д.
44 Of the three universities are considered more prestigious and beneficial. Their graduates have better chances of getting a job. Polytechnics are usually formed on the basis of art colleges and colleges of technology. They combine science and technology, the arts, social studies management and business studies, law and other subjects.
45 From 1st August 1975 the system of teacher training in England is being reorganized. All higher and further education outside the universities including teacher training is being assimilated into a common system. A number of the existing colleges of education are to be merged either with each other or with other institutions of further education (polytechnics and others).
46 Other students who work during the day and study in the evening are part-time students.
47 reader a university teacher of a rank immediately below a professor,
lecturer: a person lower in rank than a reader who gives lectures, especially at a college or university.
48 By School-based experience teaching practice is meant (both "observation period" for junior students and block-teaching practice for senior students).
By Subject studies a broad range of subjects is meant of which a student is to choose two cores (the main subjects).
Education studies means essential knowledge of children, the curriculum, the organization of schools and classes.
49 ball of residence: a more modern term than hostel, used only of student hostels (the abbreviated form hall, with no article, is widely used by students in everyday situations). Hostel is a more general word (a nurses' hostel, a factory hostel, ayouth hostel, etc.).
50 P. E = Physical Education.
51 Ph.. D.: Doctor of Philosophy (title given to completion of any research, no matter which subject you study)
52 mortar board: a flat-topped student's cap
53 Don: a college tutor who directs the studies of undergraduates
54 I.Q. Intelligence Quotient — a number indicating the level of a person's mental development obtained by multiplying his mental age by 100, and dividing the result by his chronological age, the latter generally cot exceeding 16.
55 to swim for one's university: to take part in swimming races held between one's university team and some other teams. Practically every school, college and university in Great Britain has its own sports clubs, and there are various outdoor sports competitions held annually within each school, as well as between different schools, colleges, and universities. These are, as a rule, attended by spectators drawn from all sections of the public, and the Oxford and Cambridge boat races, in which crews from these two universities compete every spring on the Thames, arouse national interest.
56 net-ball: an English game, basically the same as basket-ball (played by women)
57 ^ this is about the same size as New Zealand or half the size of France.
58 the Fens: low marshy land with lots of waterways (Фенленд)
59 moors (pl), moor: an area of open waste land; moors in England and Scotland are often used for preserving game.
60 ^ , which links England and France, is a little over 50 km (31 miles) long, of which nearly 38 km (24 miles) are actually under the English Channel.
61 "the Scott country": a hilly country in the south-east of Scotland where Sir Walter Scott (1777-1832), the famous British poet and novelist, lived.
62 the Cheviots (the Cheviot Hills): a wool-producing country in Britain. The Cheviot breed of sheep has given its name to a woollen cloth of high quality.
63 the Lake District: a beautiful place that has become famous thanks to a distinguished trio of poets — William Wordsworth (1770-1850), Samuel Coleridge (1772-1834) and Robert Southey (1774-1843) - who made their homes therе. ("Lake poets" is the name that was given to them.)
64 There are several rivers in Britain that bear the name of Avon. The longest is the Bristol Avon flowing into the Bristol Channel, but best known throughout the world is the one flowing into the Severn. On its banks, in Stradford-on-Avon, the greatest English poet William Shakespeare (1564 -1616) was born and spent his youth.
65 Nowadays there is little industry in London as heavy engineering plants have been moved to the nearest manufacturing towns.
66 hedge: a row of bushes or low trees which are forming a kind of barrier.
67 Trinidad; an island in the Atlantic, to the north-east of South America
68 Tahiti: an island in the Pacific
69^ hm (1872-1956): an English essayist, critic and caricaturist
70 Euston: a railway-station in London
71 boat-train: the train that takes passengers to a ship
72 coach: a long-distance bus
73 music-hall: a hall or theatre used for variety entertainment: songs, dancing, acrobatic performances, juggling. (Note: "music-hall" must not be confused with "concert-hall".)
74 the doors for the second house were just opening: the second performance was about to begin. In music-halls and in circuses two or more performances with the same programme are given every day.
The same term is used with reference to cinemas: the first (second, third) house первый (второй, третий) сеанс.
75 picture theatre (colloq.): a cinema
76 turns: (here) actors taking part in the programme. Turn — a short performance on the stage of a music-hall or a variety theatre (номер программы). The programme of a variety perfomance usually consists of various turns.
77 little people: (here) fairies, elves, and gnomes of folklore
78 i. e. buildings meant for the performance of plays by professional companies.
79 In England (including London) only a few theatres have their own permanent company (they are called repertory theatres). Theatrical companies are usually formed for a season, sometimes staging only one play for either a long or a short run, their managements having previously rented a theatre for them to perform in (the so-called non-repertory theatres).
80 The part of the theatre which has a stage and seats for the audience is called auditorium or house (also: theatre-house).
The long rows of chairs situated on the ground floor of the auditorium in. front of the stage are called the stalls (front rows) and the pit (back rows).
The stalls and the pit are surrounded by boxes. There are also some balconies encircling the auditorium on three sides. The lowest of them (coming immediately above the boxes) is called the dress-circle and the highest (somewhere near the ceiling of the house) is known as the gallery.
In most theatres the seats for the audience are separated from the stage by the orchestra-pit. In some theatres, however, there is no orchestra-pit, and the musicians are placed behind the scenes (back-stage). The sides of the stage and the scenery placed there are called wings.
81 It takes quite a number of people to put on a play. The treatment of a play, the style of the production, the training of the performers depend on the director (also called by some people producer in Great Britain). The stage-manager is the person in charge of the technical part of the production of a play. There are also make-up artists, people who make the costumes, those who design the props and scenery, and finally, stage hands.
The actors taking part in the play are called the cast (cf. the Russian «состав исполнителей»).
82 The tests of the stories and dialogues recorded on the tape see on p. 426.
83 The High Rise and the High Head + the High Rise belong to the same pattern since they have no difference in attitudes.
84 Before studying modal verbs the students must learn all the forms of the infinitive.
85 Subordinate clauses with that .„ should can be used as an alternative to the more usual infinitive constructions: They decided that the strike should continue, instead of They decided to continue the strike. See: "A Practical English Grammar for Foreign Students" by A. J. Thomson and A. V. Martinet, Lnd., 1964, p. 174-175.