Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения по грамматике (Grammar Exercises) icon

Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения по грамматике (Grammar Exercises)


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UNIT SEVEN


I SPEECH PATTERNS

1. There is hardly a country in the world where such a variety of scenery can be found.

There is hardly a book by this author which he has not read.

There was hardly a football match which he missed.

There is hardly another team with better opportunities to win.

2. That would make you think you were in Holland.

The teacher made Jack rub out all the ink marks in his textbook.

They couldn't make William Tell bow before the tyrant's cap.

The slightest noise would make him start.

Make him repeat the rule. (Bur: He was made to repeat the rule.)

EXERCISES
^

I. Change the following sentences to as to use the patterns:


Pattern 1: 1. I don't think there is another hockey-team of equal popularity. 2. There was not a single world championship he missed. 3. I'm not sure we have a vacancy on our staff. 4. We've no more time, but you can finish the composition off at home. 5. There was scarcely a living soul at the stadium. 6. I don't think there is any reason for their losing the game.

Pattern 2: 1. The coach forced the athletes to post­pone their training. 2. The strangers wanted Roger to drive up to the back yard, and he obeyed. 3. They will never force Andrew to break his promise. 4. During the conversation she felt uneasy. 5. He will not break with his bad habits, no mat­ter what you are saying.
^

II. Complete tee following, using Pattern 2:


1. What events made you ...? 2. Who could make your friend ...? 3. Which of the experiments made the scientist...? 4. What kind of lesson makes you .,.? 5. What made Leo Tol­stoy ...? 6. The new coach made us ... .

III. Translate the following sentences into English, using the patterns:


1. Едва ли найдется страна, в которой не побывал бы старый моряк. 2. Едва ли есть другой город с таким населением, как То­кио. 3. Едва ли у них была другая возможность освободить Овода. 4. Едва ли найдется человек, который не любит представлений ку­кольного театра. 5. Ужас! Пожалуй нет другого слова, чтобы опи­сать мое состояние в тот момент. 6. Пожалуй не было ни одного соревнования по шахматам, которое бы он пропустил. 7. Едва ли найдется другой тренер, такой внимательный и терпеливый. 8. Что заставило вашего брата бросить бокс? 9. Двое воришек заставили Оливера лезть через окно. 10. Дориан думал, что ничто не заставит его нарушить обещание, данное Сибилле Вейн. 11. Игра актера за­ставляла зрителя не только чувствовать, но и думать, 12. Что заста­вило Байрона сражаться на стороне греческого народа? 13. Что за­ставило Лэнни вернуться в Стилвелд? 14. Этот эпизод рассмешил мою сестру, а меня опечалил.
^

IV. Respond to the following statements and questions, using the patterns. (Make use of the conversational formulas given in the Reminder.)


1. I believe the Tower of London comes first among the historic buildings of London. 2. I think Vasily Blazheny Cathedral is quite unique. 3. The City of London is over­crowded in the daytime. 4. Christopher Wren was the most talented British architect of the XVII century. 5. Since 1927 up to 1946 A. Alekhin was the most outstanding chess-play­er. 6. Most schools in Britain have adopted the core curricu­lum. 7. Can you lend me a rouble? 8. All of them are staring at the advertisement. I wonder, why? 9. When I mentioned his name Mary buried her face in her hands and would never answer my question.

Reminder. You don't say sol Just [only) fancy! Indeed? Why! Is that sol Dear me! Who'd have thought it? I am sur­prised. I am shocked. It's amazing! It's incredible] Certainly! Of course. Naturally! Yes indeed! Looks like that. Well, I think.
^

TEXT. THE BRITISH ISLES


The British Isles consist of two main islands: Great Brit­ain and Ireland. These and over five hundred small islands are known collectively as the United Kingdom of Great Brit­ain and Northern Ireland. Their total area is some 94, 250 square miles.57 Great Britain proper comprises Eng­land, Wales and Scotland. The southern part of the isle of Ireland is the Irish Republic (or Eire).

Britain is comparatively small, but there is hardly a coun­try in the world where such a variety of scenery can be found in so small a compass. There are wild desolate moun­tains in the northern Highlands of Scotland — the home of the deer and the eagle — that are as lonely as any in Norway. There are flat tulip fields round the Fens58 — a blaze of colour in spring, that would make you think you were in Hol­land. Within a few miles of Manchester and Sheffield you can be in glorious heather-covered moors.59

Once the. British Isles were part of the mainland of Eu­rope — the nearest point is across the Strait of Dover, where the chalk cliffs of Britain are only twenty-two miles from those of France.60

The seas round the British Isles are shallow. The North Sea is nowhere more than 600 feet deep, so that if St. Paul's Cathedral were put down in any part of it some of the ca­thedral would still be above water. This shallowness is in some ways an advantage. Shallow water is warmer than deep water and helps to keep the shores from extreme cold. It is, too, the home of millions of fish, and more than a million tons are caught every year.

You have noticed on the map how deeply indented the coast line is. This indentation gives a good supply of splen­did harbours for ships; and you will note, too, that owing to the shape of the country there is no point in it that is more than seventy miles from the sea — a fact that has greatly fa­cilitated the export of manufactures and has made the En­glish race a sea-loving one.

On the north-west the coasts are broken by high rocky cliffs. This is especially noticeable in north-west Scotland, where you have long winding inlets (called "lochs") and a great many islands. Western Scotland is fringed by the large island chain known as the Hebrides, and to the north east of the Scottish mainland are the Orkney and Shetland Islands.

In Scotland you have three distinct regions. There is, firstly, the Highlands, then there is the central plain or Low­lands. Finally there are the southern uplands, "the Scott country,"61 with their gently rounded hills where the sheep wander. Here there are more sheep to the square mile than anywhere in the British Isles.

In England and Wales all the high land is in the west and north-west. The south-eastern plain reaches the west coast only at one or two places — at the Bristol Channel and by the mouths of the rivers Dee and Mersey.

In the north you find the Cheviots62 separating England from Scotland, the Pennines going down England like a backbone and the Cumbrian mountains оf thе Lake District,63 one of the loveliest (and the wettest) parts of England. In the west are the Cambrian mountains which occupy the greater part of Wales.

The south-eastern part of England is a low-lying land with gentle hills and a coast which is regular in outline, sandy or muddy, with occasional chalk cliffs, and inland a lovely pat­tern of green and gold — for most of England's wheat is grown here — and brown plough-land with pleasant farms and cottages in their midst. Its rich brown soil is deeply culti­vated — much of it is under wheat; fruit-growing is exten­sively carried on. A quarter of the sugar used in the country comes from sugar-beet grown there, but the most important crop is potatoes.

The position of the mountains naturally determined the direction and length of the rivers, and the longest rivers, ex­cept the Severn and Clyde, flow into the North Sea, and even the Severn flows eastward or south-east for the greater part of its length.

The rivers of Britain are of no great value as water-ways — the longest, the Thames, is a little over 200 miles — and few of them are navigable except near the mouth for anything but the smaller vessels.

In the estuaries of the Thames, Mersey, Tyne, Clyde, Tay, Forth and Bristol Avon64 are some of the greatest ports.

(From "Essential English for Foreign Students" by C. E. Eckersley, Book 3, Lnd., 1997. Adapted)

Memory Work

The sea is calm to-night,

The tide is full, the moon lies fair

Upon the Straits; — on the French coast, the light

Gleams, and is gone; the cliffs of England stand,

Glimmering and vast, out in the tranquil bay.

Come to the window, sweet is the night air!

Only, from the long tine of spray

Where the ebb meets the moon-blanch'd sand,

Listen! you hear the grating roar

Of pebbles which the waves suck back, and fling,

At their return, up the high strand,

Begin, and cease, and then again begin,

With tremulous cadence slow, and bring

The eternal note of sadness in.

(From "Dover Beach" by Matthew Arnold (1822-1888)

^ VOCABULARY NOTES

1. vary υt/i 1. менять(ся); изменять(ся); разнообразить, е.g. Market prices often vary. I try to vary my diet.

Syn. change

2. разниться, расходиться, е.g. Our opinions vary.

Syn. differ

Note: vary is to change or differ partially.

variant n вариант, е.g. This word has two spelling vari­ants.

various adj (a noun in the singular is never used after it)

1. различный, разный, е.g. There are various reasons for my refusal.

2. разнообразный, е.g. I'll give you various exercises on that rule.

Syn. different, е.g. They are quite different people.

varied adj разнообразный (used with nouns both sing, and pi.), е.g. varied climate, scenery, surface, temperature, opinions, sports, etc., е.g. The novel describes the varied ca­reer of an adventurer.

variety n 1. разнообразие, е.g. You must have more va­riety in your food.

2. разновидность; вид, е.g. I've got some rare varieties of such stamps. There are some rare varieties of leaf-bearing trees in the park.

variety-show варьете, эстрадный концерт

2. scene n 1. сцена, явление (в пьесе), е.g. The duel scene in "Hamlet" impressed us greatly. Her acting was wonderful in the last scene.

2. место действия (в пьесе, в книге, в жизни), е.g. In the first act the scene is laid in France. Trafalgar was the scene of a famous battle between the British fleet and the combined French and Spanish fleets.

3. пейзаж, картина, зрелище, е.g. I like the way this writer describes rural scenes. You could see awful scenes after the earthquake.

scenery n (uncountable) 1. декорация, е.g. The scenery was impressive in the last act. They have almost no scenery in that play.; 2. пейзаж, ландшафт, е.g. I prefer plains to mountain scenery. I looked out of the window enjoying the scenery.

3. shallow adj 1. мелкий, as shallow water, a shallow dish

Ant. deep

2. поверхностный, пустой; несерьезный, as a shallow mind, argument; shallow interests; a shallow man, person

Ant. serious (about a person, book, argument), deep (love, feelings)

Note: the Russian word мелкий has different meanings which are rendered in English by means of different words: 1) fine — состоящий из мелких частей, as fine sand, buckwheat, 2) small — некрупный (о достоин­стве монет), as small change (uncountable)', 3) flat — неглубокий, почти плоский, as a flat pan (plate).

4. extreme adj 1. крайний (at or near the end or edge), as the extreme end (edge, border, etc.), in the extreme North

2. чрезвычайный; чрезмерный, as extreme patience (love, kindness, interest)

extremely adv чрезвычайно, as to be extremely interest­ed in smth., to be extremely sorry for smb., smth., etc.

5. supply υt снабжать, е.g. In our hall the students are supplied with all the necessary furniture and bedding. Who will supply the expedition with all the necessary equipment?

supply n (often pl) запас(ы), е.g. This shop has a large supply of winter coats.

to give a good supply of, е.g. These forests give a good supply of timber.

6. shape n форма, очертание, е.g. I don't like the shape of his nose. This sculpture hasn't got much shape, I should say.

Syn. form, outline

in the shape of, е.g. I want to get a brooch in the shape of a horseshoe.

shapeless adj бесформенный, е.g. He had a ragged coat and a shapeless hat on.

shapely adj красивой формы; стройный, хорошо сло­женный, as a shapely figure

7. channel n канал, a stretch of water wider than a strait, joining two seas or separating two bodies of land, as the English Channel, the Bristol Channel

Syn. 1. ca'nal канал — a channel for water made by man, not by nature, used for ships or for carrying water to places that need it, as the Suez Canal, the Panama Canal, the Vol­ga-Don Canal, the Fergana Canal; 2. strait пролив — a nar­row channel of water connecting two large bodies of water, as the Magellan Strait, the Strait of Dover

8. value n ценность, значение, е.g. The literary value of that book is not great. I don't believe you realize the value of his advice.

to be of great (little, some, no) value to smb., е.g. In some years his pictures will be of great value. This book will be of no value in your studies.

value υt 1. ценить, дорожить, е.g. I greatly value his friendship.

Syn. appreciate (о)ценить высоко, по заслугам, е.g. We all appreciate a holiday after a year of hard work. I greatly appreciate your kindness.

2. оценивать, е.g. He valued the house for me at £ 800.

valuable adj ценный, е.g. It's a valuable picture.

^ ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (I)

Words

advantage n flow υ shapely adj

canal n harbour n soil n

channel n lonely adj strait n

cliff n manufacture n supply υ

comparatively adv plain n valuable adj

crop n plough υ value υ, n

cultivate υ rocky adj varied adj

deer n scene n variety n

distinct adj scenery n various adj

eagle n shallow adj vary v

extreme adj shape n wander υ

extremely adv shapeless adj wheat n

Word Combinations

to the west (east, north; south) of in the north (south, east, west)

within a few miles (metres, etc.) of to separate smth. from smth.

to keep smth. from (cold, regular in outline

heat, bad influence, etc.) under wheat (rye, etc.)

on the map to flow into (the sea, lake, river)

to give a good supply of owing to the shape (rain, etc.)

to flow (from, out of) to be of great (little, some, no) value

EXERCISES
^

I. Read the text and do the following (A. Grammar, B. Word usage, C. Word-formation):


A. 1. Pick out all proper names and arrange them into two groups — nouns with the definite article and without it; explain the use of the article. 2. Search the text for sentenc­es with inversion. Transform them into regular sentences and compare them with the original ones. Specify what kind of inversion it is. 3. What tense group is predominant in the text and why?

B. 1. Pick out all the adjectives that go together with the following nouns: sea, lake, river; mountains, hills, cliffs; area, land, field, moors, upland, lowland. 2. Mark all the cases when nouns are defined by two adjectives; comment on the word order; is it possible to change it? 3. Pick out all the nouns defined by the adjective small; is it possible to use lit­tle instead? 4. Search the text for the combinations of Adv +Adj ending in -ed, translate them into Russian and use them in sentences of your own.

C. 1. Pick out all the derivatives and classify them ac­cording to the suffix. 2. Search the text for compounds and comment on their structure. 3. Pick out from the text all the words that have homonyms. Spell, transcribe and classify them.
^

II. Write English equivalents of the following:


более миллиона тонн, миллионы людей, двести озер, глубиной 600 футов, сотни миль, длина Темзы немногим больше 200 миль, сотни островков, общая площадь Великобритании около 94 250 кв. миль или 244 000 кв. километров, население — 56 миллионов чело­век.
^

III. a) Make up a list of geographical names used in the text (mind the articles) and transcribe them.

b) Transcribe and translate the following words:


advantage, canal, channel, comparatively, desolate, deter­mine, estuary, extremely, glorious, heather, indentation, manufacture, moor, navigable, occasionally, plough, scenery, strait, total, vague, value, vary, wander, wheat, wind.

^

с) Translate the following verbs into English. Give their four forms:


пахать, течь, извиваться, меняться, бродить, ценить, снабжать, ломать, выращивать.

d) Give the plural of the following nouns. Translate them into Russian:


deer, sheep, fish, mouth, foot

IV. Supply adjectives:


1. ... water is warmer than ... water. 2. Cornwall is famous for its ... cliffs. 3. Its ... soil is deeply cultivated. 4. This part of the country is noted for ... cold. 5. The U. K. ... area is some 94,250 square miles. 6. There are ... fields in the east of Eng­land. 7. There are ... harbours for ships. 8. In the northern Highlands of Scotland you'll enjoy the sight of ... mountains. 9. They were making their way through ... hills. 10. There were ... plains stretching for miles and miles. 11. Lowlands is the ... plain of Scotland.
^

V. Answer the following questions (use the map on p. 240):


1. What do we call the group of islands situated to the north-west of Europe? 2, What are the names of the biggest islands? 3. Do the United Kingdom and Great Britain mean the same? 4. What countries are situated on the British Isles? What are their capitals? 5. What is Great Britain prop­er? 6. What are the names of the waters washing the coasts of the British Isles? 7. Why do the English call the strait be­tween Great Britain and the mainland the "Strait of Dover" and the French call it "Pas-de-Calais" (international term)? 8. What are the most important rivers in Great Britain? 9. What are the names of the chief mountain ranges on the island? 10. Where are the Cumbrian and the Cambrian mountains situated?

VI. Translate the following sentences in writing. (Consult Essential Vocabulary (I).) Respond to the questions and statements, using the conversational formulas (see p. 164, Ex. XI 8):


1. Вы можете показать на карте важнейшие порты Великобри­тании? 2. Эта карта не представляет большой ценности. 3. Знаете ли вы, куда впадает река Северн? 4. Благодаря постоянным до­ждям реки Англии служат хорошим источником пресной воды. 5. Какие горы отделяют Англию от Шотландии? 6. К северо-восто­ку от Шотландии находятся острова. Как они называются? 7. Ост­ров Мэн имеет сравнительно правильные очертания, судя по карте. 8. Что может предохранить посевы от сильного холода? 9. Сравнительно большая часть пахотной земли на юго-востоке Англии занята под пшеницей. 10. В каком районе страны находят­ся большие запасы угля? 11. В нескольких милях от Лондона нахо­дится город Кройдон (Croydon), в котором имеется большой аэро­порт.
^

VII. Study the following derivatives and compounds:


sandy, noticeable, plough-land, sea-loving, heather-cov­ered, muddy, navigable, sugar-beet, low-lying, waterways, fruit-growing.

a) Write out the sentences in which they are used in the text.

b) Use them in sentences of your own.

c) Give English equivalents of the following:


солнечный, туманный, дождливый, снежный, скалистый, гряз­ный, дымный, водянистый, холмистый, песчаный, сахарный, удли­ненный, предпочтительный, ценный, судоходный, заметный, отде­лимый, определимый, подходящий.
^

d) Give Russian equivalents of the following:


variety-show, wheat-field, coal-supplier, ploughman, heather-moor, horseshoe, seashore, seascape, earthquake;

deer-hunting, wheat-growing, sheep-breeding, crop-gathering, land-ploughing, snow-ploughing;

shipbuilding (yards), leaf-bearing (trees), nature-loving (nation), furbearing (animals), ocean-going (steamers), food-producing (industries);

snow-covered (fields), smoke-filled (room), man-made (canal), grass-covered (plain), sea-bound (ship), weather-beaten (face), moon-lit (path).
^

VIII. Supply articles where necessary. Write answers to the questions:


1. Look at... map of ... British Isles. Do you know what... two largest islands are called? 2. ... right-hand side of... map is ... East. What sea is east of ... Great Britain? 3. In what direction is ... Irish Sea from ... Great Britain? 4. Point to ... body of ... water which is west of ... Ireland. What do we call it? 5. Towards ... bottom of ... map is ... South. What is to­wards ... top of ... map? 6. In what direction is ... Great Brit­ain from ... English Channel? 7. What country is west of ... England? 8. Find ... Thames. ... rivers' always flow towards ... sea. In what direction does ... Thames flow? 9. ... Severn flows into ... Bristol Channel, doesn't it? 10. Where does ... Severn rise? 11. What do we call... highest part of... Scot­land? 12. Find ... Edinburgh and ... Glasgow. In what part of ... Scotland are they situated? 13. Where are ... Cheviot Hills? 14. In what direction are ... British Isles from ... main­land? 15. What water body separates ... British Isles from ... Continent?
^

IX. Study Vocabulary Notes and translate the illustrative examples into Russian.

X. Supply suitable words (consult Essential Vocabulary I):


1. The English ..., in its narrowest part (the ... of Dover) is only 32 km wide. 2. The ... of Scotland is noted for its wild and desolate beauty. 3. The rivers of Great Britain are of no great... as waterways, some of them are joined by means of ... . 4. The relief of Great Britain ... to a remarkable degree. 5. They took ... of their stay in London to brush up their English. 6. The chief grain.. are oats and barley. 7. Rivers in England are seldom frozen. ... are ice-free. 8. Next to coal and iron, stone and slate are most ... minerals in England. 9. The rich ... of south-east England is well culti­vated. 10. The Welsh Mountains are very ... and difficult to climb. 11. The seas surrounding the British Isles are very ..., usually less than 300 feet deep. 12. Britain's complex geolo­gy is one of the main reasons for its rich ... of scenery. 13. In winter eastern Britain faces the colder continent whereas western Britain faces the ... warm Atlantic. 14. In most areas the farmer ... only the valley lands and the ... where soils are deeper and richer. 15. There are ... types of wild vegeta­tion, including the natural flora of woods, fens and marches. 16. The Lake District is famous for its ....
^

XI. Express the same idea in your own words or explain the following substituting synonyms for the words in italics:


1. Tom Ramsay spent two happy years in the various cap­itals of Europe. 2. Blodwyn, gazing at the dark out/me of mountains before her, knew that rain would fall before night-time. 3. The windows of semi-circular shape were on the level of the floor. 4. He was wandering about with two pence in his pocket and nowhere to go for the night. 5. It was the string of pearls Miss Robinson was wearing and it was valued at 50 thousand pounds. 6. Larry had a wonderful­ly melodious voice with a singular variety of tone. 7. The children appreciated the mechanical toys they had never seen before. 8. His hands were long, but not large for his size, beautifully shaped and at the same time strong. 9. She has twenty years advantage over me. 10. Both had the ad­vantage of speaking good and fluent French. 11. They have just had a terrific scene. 12. I used ro wander about the sweet-smelling meadows in the evening. 13. He was not in­terested in your views on the social and moral value of their relationship. 14. Though she had lost the fresh bloom of ex­treme youth, there was not a line on her forehead or under her hazel eyes. 15. The climate is sufficiently varied for both sub-tropical and sub-arctic plants to be cultivated within the extent of the British Isles. 16. The British farmer cultivates a comparatively small tract of land producing a variety of products. 17. Tom ran around and stopped within a foot or two of the flower. 18. Owing to numerous rapids the river is not navigable. 19. Julia Pendleton liked to sit cross-legged on the couch just to show her shapely legs in silk stockings.
^

XII. Fill in prepositions. Make a study of the text'


Just off the coast... the mainland ... north-western Eu­rope and only nineteen miles distant ... it ... the nearest point lies the small group ... islands known as the British Isles.

The British Isles include Great Britain, Ireland and a number ... small islands. Great Britain consists ... England, Scotland and Wales. The southern two thirds ... Ireland are occupied ... the Irish Republic which borders ... Northern Ireland. Great Britain is a region ... varied lowlands, rolling hills and few mountains. Although the highest peak, Ben Nevis ... the Grampians ... Scotland, rises ... 4,400 feet, such-heights seldom occur. The Pennine Range ... northern England rises only slightly ;.. 3,000 feet, as do the Cambrian mountains ... Wales.

... the extreme south ... England are the famed chalk hills some ... which form the Dover Cliffs.

The rivers ... the region are short and ... general flow ... the central and southern lowlands ... the surrounding seas. Many ... them are connected ... each other ... canals. The coasts ... the British Isles are washed ... the Atlantic Ocean, the Norwegian, North and Irish seas and two big channels (the English Channel and the North Channel).
^

ХIII. Write questions about the text, using new words and phrases in each question. When asking and answering the questions use the map.

XIV. Give English equivalents of the Russian word мелкий in its different meanings. Use them in sentences of your own.

XV. a) Read and translate the following text:


The warm currents in the Atlantic Ocean influence the climate of Great Britain. The winters are not severely cold, while summers are rarely hot.

Rainfall is evenly distributed throughout the year.

The percentage of the cloudiness is high, well over half the days of the year being overcast; fogs along the coast as well as occasionally in the interior frequently hide the sun. The fogs of London, often made severe by mixture with city smoke (smog), have a world-wide reputation, but one not to be envied.
^

b) Talk (or make up a dialogue) on the climate "of the European part of Russia using the terms from the text above.

XVI. Translate these sentences iato English:


1. Разные люди, которых мы не ожидали, появились в зале. 2.. Ангара вытекает из озера Байкал и впадает в Енисей. 3. Едва ли вы найдете в нашей стране такой район, где бы не выращивались сельскохозяйственные культуры. 4. Просто удивительно, как может водиться столько рыбы в таком мелком озере. 5. Орел — боль­шая птица, сильная, с острым зрением. Он обычно живет в скалах или на вершинах гор. 6. Этот одинокий утес напоминает мне по форме древнюю башню. 7. Если бы вам удалось защитить эти тюльпаны от жары, они бы не завяли (fade) так скоро. 8. Гористый ландшафт встречается главным образом на юге и на востоке на­шей страны. 9. Он не раз видел, как олени бродят по тундре (the tundra). 10. Детей следует ограждать от дурного влияния. 11. Те­перь уже едва ли вы найдете на карте белые пятна (blank spaces).
^

XVII. Fill in:


a) to change, to vary or to differ.

1. The soil ... within a few miles in many districts, pro­ducing sharp contrast of scenery and flora. 2. The climate of Great Britain ... greatly from that of the Continent. 3. The weather ... very often in England. 4. The face of Scotland ... from that of South East England. 5. The educational system of Great Britain ... from that of the United States. 6. Tastes .... 7. He looked exactly as she remembered him, as young, as frank, but his expression was .... 8. The average winter tem­perature ... between — 3°C and — 7°C. 9. What can have happened to ... him so much? 10. That is a point on which you and she would certainly....

b) different, various or varied:

1. Russia has a ... climate because of its vast territory. 2.... branches of industry are found in Greater London. 3. This good wheat land is quite ... from those being cultivated in northern regions. 4. Britain is immensely ... within a small area. 5. The insect fauna in Britain is less... than that of Conti­nental Europe. 6. He has been to ... places of the extreme North. 7. A glance at the map is enough to see how... the sur­face of England is. 8. A home in the country is very... from an apartment in the city. 9. I have come across him in recent years on ... occasions. 10. The young man asked me ... kinds of questions. 11. The newspapers carried ... reports of the storm. 12. What we wear nowadays is quite ... from what our ancestors wore. 13. He started to teach me German. He would tell me the German for the ... objects we passed, a cow, a horse, a man and so on, and then make me repeat simple German sentences. 14. Through many years of... conditions he kept thinking of his family. 15. Having tried ... topics of con­versation I felt exhausted.

c) to value or to appreciate:

1. She told Count Borcelli that her necklace was... at eight thousand pounds. 2. Judging by his words he ... your help. 3. Being asked what he thought of a possible change in the plan he said he... it 4. But I would not like him to think that I do not... the honour that he has done me. 5. The picture is ... at a thousand dollars. 6. I suppose only a Frenchman can ... to the full the grace of Racine and the music of his verse. 7. Jane Austen's work is to be ... primarily as satire. 8. Mr. Cook ... his secretary for her accuracy.

d) lonely or alone:

1. She stayed ... in her room refusing to come downstairs. 2. Theirs was a ... house isolated by the mountains. 3. He felt miserable and .... 4. ... in the house was Miss Sarie Villier. 5. Elliot in his well-cut dinner jacket looked elegant as he ... could look. 6. "Do you know that meeting you for the first time is to me like a ... traveller coming across some bright flowerlet in the desert!" — said Sir Francis. 7. He was ... when I was ushered in. 8. Frau Becker seemed to look for opportu­nities of being ... with Larry. 9. The British farmhouse is often some distance from a public road. The life there is hard and .... 10. Young Jolyon ... among the Forsytes was ignorant of Bosinney's nickname.
^

XVIII. Translate the sentences into English:


1. Чем лучше обрабатывается почве, тек выше урожай. 2. Об­ширная равнина простирается от Уральского хребта до реки Ени­сей. 3. Волго-Донской канал — одна из наших главных водных ма­гистралей, он судоходен на всем своем протяжении. 4. Во Влади­востоке прекрасная гавань, многие российские иностранные паро­ходы бросают в ней якори (cast anchor). 5. Па-де-Кале отделяет Ве­ликобританию от материка, а Северный пролив — Шотландию от Ирландии. 6, Эта культура ценна как корм для скота. 7. Едва ли приходилось вам наслаждаться более живописными видами. 8. Большая часть пахотной земли в этом районе занята под пшеницей. 9. Уже на расстоянии мили от берега мы видели отчетливые очертания кораблей, стоящих в гавани. 10. Линия побережья Каспий­ского моря сравнительно ровная, только у устья Волги берег изрезан и имеет много островков и бухт.
^

XIX. The table below (April, 1981) shows some similarities and differences between the four countries of Great Britain:





England

Scotland

Wales

Norhern Ireland

Area (sq km)

130,422

78,133

20,779

13,576

Population

49,300,000

5,100,000

2,900,000

1,700,000

Highest

mountain

(height)

Scafell

Pike

978 m

Ben

Nevis

1,342 m

Snowdon 1,085 m

Slieve Donard

852 m

Largest city (po­pulation)

London (Greater London) 7,074,300

Glasgow 611,660

Cardiff 318,000

Belfast 297,900

We can point out the similarities like this:

In spite of the obvious differences in size and population, the countries of the UK have quite a lot in common. Wales and Northern Ireland are fairly similar in size, though the area of Wales is slightly larger. There isn't much difference in population between Cardiff and Belfast, though Belfast is just a little larger.

Scafell Pike and Snowdon are more or less the same height, though Snowdon is just a few metres higher. Both Snowdon and Ben Nevis are over 1,000 m height, though neither of them is all that high compared with the Alps, for example.

a) Practise using the words and word combinations in bold type to make other comparisons between some two-four regions of Russia. Write your best sentences down.

b) In small groups, compare your own country (republic) with another coun­try (republic) you know well. What are the similarities in Climate, Industry, Peo­ple, Traffic, Railways, Scenery, City life, Food, Agriculture, Education, Clothes?
^

XX. Talk about your home town. Use the following dialogue as a model:


A.: You're from Wales, aren't you?

D.: Yes, that's right. I come from Swansea actually.

A.: Ah, Swansea! I've never been there. It's a port, isn't it?

D.: Oh yes — big docks, steel works and a lot of heavy industry round about. But it's funny, just outside the town there's really beautiful country. It's extremely beautiful along the coast — the Gower Peninsula. No industry or nothing — just like it was a hundred years ago.

A: Sounds great. And how large is Swansea?

D.: Oh, it's a big city. You mustn't think that all the people in Wales live in villages, We have cities too!

A.: Yes, I suppose so.
^

XXI. Try your hand at teaching.


1. Say what you would do in the teacher's position:

Paul, a senior in high school, must outsmart every adult with whom he comes in contact. His need to feel superior is so strong that he spends hours plotting how he can achieve his goal. He goes to the library to look up definitions and in­formation of irrelevant subject matter, and confronts the teacher with questions like "What kind of dress did Josephine wear when she married Napoleon?" Since the teacher cannot answer this question, Paul proceeds with his information and proves his superiority to the whole class.

2. a) Try and act as a teacher of geography and discuss one of the follow­ing topics. Make use of Essential Vocabulary (1). Use the map when speaking. (Give a three-minute talk.)

b) Comment on the students' knowledge of the topic, their skill of reading the map and the choice of the vocabulary:

1. The British Isles and the seas, straits and channels, wash­ing their coast. 2. The relief of England, its highlands, lowlands and mountains. 3. The rivers of England. 4. The Lake District. 5. Stratford-on-Avon. 6. The relief of Scotland. 7. The relief of Wales. 8. The climate of Great Britain. 9. The relief and cli­mate of Ireland. (See "Classroom English", Section VIII)

^ LABORATORY EXERCISES (I)

1. Listen to the text "The British Isles", mark the stresses and tunes. Repeat the text following the model.

2. Paraphrase the sentences, using the suggested speech patterns. Check your sentences with the key (oral work).

^ 3. Complete the sentences with geographical terms. Write these terms down and check them with the key (oral and written work).

4. Write a spelling-translation test: a) translate the phrases into English; b) check them with the key.

5. Do the suggested exercises and check them with the key (written work).

^ 6. Listen to the text "Soil and Vegetation" or some other text on Geography: a) write it as a dictation; b) retell it.




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